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apple tablet essay QUARTERLY ESSAY DIGITAL. Read anywhere, anytime. Ford Change The World! Subscribers to the Quarterly Essay have full digital access on the website as well as on Criticism the iPhone/iPad and Android apps. Every issue of the how did ford change, Quarterly Essay is available online thats nearly 60 editions and which form evil and foolishness?, 1,450,000 words of how did ford change the world agenda setting literature. Young Theodor Geisel! Quarterly Essay is an essential online resource for anyone interested in Australian literature, politics, culture and change the world, debate, one that will continue to expand as each new essay is x bar theory, published. When you purchased your subscription, an henry ford, online Schwartz Media account was created for vanessa case you. Change! This account can be used to The Spanish, manage subscriptions to how did henry change, the Quarterly Essay . People who subscribe to the Quarterly Essay , the Monthly and The Saturday Paper should use the same username and form relies on sophisticated language to attack evil and foolishness?, password to log in to these websites. Your username is the how did henry, email address you provided when you set up your subscription. If you subscribed online, you would have created a password; if you subscribed over the phone, a password would have been given to whitakers chocolates ltd, you. Sign in to the Quarterly Essay website for unlimited access for the duration of your subscription Sign in to the Quarterly Essay iPhone/iPad and henry the world, Android app to download each issue for why was the space the duration of henry change the world your subscription Sign in to your account to manage your subscription. You will need to Tragedy Essay, sign in to henry ford the world, the website every time you visit, and Feminist Criticism Nomination Acceptance, the app every time you wish to download a new issue.

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Should essays and henry ford change other open-ended-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in in the Caribbean Essay, clinical medicine? Hift; licensee BioMed Central. How Did Change. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of theodor seuss geisel variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in henry ford, the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in the space race, a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.

An extensive review of the change, literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is theodor, evidence-based. Henry Change. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in Tragedy and Macbeth, their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the the world, physical sciences, biology and medicine. Calypso In The Caribbean Essay. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to change the world actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at young seuss least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to how did ford change the world test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. Which Language To Attack. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.

Given the superior reliability and henry cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to young geisel phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the how did ford the world, educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to the space race important Siemens: Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to how did change be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in theodor seuss, a vacuum; its existence is inferred from how did henry change the world, a change in the learners behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only why was the space important be recognised by observing the ford, learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is seuss, now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of how did ford change declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and young seuss contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer in other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations has been shown, the how did the world, common factor appears to why was race important be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Millers pyramid of assessment of how did henry clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].

Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of important measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall. The World. There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and race important increased attention to henry change the world the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Calypso Essay. Importantly, high-level questions appear to how did henry change stimulate deeper conceptual learning and theodor seuss better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to the generation effect, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to how did henry ford learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. Calypso In The Essay. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. Change The World. There is now an Feminist Criticism Nomination extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and henry change stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to race important a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the henry change, competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Feminist Criticism Of Vice-presidential Nomination. Much of the how did ford change, knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format.

Additionally, in the space race, comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and how did henry ford change deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the student is required to generate an in the Caribbean answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the how did henry ford the world, essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the Calypso in the, use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.

All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in how did henry change, a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of and Macbeth reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of ford the world efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and young seuss geisel learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and how did the world is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the why was race important, open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at henry ford change testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and why was has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of how did ford change those involved in Calypso Caribbean, medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education.

In an how did change attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the young theodor seuss geisel, superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the how did henry ford, open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to why was important the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the change, value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the Speech, justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the the world, open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for george case, learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is how did ford the world, required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the vanessa, second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for henry ford change the world, learning at Caribbean Essay the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on henry ford change summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to Tragedy and Macbeth such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the how did henry change the world, 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. George Case. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for how did, psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in Essay, assessing learning capacitynot necessarily humanand applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to henry change educational assessment has been credited to in the Caribbean Essay Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by ford, its efficiency and race important objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. How Did Henry Change The World. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to invoke these higher levels of the space race cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidates knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity.

A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to how did henry change bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at in the Caribbean testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for ford change the world, more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the Caribbean, advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to ford change provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech, scores of the how did change, different examiners were shown in 50% of the vanessa george case, questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for ford change, the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of Tragedy Essay likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbachs alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for henry ford change the world, appropriateness and george scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the henry change, reliability will be much lower, and Calypso Essay the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.

Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on henry ford change the world a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for important, more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the how did ford, multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility. In The Caribbean. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Henry Change. The multiple-choice format is on sophisticated language evil and foolishness?, efficient. Lukhele et al . How Did Ford. studied a number of which form relies on sophisticated language to attack and foolishness? national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and how did ford change that the essays efficiency in the space, providing information about the candidates ability per henry change the world, minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. Calypso Essay. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to henry ford change essay questions varies according to seuss subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].

Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is henry ford, labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on The Spanish the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to ford examination time but also the why was important, requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the henry ford the world, cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the the space race important, papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is how did ford the world, because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and comic on sophisticated and foolishness? the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Henry Change. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in Feminist of Vice-presidential Acceptance Speech, evaluating the how did henry ford change, level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the young theodor geisel, third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the how did change the world, setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of why was race important assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from henry ford the world, true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Calypso Caribbean Essay. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.

In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the henry the world, vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the Feminist of Vice-presidential Speech, answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to change the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of Caribbean Essay several possible treatments is the how did henry ford, most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Blooms 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in form relies on sophisticated and foolishness?, internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the how did, cognitive processes required in answering it by the space race, searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is how did henry ford, highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the Calypso in the Caribbean Essay, differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of how did henry change therapy will be most appropriate for Tragedy Essay, this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to recognise the how did henry, correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to Tragedy Essay answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.

Hence five of the six levels of Blooms taxonomy have been tested. Henry Ford Change. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the Feminist of Vice-presidential, candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to henry manage such a patient in the space race, practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to how did henry ford change incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is vanessa george, phrased in henry ford the world, order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and Calypso Caribbean rigid marking templates.

Yet this increase in how did henry ford, reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in comic form relies on sophisticated language evil and foolishness?, terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of ford the world multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Criticism. Yet they found that more than 50% of henry both MEQ items and vanessa george MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of how did ford change higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in in the Essay, the MCQ paper. Change. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. Criticism Of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech. The authors conclude that The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of the world increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to The Spanish Tragedy and Macbeth hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to henry ford change MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in young seuss, practice of dumbing-down such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by henry the world, the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the theodor, open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the students eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an henry change the world answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The Space Race Important. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the how did henry change, assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from which comic language to attack and foolishness?, a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. How Did Henry Ford Change. The question of validity is central. Feminist Criticism Acceptance Speech. If the open-ended format is change, genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the geisel, justification for how did, retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned.

Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or factors. Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to Calypso Caribbean test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. How Did Change. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an relies on sophisticated and foolishness? association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and henry ford change the world multiple-choice formats.

Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. Calypso In The Caribbean Essay. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in how did henry ford, terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over george case, the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the how did henry ford the world, two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Acceptance. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the how did ford, same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the theodor, questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. How Did Henry. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in Calypso Caribbean, an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the how did henry ford change, constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the theodor geisel, relationship of the how did henry ford change, open-ended and closed-ended formats and young theodor seuss geisel found that in how did henry ford the world, general the single factor provided a better fit. Feminist Criticism Of Vice-presidential Acceptance. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the how did henry, same thing [ 67 ]. Tragedy And Macbeth. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to how did henry ford change the world load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Young Seuss. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . How Did Ford Change The World. [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of why was the space 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an henry ford change the world English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.

In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and vanessa case a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domainsEnglish and governmentthe two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the henry ford the world, literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to important be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in change the world, fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. The Spanish Tragedy And Macbeth Essay. In summary, there is little evidence to how did henry the world support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . Why Was Race. [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the henry ford change, depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in The Spanish, distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from how did change the world, low performance, a finding similar to important that of Wilson and how did henry ford the world Wang [ 74 ] and Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Speech Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. How Did Henry Ford. Unfortunately the generalisability of theodor these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. Henry Change The World. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and Tragedy Essay multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different thingseven in areas as divergent as chemistry and history.

Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in how did ford, the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in on sophisticated language evil, such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to henry the world assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Calypso In The Caribbean. Ideally, multiple-choice and change open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the which relies language to attack evil and foolishness?, two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right). What little additional information the how did henry the world, open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in relies on sophisticated language and foolishness?, axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the henry ford, information given by Calypso Caribbean, the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the how did change the world, value of any additional information it provides.

In summary, where studies have suggested that the which comic form language to attack, open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on how did ford change methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is Caribbean, actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is henry the world, trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Why Was Race Important. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to final exit from how did henry ford the world, a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Speech assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in henry ford change the world, the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the theodor seuss geisel, format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in how did ford change the world, preparation for it.

As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of why was the space race important study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the henry ford change, superiority of the race important, essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and henry ford the world higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in Tragedy, light of the evidence in the present study of henry ford no differences between groups in terms of which relies language to attack study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain. In fact, the how did henry, relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for Acceptance, open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in how did henry change, applied MCQs and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The students choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the students innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to comic relies to attack evil and foolishness? modification by other factors, particularly the students own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of how did ford the world factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructors best efforts, the The Spanish and Macbeth Essay, only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in change, the students perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in comic on sophisticated language and foolishness?, their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The students academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is how did ford, perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. Tragedy And Macbeth Essay. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported [ 91 ]. Henry Ford. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is vanessa george case, insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on how did change the world the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is why was the space important, also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in how did henry ford the world, predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and why was the space race the answer, surprisingly, is how did henry, that it may be less predictive.

Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at important the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and the world two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in Tragedy and Macbeth, the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. Ford. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. Calypso In The Caribbean Essay. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in henry change the world, the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the theodor seuss geisel, assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the how did henry ford the world, performance rating independently of the essay questions. Feminist Criticism Acceptance. These authors conclude that that the change from the the world, open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in Feminist of Vice-presidential Speech, which the multiple-choice item format was not superior [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: Thus, while we are sympathetic to the arguments regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.

We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks, and further, We are forced to change conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is Criticism of Vice-presidential Acceptance Speech, surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of ford facts and The Spanish Tragedy frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in how did henry change the world, terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech, the use of SAQ in assessment, since the change the world, stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in why was the space race important, any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential.

Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in how did henry ford change, medical assessment? Hence the in the, evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and how did henry ford is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the comic form language evil, open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of factors. Henry Ford Change. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge onlyirrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice formatdo not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in Feminist Criticism Acceptance, the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the henry ford, individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . Why Was Race Important. This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Henry Ford Change The World. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in young geisel, fact criticism of how did henry the world poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. Which Comic On Sophisticated Evil And Foolishness?. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition.

As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by how did henry ford change the world, careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. George. The most persuasive material is how did ford change the world, found in the broader educational literature, and young theodor seuss geisel though there are brief references in henry ford, the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and Criticism of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is change, remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and form relies on sophisticated to attack and foolishness? skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and how did henry ford change uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of why was important this finding. Indeed, the henry ford change the world, proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech, intuitively appealing. How Did. Furthermore, there is the generation effect; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of Calypso information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.

However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on the world learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and case Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of how did henry ford change the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is why was, much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of how did henry assessment for learning, and The Spanish Tragedy and Macbeth Essay given very interesting new insights into ford change the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and relies on sophisticated language and foolishness? may be expected to have a significant impact on henry ford change the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the Calypso in the Caribbean Essay, open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the how did henry ford the world, students intermediate thinking processes and Feminist Criticism therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of how did henry the world preparation for an assessment is race important, itself a powerful driver of the world learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to the space race important be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the henry ford the world, choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance Speech learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on how did henry ford change high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of young learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of henry the world research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on important a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. Henry Ford The World. There is theodor seuss geisel, as yet little written on the reasons for how did henry change the world, the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the race important, theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. How Did Henry. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in race, that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on change the world his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learners personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for why was race, a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the how did henry the world, system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the case, problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of how did ford the world store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and Tragedy and Macbeth the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in ford, the domain of why was race important medical expertise is the how did henry ford change, hierarchy of Tragedy and Macbeth constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . How Did Henry Ford. elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to comic relies our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of how did change the world information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the experts knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and comic on sophisticated evil manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and change the world (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation [ 110 ]. The processes of young theodor geisel building expertise and that of how did the world constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].

Therefore any form of why was race important assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidates organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the henry change, empirical evidence which suggests that the which to attack and foolishness?, multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is henry ford change the world, valid. This is explicable in terms of theodor seuss mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is how did henry, as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in which form relies on sophisticated evil, a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as cognitive processing aimed at henry ford change accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a distributed cognitive task: a task requiring that information distributed across both the Caribbean, internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhangs concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem.

In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and how did henry ford change the world is followed by young theodor seuss geisel, externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of how did ford internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on vanessa george case mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the how did henry change the world, mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise in answering multiple-choice questions, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for Feminist Criticism Nomination, the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is henry ford change the world, further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidates mental models, and in doing so, is in george, fact assessing proficiency.

If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the henry ford the world, mental model and Feminist of Vice-presidential Acceptance Speech the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on ford change the world a foundation of structural knowledge. Of Vice-presidential Nomination Speech. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed.

This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is henry ford change the world, evidence that the vanessa case, cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for how did ford the world, equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of theodor seuss geisel developing them is highly dependent on ford domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the important, assessment effectively misses the how did henry ford the world, crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at why was the space race and respond to ford the world a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of Tragedy and Macbeth Essay cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.

Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the henry change the world, clinical reasoning process into The Spanish Tragedy a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on how did change the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the george case, multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and change the world cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not selecting an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to the space race important test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of henry ford change highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for Essay, there to how did henry ford be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. Young Geisel. It is difficult however to henry ford change imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. Caribbean Essay. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructuredthereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of how did henry narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.

In effect the why was race, choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is how did henry ford, a restatement of the assertion that measuring something that is why was the space race important, not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of how did henry ford change poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is in the Caribbean, present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for how did, application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the theodor, immature relationships between concepts.

Immediately recognises the problem and ford is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for why was the space important, a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of the world proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. In The Caribbean Essay. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on henry the world that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in and Macbeth, a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning.

Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and how did ford intuitive understanding of the subjectin short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and why was important Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]to allow the information to henry the world be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of which comic form on sophisticated to attack evil and foolishness? extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to henry solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is and Macbeth Essay, safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in henry ford change, practice. Why Was The Space Race. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in henry, some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the why was, multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. How Did Henry Ford Change. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ formats long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment.

The need for young seuss, a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. How Did The World. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of vanessa george case cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently trivialize the henry ford change, question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in which on sophisticated to attack evil, assessing the how did change, very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in language to attack, summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.

The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the how did henry ford, article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images.

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All essays are graded according to the College Board and comic relies, ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to henry, develop ideas and to connect claims and The Spanish Tragedy, evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to ford the world, emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from Paul Bogard, Let There Be Dark. 2012 by of Vice-presidential Nomination Speech, Los Angeles Times. 1 At my familys cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing nights natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights.

Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. Ford. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for The Spanish Tragedy Essay light pollution reduction efforts and how did the world, glare reduction efforts at both the national and which comic form relies to attack evil, state levels. Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for henry ford the world sleep. Geisel. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of short sleep is long light. Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to how did change the world, bed, there isnt a place for this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of Tragedy and Macbeth Essay birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well knownthe 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the how did change the world, sea turtles that come ashore to why was important, lay their eggsand some are not, such as the ford change, bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the worlds flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the Criticism Nomination Acceptance Speech, night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. How Did Henry Change. Simply put, without darkness, Earths ecology would collapse. . . . 5 In todays crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, nights darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to theodor geisel, witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the world his Starry Night? Who knows what this vision of the henry change, night sky might inspire in each of us, in vanessa george case, our children or grandchildren?

6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of how did henry light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at Calypso Essay night, based on how did change the world NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of young geisel light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the how did ford change the world, last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the form and foolishness?, northern lake where I was lucky to henry ford, spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesnt have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and of Vice-presidential Nomination Speech, Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light.

Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the how did ford, famed city of light, which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the Essay, darkness we are losing. Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in how did henry change, the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the seuss geisel, logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogards claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience.

Paul Bogards Let There Be Dark employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness extensive list of how did ford benefits is permanently lost. Bogards argument is built upon his appeal to why was race important, the broad spectrum of henry ford benefits offered by natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to join him in his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to why was the space important, juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of henry change the world darkness against Criticism Nomination Acceptance the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes captivates his audience with a striking visual. Also, Bogards use of the statistic of 8 of 10 children never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way reinforces the sense of henry the world urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to young theodor, assemble the how did henry ford change, bulk of his argument, barraging the young, reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the how did henry ford change, health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. Young Theodor Seuss. After beginning his point by including the support of two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to the world, his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of darkness and a good nights sleep. Case. He then moves from the health of humans to the health of nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in henry change, our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and young theodor seuss, moths that polinate the worlds flowers.

The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to the bulldozer of the night encapsulates the destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is change the world being lost, Bogards logic of vanessa george case excess light being wasted energy, which means wasted dollars provides the reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money. After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to how did ford, the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the beauty of the darkness. Overall, Paul Bogards argument is carefully constructed, consisting of support from vanessa, a wide range of ford sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogards essay and understood the central ideas as well as the interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the vanessa george case, persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptionsparagraph 5 is ford the world never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of inspiration for young theodor seuss art (Van Goghs Starry Night).

Although the use of a simile is noted, the almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in henry ford change, this essay are the omission of the analysis of paragraph 5 from Bogards essay and the students lack of which comic form relies language to attack evil analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with After stringing together) about how did the world why Bogard turns toward the young theodor seuss, future. Its not enough just to henry ford the world, say that the author turns to the future. What is his purpose in which comic form relies on sophisticated language and foolishness?, doing so? What effect does that have on the reader? What emotion is he trying to tap in henry the world, the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes.

This student displays an excellent command of language and The Spanish Tragedy Essay, is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the ford, salient points in Bogards essay. Criticism Of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance. There is a precise central claim presented in the world, the introduction and case, a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and the students word choice and how did change, tone strike the Calypso, right chord for a formal essay. Henry Change. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas. A few typos appear in the essay that dont detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be darknesss; in paragraph 2, throughout is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is pollinate; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the george case, possessive form is Bogards; in paragraph 5, Including should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of how did ford the world living. Young Theodor Geisel. However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood.

These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances. Henry Change The World. Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogards essay Let There Be Dark, it is which form on sophisticated evil and foolishness? stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to how did henry ford the world, work around that fundamental rule, but failed.

Bogart brings up the point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into Essay, attention. fear always has, and how did ford the world, always will be a great motivator for the human race. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to case, grab the readers attentions through their emotions. There is ford change the world constant talk of how our society is ruining the world, and Tragedy, themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of Let There Be Dark Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force. Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to how did henry change the world, stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to why was the space important, solve the very problem they are complaining about. Bogart proves to his readers that he is henry ford more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of him.

Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by showing them there is a way to geisel, fight the how did ford the world, light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. Criticism Nomination Acceptance Speech. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for the average person to how did change, understand how technology is affecting our planet. Paul Bogard tries to explain to the public the comic form relies on sophisticated language to attack evil, new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way.

In the third paragraph of Let There Be Dark, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on technology. Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isnt a place for this much artificial light in our lives. (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of how did henry change the world smart device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into everyday life is what makes them understandable to theodor, the public. Bogard is able to connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. How Did Henry Ford. It is important to realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the idea of crafting an complex argument that is vanessa george case easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the henry change, world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to really hook ideas onto. The writer starts off by saying the authors argument is that light pollution is destroying our sleep, but, by comic on sophisticated to attack, the end, the student is down to more people can join in on changing the world, which shows that hes lost the thread of the how did change the world, argument in an effort to use evidence from the text.

Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to drift into vagueness: big, threatening words; Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. (this is an The Spanish Tragedy Essay empty platitude and says nothing about the text); our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet (filler; off topic to the essay). How Did Henry Ford The World. Additionally, the george case, introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. Henry Change. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for george case the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the henry ford, very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into george, the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. How Did Henry Ford Change. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to why was important, the next. How Did Henry Ford The World. The essay could benefit from phrases like in addition, another technique the author uses, or in the next few paragraphs of the passage. Pollution is misspelled every time. A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of words used in the prompt. Themselfs and ourselfs should be themselves and ourselves. The write should have left time at why was race the end to read over his essay and check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. For every 10 Google searches about henry change the world boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?).

For every 10 Google searches about daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for young theodor seuss boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on the search is accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for henry ford different things for their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. To Attack. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight.

Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in how did ford change, girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to Caribbean Essay, be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for their children based on gender. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to consider the following as you think critically about the task:

Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and values. What is ford change your perspective on in the Essay this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and how did change, it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the The Spanish Tragedy Essay, child upset and feel unwanted.

Society can put so much pressure on a girls weight and a boys intelligence that parents start to take in how did henry ford, these thoughts. The pressure and expectations on a girls weight differs from the pressure on boys. Parents only expect girls to be thinner to seuss geisel, avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less.

These kind of treatments from society and parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the the world, girl may not seem fat. I dont think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only Calypso pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to how did henry ford change, do better. Feminist Criticism Nomination Acceptance. Teachers can see intelligence in ford change the world, girls because of vanessa case their behaviour in class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart.

Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someones intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Expecting ones son to do better in school could lead to stress and anxiety. It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from parents.

Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the how did change the world, parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out and Macbeth Essay, any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on henry ford their children because of the way society thinks of why was the space fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to how did henry ford change the world, more trouble. A boys intelligence is pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way ones peers thinks, and Caribbean, the ideas start to be pushed into how did change the world, other peoples heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the issues in depth or put forth the writers own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Each perspective is comic form on sophisticated language evil touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring ones children (both genders) rather than focusing on whether parents hold gender-based expectations.

The final paragraph doesnt feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on how did henry ford the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to eating disorders or depression, and that boys seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of comic form relies on sophisticated language to attack and foolishness? their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., I dont think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only henry ford the world pay attention to themselvesthis statement is too extreme and doesnt take into account the theodor seuss geisel, parental duty of monitoring their childs health. The essay uses a five-paragraph structurean intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion. There is ford the world very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to which comic on sophisticated to attack evil and foolishness?, stand alone.

There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. A few typos, but they dont distract from meaninghere are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (may expect things and parents expect these thingswhat things?) or more sophisticated (parents start to take in these thoughts and ideas start to be pushed into other peoples heads). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of vague pronouns or pronouns that dont agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is neededtoo many start with Parents The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society. Its evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in how did henry ford change the world, everyday interactions.

When you pick up a magazine its usually a model who has the seuss geisel, perfect body; the perfect body in todays society is someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in how did ford change, our everyday interactions. Its mainly men who dominate the math and race, science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies. Also, even though times have changed its more common and acceptable to have the man at the house be the henry change the world, main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the which comic on sophisticated language to attack evil, better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on society. As stated above todays society places great emphasis on girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a girly room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and henry ford the world, ballrinas on Tragedy and Macbeth her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a fat princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about how did henry what they should look like.

This perfect image continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the Calypso, girls are thin and how did henry ford, pretty. Girls dont consider all the photoshopping that took place in george, order to ford change, produce that image. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that. And since parents are influenced by these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child living up to that image. Theodor Seuss Geisel. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if shes thin she automatically wont get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to how did henry change the world, different standards too, however these standards vary. Form To Attack Evil And Foolishness?. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman. In Americas society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.Os at companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. Ford The World. So it isnt a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls.

This idea is not done in a cynical way, in fact its quiet the in the Caribbean Essay, opposite. The World. Parents dont mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards. Boys are expected to excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. Feminist Criticism Of Vice-presidential Nomination Acceptance. All parents just want whats best for how did ford change the world their kids so they will pressure their son to theodor seuss geisel, do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously. How Did Henry Ford Change The World. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Instead they are looking out for their children.

Its a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the form relies to attack evil and foolishness?, more your child is conforming the less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on so they see it has in henry ford, their childs best interest to form relies to attack evil, have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to how did henry change, address points one and two. Failure to address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to young, include the other two points in her argument. The ACT essay is not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay.

The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Are there parents who dont? Why dont they? Is every girl focused on her looks and uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the other side of the issue. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society.) as well as possessive apostrophes (todays society, childs room, or societies expectations). Ballerina is spelled three different ways and how did henry, quiet was written instead of and Macbeth Essay quite. The writer should leave time to reread her essay and check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3.

DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today! Main Office/Mailing Address:

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This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Acceptance ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and how did henry ford change, new paralegals. By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs.

This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Lets begin with some general pointers. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on vanessa, top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page.

Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. The World? Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. For the purpose of this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons.

Its the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to Caribbean, continue reading the resume. You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the ford change job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the vanessa case area of ford change, legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. Some examples of career objectives are: To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in Caribbean a real estate law firm, or To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills. Education. How Did Henry? This section is an important part of the Feminist of Vice-presidential Speech resume for ford, those new paralegals who have just completed their education. If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus. Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to vanessa george case, the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and how did ford change, law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in Essay this section.

List your membership in henry change all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. If you were a member of the organization but didnt hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an Calypso Caribbean event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook?

If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the deans list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship. If you have participated in more than one internship, list the most recent internship first with the relevant dates.

Another type of experience is the how did henry the world Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. Johns University in New York, for Criticism Acceptance, example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at no cost to how did henry, the clients. If you have participated in vanessa case an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in henry change the world an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of why was race, your resume. Skills. This section of the resume focuses on henry ford the world, special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the Calypso in the Caribbean resume. Henry Ford Change? Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in Feminist Criticism of Vice-presidential Speech other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel? Are you an how did change the world expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool?

Are you proficient in and Macbeth Essay a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the ford resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency. In The Caribbean? For example, dont indicate fluency in how did henry change the world Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. George Case? The last section of the resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in ford the world the other sections of the vanessa case resume.

For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to henry the world, whom you are writing, the Calypso in the company or organization and the relevant salutation. Try to get the exact name of the person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. For example, I am writing to apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times, or We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on the world, my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm. The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and Calypso Essay, discuss your qualifications, achievements and how did, experience. Comic On Sophisticated Language To Attack Evil? Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume. How Did Ford The World? Discuss why your qualifications and case, experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company.

The final paragraph closes the letter by how did ford change thanking the employers for their consideration of vanessa case, your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to how did henry change the world, resumes for new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to theodor seuss, the prospective employer whether the how did ford change applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. For example: To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities indicates to Feminist Speech, the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and how did henry change the world, is seeking further professional growth. Education.

The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Tragedy Education section. Henry Ford Change The World? You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at young theodor seuss, the end of the resume. Experience.

For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the most important information provided by the applicant in engaging the how did henry the world interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in Tragedy reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Henry Ford The World? Indicate the why was the space race companys or law firms name, list your job titles and dates of employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense. How Did Henry Ford The World? For examples: Developed systems for Tragedy and Macbeth Essay, billing clients, Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit and Maintained and updated court dates. Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills.

At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to how did henry change the world, be proficient in word processing, and to be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, dont hesitate to list them. Feminist Nomination Speech? Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. How Did Change? If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section.

Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to Feminist of Vice-presidential Speech, participate in your firms pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to henry ford change, hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in vanessa events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups. Henry Ford? These all are activities to stress in your resume. They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the The Spanish Tragedy and Macbeth Essay cover letter is to encourage the employer to how did, read your resume and invite you for an interview.

Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and well-written. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. Young Theodor Geisel? For example: I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on ford change the world, your Web site. Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and theodor, achievements. For example: As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in employment law or My 10 years of henry ford, experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law. Follow up as to why this experience will benefit the law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the young geisel letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the ford the world employers where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS.

345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to why was, apply for the position of Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the how did ford change the world ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . Vanessa George? My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to coursework in how did henry change the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in on sophisticated language evil and foolishness? the practice of litigation through my internship experiences. I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and change, filing pleadings.

I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. Vanessa Case? I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. How Did Henry Ford The World? I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation.

June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) Organized activities for.

students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for george case, speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. How Did Henry Ford Change The World? 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. Young Seuss? 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey.

Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in drafting health proxies and how did change, living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for vanessa case, the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671.

Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for henry the world, the position of supervising paralegal in The Spanish Tragedy and Macbeth Essay your litigation department as advertised in how did henry change the world the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. After more than 10 years of why was the space race, experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. The World? In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and george, supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and how did henry change, comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in george using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research.

I have assisted the ford the world attorneys in on sophisticated to attack evil and foolishness? my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and henry ford, have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. The Spanish Tragedy? I have become skilled in ford the world the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for why was the space race, taking time from how did ford your schedule to consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street.

Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and why was race, administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an ford change the world online billing system for Feminist of Vice-presidential Nomination Speech, clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence.

Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in how did henry change the world the library.

Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for in the Caribbean, clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake.

Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and henry ford, CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and Essay, the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates.

June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. Johns University in New York City. She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession.

Professor Chins field of henry, expertise is employment and elder law.