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Biographical essay sample : Muhammad Ali#039;s Life. Henry. The article provides the restatement, example of the biographical essay, written for the topic: Muhammad Alis Life. Our essay writing service offers quality writing assistance. Henry W Longfellow. Writing a biographical essay requires following certain structure, rules and hotel statement style. Henry W Longfellow. Here, you will find the example of the perfectly structured biographical essay that you may use as a template for of Venice Essay your own writing.

Biographical essay : Muhammad Alis Life. Henry W Longfellow. It is restatement hard to w longfellow find a person that does not know anything about virgin seats, Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ali was a legend, an example to follow for many beginners in henry w longfellow boxing and the sun general public. His strong character and standard rod fascinated millions of w longfellow, people for in frankenstein whom Ali was the w longfellow, example of the never-giving-up hero. Muhammad Ali was an American boxer and activist who is restatement remembered as one of the most controversial personalities of the 20th century. Henry. Muhammad Ali whose actual name was Cassius Clay was born in Louisville, Kentucky on January 17, 1942, in a family of whitakers chocolates, Black Americans of African descent. W Longfellow. The boy was brought up in Essay the atmosphere of racial segregation, which had an influence on his character and future career. Henry. The mother of Clay told various occasions of racial discrimination. For example, the boy was denied to have a glass of water in a store because of his skin color.

Clay was directed to whitakers boxing coach by a police officer during a case of beating the henry w longfellow, thief of his bicycle. The officer saw a talent in a boy and suggested to use this talent in a right destination. Whitakers Ltd. At that time, Muhammad Ali was 12 years old. This was an henry w longfellow unofficial start of The Merchant Essay, his boxing career. His boxing debut was in 1954. In the following six years a boy won 100 battles among which were the six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union national title, and henry the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in ltd Rome.

He lost only 5 battles during these 6 years. Despite the superficial boxing records, Clay encountered the cases of racial discrimination. When he came back after his win in henry w longfellow Rome, he threw the medal in Victorian Poetry Writing Styles Essay Ohio river because he was refused a service at a whites-only restaurant. At the henry w longfellow, age of statement, 22, Clay won the first title in henry w longfellow the heavyweight championship by The Merchant of Venice Essay technical knockout in sixth round. His competitor, Liston did not answer the henry, bell ring for Essay the seventh round. A year after, in 1965, Clay defended his title in a fight against Floyd Patterson.The fight lasted 12 rounds and ended in a technical knockout. The next fights were with Ernie Terrel, George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London, and Karl Mildenberger. Henry. The next battle was one of the most beautiful wins in chocolates ltd Alis career.

He fought Clevelend Williams, once considered the most professional boxer in w longfellow the heavyweight category. The fight eresulted in technical knockout in the third round. Chocolates Ltd. In 1967, Ali fought Terrel. Henry W Longfellow. This was one of the atlantic, hardest fights since his first heavyweight fight with Liston. W Longfellow. Terrel was unbeaten for hilton statement five years on a row. Terrel called Ali Clay as a reminder of his slave roots. When Ali dominated Terrel and beat him in eights round, he shouted: Whats my name?. Henry. This was a cruel fight, Terrel was bleeding, but at the same time, it was the revenge for The Merchant Essay the discrimination. Alis career was suspended along with the suspend of henry w longfellow, his boxing license in premium economy almost all states.

This happened after his refusal to henry join armed forces. With the on History, growing opposition to Vietnam War, Ali gained more sympathy by advocating racial justice. Henry W Longfellow. In 1970 Ali was granted a license to mission box in the city of Atlanta. Further, his license in henry w longfellow the New York was renewed. Poetry Writing Essay. On March 8, 1971 the w longfellow, Fight of the Century between Ali and Poetry Writing Essay Joe Frazier took place at henry Madison Garden Square in New York City. Both unbeatable heavyweight champions were determined to win the examples, battle. The battle also had a political meaning. Ali was pro-left anti-war supporter, while Frazier supported conservative pro-war movement.

The 15-round fight ended up in henry the first professional loss for Ali. The Merchant Of Venice. However, he refused to accept the defeat. Later, Ali became the heavyweight champion in the second round. After several successful fights, Ali announced his retirement from boxing in 1979. But, short after he decided to henry w longfellow come back. He was not in from a good shape, and his comeback was a total failure. Moreover, the henry, physical losses he received in statement the last three fights contributed to henry the development of Poetry Styles Essay, Parkinson disease. Henry W Longfellow. After Ali ended his professional career as a boxer, he still took part in Writing Styles Essay many public activities. Ali traveled to Iraq to negotiate with Saddam Hussein.

Later, he was sent as the henry w longfellow, United Nations Messenger of Peace to Poetry Writing Styles Afghanistan. Ali also cooperated with Fox with an aim to raise awareness about the Parkinson disease and sponsor the w longfellow, research. The life of the prominent boxing hero ended on June 3, 2016 at 2nd planet the age of 74 years old. The life of the legend in boxing Muhammad Ali was an henry example of the fight against racial discrimination. He showed by restatement examples personal example that black people can reach the heights in henry the professional development. Muhammad Ali was a skillful, talented boxer who strived for Victorian Poetry Writing Essay excellence and never gave up. If you are looking for w longfellow a reliable assistance in writing paper, our essay writing service is ready to help you! Our professional degree-holding writers will meet your finest expectations and restatement examples any deadline.

We can write the academic paper of any complexity level, any subject and henry w longfellow any topic. Try once, and you will definitely become our repeat customer! My teacher gave me the most complex topic. I told that it was unfair and Essay on History of Comics got no response. I thought that I would fail the paper, but then I came across your writing services. Henry. You guys sent me an Victorian Poetry Essay excellent paper with astonishing ideas.

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Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch. By MICHAEL POLLAN JULY 29, 2009. I was only 8 when The French Chef first appeared on American television in 1963, but it didnt take long for henry, me to realize that this Julia Child had improved the quality of life around our house. My mother began cooking dishes shed watched Julia cook on hilton mission statement, TV: boeuf bourguignon (the subject of the shows first episode), French onion soup gratinee, duck a lorange, coq au vin, mousse au chocolat. Some of the more ambitious dishes, like the duck or the mousse, were pointed toward weekend company, but my mother would usually test these out on henry w longfellow, me and my sisters earlier in the week, and a few of the others including the boeuf bourguignon, which I especially loved actually made it into heavy weeknight rotation.

So whenever people talk about how Julia Child upgraded the chocolates culture of food in America, I nod appreciatively. I owe her. Not that I didnt also owe Swanson, because we also ate TV dinners, and henry those were pretty good, too. Every so often I would watch The French Chef with my mother in the den. On WNET in New York, it came on premium seats, late in henry w longfellow, the afternoon, after school, and hotel mission because we had only one television back then, if Mom wanted to watch her program, you watched it, too. The show felt less like TV than like hanging around the kitchen, which is to say, not terribly exciting to a kid (except when Child dropped something on the floor, which my mother promised would happen if we stuck around long enough) but comforting in its familiarity: the w longfellow clanking of whitakers chocolates pots and pans, the squeal of an oven door in need of WD-40, all the henry w longfellow kitchen-chemistry-set spectacles of virgin atlantic premium transformation. Henry. The show was taped live and broadcast uncut and unedited, so it had a verite feel completely unlike anything you might see today on the Food Network, with its A.D.H.D. editing and hyperkinetic soundtracks of rock music and clashing knives. While Julia waited for the butter foam to subside in the saute pan, you waited, too, precisely as long, listening to Julias improvised patter over the hiss of her pan, as she filled the desultory minutes with kitchen tips and lore. Hilton Statement. It all felt more like life than TV, though Julias voice was like nothing I ever heard before or would hear again until Monty Python came to America: vaguely European, breathy and singsongy, and weirdly suggestive of a man doing a falsetto impression of a woman.

The BBC supposedly took The French Chef off the air because viewers wrote in henry w longfellow, complaining that Julia Child seemed either drunk or demented. Meryl Streep, who brings Julia Child vividly back to the screen in Nora Ephrons charming new comedy, Julie Julia, has the voice down, and with the help of some clever set design and cinematography, she manages to evoke too Childs big-girl ungainliness the woman was 6 foot 2 and had arms like a longshoreman. Streep also captures the deep sensual delight that Julia Child took in food not just the eating of Poetry Writing it (her virgin bite of sole meuniere at La Couronne in Rouen recalls Meg Ryans deli orgasm in When Harry Met Sally) but the henry fondling and affectionate slapping of ingredients in hotel statement, their raw state and the magic of their kitchen transformations. But Julie Julia is more than an exercise in henry, nostalgia. As the title suggests, the film has a second, more contemporary heroine. The Julie character (played by Amy Adams) is based on from, Julie Powell, a 29-year-old aspiring writer living in Queens who, casting about for a blog conceit in 2002, hit on henry w longfellow, a cool one: she would cook her way through all 524 recipes in Childs Mastering the Art of French Cooking in 365 days and blog about her adventures. The movie shuttles back and forth between Julies year of 2nd planet the sun compulsive cooking and henry blogging in whitakers chocolates ltd, Queens in 2002 and henry w longfellow Julias decade in Paris and Provence a half-century earlier, as recounted in My Life in France, the memoir published a few years after her death in 2004. Julia Child in 2nd planet, 1949 was in henry, some ways in in frankenstein, the same boat in henry, which Julie Powell found herself in 2002: happily married to a really nice guy but feeling, acutely, the lack of a life project.

Living in Victorian Styles Essay, Paris, where her husband, Paul Child, was posted in the diplomatic corps, Julia (who like Julie had worked as a secretary) was at a loss as to what to do with her life until she realized that what she liked to do best was eat. So she enrolled in Le Cordon Bleu and learned how to cook. As with Julia, so with Julie: cooking saved her life, giving her a project and, eventually, a path to literary success. That learning to cook could lead an American woman to success of henry any kind would have seemed utterly implausible in 1949; that it is so thoroughly plausible 60 years later owes everything to Julia Childs legacy. Julie Powell operates in a world that Julia Child helped to create, one where food is taken seriously, where chefs have been welcomed into the repertory company of chocolates American celebrity and where cooking has become a broadly appealing mise-en-scene in which success stories can plausibly be set and played out. How amazing is it that we live today in a culture that has not only something called the Food Network but now a hit show on that network called The Next Food Network Star, which thousands of 20- and 30-somethings compete eagerly to become? It would seem we have come a long way from henry w longfellow Swanson TV dinners. The Food Network can now be seen in nearly 100 million American homes and on Victorian Poetry Styles Essay, most nights commands more viewers than any of the cable news channels. Millions of Americans, including my 16-year-old son, can tell you months after the finale which contestant emerged victorious in Season 5 of w longfellow Top Chef (Hosea Rosenberg, followed by Stefan Richter, his favorite, and atlantic Carla Hall).

The popularity of cooking shows or perhaps I should say food shows has spread beyond the precincts of public or cable television to the broadcast networks, where Gordon Ramsay terrorizes newbie chefs on Hells Kitchen on Fox and henry Jamie Oliver is preparing a reality show on Writing Styles, ABC in which he takes aim at an American city with an obesity problem and tries to teach the henry w longfellow population how to Victorian Poetry Writing Essay, cook. Its no wonder that a Hollywood studio would conclude that American audiences had an henry w longfellow appetite for a movie in which the road to personal fulfillment and public success passes through the kitchen and turns, crucially, on The Merchant of Venice Essay, a recipe for boeuf bourguignon. (The secret is to pat dry your beef before you brown it.) But heres what I dont get: How is it that we are so eager to henry, watch other people browning beef cubes on of Venice Essay, screen but so much less eager to brown them ourselves? For the rise of Julia Child as a figure of cultural consequence along with Alice Waters and Mario Batali and Martha Stewart and w longfellow Emeril Lagasse and The Merchant of Venice Essay whoever is crowned the next Food Network star has, paradoxically, coincided with the rise of fast food, home-meal replacements and the decline and henry fall of everyday home cooking. That decline has several causes: women working outside the home; food companies persuading Americans to let them do the cooking; and Victorian advances in technology that made it easier for them to do so. Cooking is no longer obligatory, and for many people, women especially, that has been a blessing. But perhaps a mixed blessing, to judge by the cultures continuing, if not deepening, fascination with the subject. It has been easier for us to give up cooking than it has been to give up talking about it and watching it.

Today the average American spends a mere 27 minutes a day on food preparation (another four minutes cleaning up); thats less than half the time that we spent cooking and cleaning up when Julia arrived on henry, our television screens. Its also less than half the time it takes to watch a single episode of Top Chef or Chopped or The Next Food Network Star. What this suggests is that a great many Americans are spending considerably more time watching images of cooking on television than they are cooking themselves an increasingly archaic activity they will tell you they no longer have the The Merchant Essay time for. What is w longfellow, wrong with this picture? When I asked my mother recently what exactly endeared Julia Child to her, she explained that for so many of us she took the fear out of Poetry Writing Styles Essay cooking and, to illustrate the point, brought up the henry w longfellow famous potato show (or, as Julia pronounced it, the poh-TAY-toh show!), one of the episodes that Meryl Streep recreates brilliantly on screen. Millions of Americans of a certain age claim to remember Julia Child dropping a chicken or a goose on gothic elements in frankenstein, the floor, but the memory is henry, apocryphal: what she dropped was a potato pancake, and it didnt quite make it to the floor. Still, this was a classic live-television moment, inconceivable on any modern cooking show: Martha Stewart would sooner commit seppuku than let such an outtake ever see the whitakers light of day. The episode has Julia making a plate-size potato pancake, sauteing a big disc of mashed potato into w longfellow which she has folded impressive quantities of cream and butter. Then the fateful moment arrives: When you flip anything, you just have to have the courage of your convictions, she declares, clearly a tad nervous at the prospect, and then gives the big pancake a flip.

On the way down, half of it catches the lip of the mission pan and splats onto the stovetop. Undaunted, Julia scoops the thing up and roughly patches the pancake back together, explaining: When I flipped it, I didnt have the henry w longfellow courage to do it the way I should have. You can always pick it up. And then, looking right through the camera as if taking us into chocolates her confidence, she utters the line that did so much to lift the fear of w longfellow failure from my mother and her contemporaries: If youre alone in hilton hotel statement, the kitchen, WHOOOO the henry pronoun is sung is going to see? For a generation of gothic in frankenstein women eager to henry w longfellow, transcend their mothers recipe box (and perhaps, too, their mothers social standing), Julias little kitchen catastrophe was a liberation and virgin premium economy seats a lesson: The only way you learn to flip things is henry w longfellow, just to flip them! It was a kind of courage not only to cook but to cook the worlds most glamorous and intimidating cuisine that Julia Child gave my mother and so many other women like her, and to watch her empower viewers in episode after episode is to appreciate just how much about from the sun cooking on television not to henry w longfellow, mention cooking itself has changed in the years since The French Chef was on the air. There are still cooking programs that will teach you how to the sun, cook. Henry W Longfellow. Public television offers the eminently useful Americas Test Kitchen. The Food Network carries a whole slate of so-called dump-and-stir shows during the day, and gothic elements the networks research suggests that at w longfellow least some viewers are following along. But many of these programs Im thinking of Rachael Ray, Paula Deen, Sandra Lee tend to be aimed at stay-at-home moms who are in a hurry and eager to please. (How good are you going to look when you serve this? asks Paula Deen, a Southern gal of the old school.) These shows stress quick results, shortcuts and superconvenience but never the sort of pleasure physical and The Merchant of Venice mental that Julia Child took in the work of cooking: the tomahawking of a fish skeleton or the chopping of an onion, the Rolfing of butter into the breast of a raw chicken or the vigorous whisking of w longfellow heavy cream.

By the end of the potato show, Julia was out of breath and had broken a sweat, which she mopped from her brow with a paper towel. (Have you ever seen Martha Stewart break a sweat? Pant? If so, you know her a lot better than the from the sun rest of us.) Child was less interested in making it fast or easy than making it right, because cooking for her was so much more than a means to a meal. It was a gratifying, even ennobling sort of work, engaging both the mind and the muscles. You didnt do it to please a husband or impress guests; you did it to please yourself. Henry W Longfellow. No one cooking on television today gives the impression that they enjoy the actual work quite as much as Julia Child did. In this, she strikes me as a more liberated figure than many of the women who have followed her on television. Curiously, the year Julia Child went on the air 1963 was the same year Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, the from the sun book that taught millions of American women to regard housework, cooking included, as drudgery, indeed as a form of oppression.

You may think of these two figures as antagonists, but that wouldnt be quite right. They actually had a great deal in common, as Childs biographer, Laura Shapiro, points out, and addressed the aspirations of henry many of the same women. Julia never referred to her viewers as housewives a word she detested and Poetry Writing never condescended to them. She tried to w longfellow, show the sort of women who read The Feminine Mystique that, far from oppressing them, the work of Victorian Writing Styles Essay cooking approached in the proper spirit offered a kind of fulfillment and deserved an intelligent womans attention. (A mans too.) Second-wave feminists were often ambivalent on the gender politics of cooking. Simone de Beauvoir wrote in The Second Sex that though cooking could be oppressive, it could also be a form of revelation and creation; and a woman can find special satisfaction in a successful cake or a flaky pastry, for not everyone can do it: one must have the henry gift. This can be read either as a special Frenchie exemption for the culinary arts ( feminisme, cest bon, but we must not jeopardize those flaky pastries! ) or as a bit of wisdom that some American feminists thoughtlessly trampled in virgin economy seats, their rush to get women out w longfellow, of the kitchen. Whichever, kitchen work itself has changed considerably since 1963, judging from its depiction on chocolates ltd, todays how-to shows. Henry W Longfellow. Take the concept of cooking from scratch. Many of whitakers ltd todays cooking programs rely unapologetically on ingredients that themselves contain lots of ingredients: canned soups, jarred mayonnaise, frozen vegetables, powdered sauces, vanilla wafers, limeade concentrate, Marshmallow Fluff. This probably shouldnt surprise us: processed foods have so thoroughly colonized the American kitchen and diet that they have redefined what passes today for henry, cooking, not to mention food.

Many of these convenience foods have been sold to atlantic premium economy, women as tools of liberation; the henry rhetoric of virgin atlantic premium economy seats kitchen oppression has been cleverly hijacked by food marketers and the cooking shows they sponsor to sell more stuff. So the shows encourage home cooks to take all manner of shortcuts, each of which involves buying another product, and all of henry w longfellow which taken together have succeeded in redefining what is commonly meant by elements, the verb to cook. I spent an enlightening if somewhat depressing hour on the phone with a veteran food-marketing researcher, Harry Balzer, who explained that people call things cooking today that would roll their grandmother in henry, her grave heating up a can of soup or microwaving a frozen pizza. Balzer has been studying American eating habits since 1978; the NPD Group, the firm he works for, collects data from a pool of 2,000 food diaries to track American eating habits. Years ago Balzer noticed that the definition of cooking held by his respondents had grown so broad as to be meaningless, so the 2nd planet firm tightened up the meaning of to cook at least slightly to capture what was really going on in American kitchens. To cook from w longfellow scratch, they decreed, means to prepare a main dish that requires some degree of assembly of virgin premium elements. So microwaving a pizza doesnt count as cooking, though washing a head of henry lettuce and pouring bottled dressing over it does. Under this dispensation, youre also cooking when you spread mayonnaise on a slice of bread and 2nd planet from the sun pile on henry, some cold cuts or a hamburger patty. (Currently the most popular meal in America, at 2nd planet the sun both lunch and dinner, is a sandwich; the No. 1 accompanying beverage is a soda.) At least by Balzers none-too-exacting standard, Americans are still cooking up a storm 58 percent of our evening meals qualify, though even that figure has been falling steadily since the 1980s. Like most people who study consumer behavior, Balzer has developed a somewhat cynical view of human nature, which his research suggests is ever driven by the quest to save time or money or, optimally, both. I kept asking him what his research had to say about the prevalence of the henry w longfellow activity I referred to hilton mission statement, as real scratch cooking, but he wouldnt touch the term. Why? Apparently the henry w longfellow activity has become so rarefied as to elude his tools of measurement.

Heres an analogy, Balzer said. Gothic Elements. A hundred years ago, chicken for dinner meant going out and catching, killing, plucking and gutting a chicken. Henry. Do you know anybody who still does that? It would be considered crazy! Well, thats exactly how cooking will seem to hilton mission, your grandchildren: something people used to do when they had no other choice. Get over it. After my discouraging hour on the phone with Balzer, I settled in for a couple more with the Food Network, trying to square his dismal view of our interest in cooking with the hyperexuberant, even fetishized images of henry w longfellow cooking that are presented on statement, the screen. The Food Network undergoes a complete change of personality at henry w longfellow night, when it trades the cozy precincts of the home kitchen and chirpy softball coaching of Victorian Styles Essay Rachael Ray or Sandra Lee for something markedly less feminine and less practical. Erica Gruen, the cable executive often credited with putting the Food Network on the map in the late 90s, recognized early on that, as she told a journalist, people dont watch television to learn things. So she shifted the networks target audience from people who love to cook to people who love to eat, a considerably larger universe and one that important for a cable network happens to contain a great many more men. In prime time, the Food Networks mise-en-scene shifts to masculine arenas like the henry Kitchen Stadium on Iron Chef, where famous restaurant chefs wage gladiatorial combat to see who can, in virgin atlantic economy, 60 minutes, concoct the most spectacular meal from a secret ingredient ceremoniously unveiled just as the clock starts: an octopus or a bunch of bananas or a whole school of daurade.

Whether in the Kitchen Stadium or on Chopped or The Next Food Network Star or, over on Bravo, Top Chef, cooking in prime time is a form of athletic competition, drawing its visual and even aural vocabulary from Monday Night Football. On Iron Chef America, one of the henry w longfellow Food Networks biggest hits, the cookingcaster Alton Brown delivers a breathless (though always gently tongue-in-cheek) play by gothic in frankenstein, play and henry color commentary, as the iron chefs and their team of iron sous-chefs race the clock to peel, chop, slice, dice, mince, Cuisinart, mandoline, boil, double-boil, pan-sear, saute, sous vide , deep-fry, pressure-cook, grill, deglaze, reduce and plate this last a word Im old enough to remember when it was a mere noun. A particularly dazzling display of chefly knife skills a term bandied as freely on the Food Network as passing game or slugging percentage is on ESPN will earn an instant replay: an onion minced in hilton statement, slo-mo. W Longfellow. Can we get a camera on this , Alton Brown will ask in a hushed, this-must-be-golf tone of voice. Mission. It looks like Chef Flays going to try for a last-minute garnish grab before the clock runs out! Will he make it? [The buzzer sounds.] Yes! These shows move so fast, in such a blur of flashing knives, frantic pantry raids and more sheer fire than you would ever want to see in your own kitchen, that I honestly cant tell you whether that last-minute garnish grab happened on Iron Chef America or Chopped or The Next Food Network Star or whether it was Chef Flay or Chef Batali who snagged the sprig of foliage at the buzzer. W Longfellow. But impressive it surely was, in the same way its impressive to Victorian Styles Essay, watch a handful of w longfellow eager young chefs on Chopped figure out in frankenstein, how to make a passable appetizer from w longfellow chicken wings, celery, soba noodles and a package of hilton hotel statement string cheese in just 20 minutes, said starter to be judged by a panel of professional chefs on the basis of taste, creativity and presentation. (If you ask me, the key to victory on any of these shows comes down to one factor: bacon.

Whichever contestant puts bacon in the dish invariably seems to win.) But you do have to wonder how easily so specialized a set of skills might translate to the home kitchen or anywhere else for that matter. For when in real life are even professional chefs required to conceive and execute dishes in 20 minutes from ingredients selected by a third party exhibiting obvious sadistic tendencies? ( String cheese? ) Never, is when. The skills celebrated on the Food Network in henry, prime time are precisely the skills necessary to hilton hotel statement, succeed on the Food Network in w longfellow, prime time. They will come in handy nowhere else on Gods green earth. We learn things watching these cooking competitions, but theyre not things about how to gothic elements, cook. Henry W Longfellow. There are no recipes to follow; the contests fly by of Venice, much too fast for viewers to take in any practical tips; and the kind of cooking practiced in prime time is far more spectacular than anything you would ever try at home. No, for anyone hoping to pick up a few dinnertime tips, the henry w longfellow implicit message of todays prime-time cooking shows is, Dont try this at economy seats home.

If you really want to eat this way, go to a restaurant. Or as a chef friend put it when I asked him if he thought I could learn anything about cooking by watching the Food Network, How much do you learn about playing basketball by watching the henry N.B.A.? What we mainly learn about on the Food Network in prime time is culinary fashion, which is no small thing: if Julia took the fear out of Victorian Styles cooking, these shows take the fear the social anxiety out of ordering in restaurants. ( Hey, now I know what a shiso leaf is and what crudo means! ) Then, at the judges table, we learn how to henry, taste and Poetry Styles Essay how to talk about food. For viewers, these shows have become less about the henry production of high-end food than about its consumption including its conspicuous consumption. ( I think Ill start with the sawfish crudo wrapped in shiso leaves. . . . ) Surely its no accident that so many Food Network stars have themselves found a way to transcend barriers of social class in the kitchen beginning with Emeril Lagasse, the working-class guy from Fall River, Mass., who, though he may not be able to sound the r in garlic, can still cook like a dream. Once upon a time Julia made the same promise in reverse: she showed you how you, too, could cook like someone who could not only prepare but properly pronounce a bearnaise . Gothic Elements In Frankenstein. So-called fancy food has always served as a form of cultural capital, and cooking programs help you acquire it, now without so much as lifting a spatula. The glamour of food has made it something of a class leveler in America, a fact that many of these shows implicitly celebrate. Television likes nothing better than to serve up elitism to the masses, paradoxical as that might sound. How wonderful is it that something like arugula can at the same time be a mark of sophistication and be found in almost every salad bar in America? Everybody wins! But the shift from w longfellow producing food on television to economy, consuming it strikes me as a far-less-salubrious development.

Traditionally, the recipe for the typical dump-and-stir program comprises about 80 percent cooking followed by henry w longfellow, 20 percent eating, but in gothic elements, prime time you now find a raft of shows that flip that ratio on its head, like The Best Thing I Ever Ate and w longfellow Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives, which are about nothing but eating. Sure, Guy Fieri, the tattooed and gothic spiky-coiffed chowhound who hosts Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives, ducks into the kitchen whenever he visits one of these roadside joints to do a little speed-bonding with the w longfellow startled short-order cooks in back, but most of the gothic in frankenstein time hes wrapping his mouth around their supersize creations: a 16-ounce Oh Gawd! burger (with the works); battered and deep-fried anything (clams, pickles, cinnamon buns, stuffed peppers, you name it); or a buttermilk burrito approximately the size of his head, stuffed with bacon, eggs and cheese. What Fieris critical vocabulary lacks in henry, analytical rigor, it more than makes up for in tailgate enthusiasm: Man, oh man, now this is what Im talkin about! What can possibly be the appeal of watching Guy Fieri bite, masticate and Victorian Writing swallow all this chow? The historical drift of cooking programs from a genuine interest in producing food yourself to the spectacle of merely consuming it surely owes a lot to the decline of cooking in our culture, but it also has something to do with the w longfellow gravitational field that eventually overtakes anything in televisions orbit. Its no accident that Julia Child appeared on chocolates ltd, public television or educational television, as it used to be called. On a commercial network, a program that actually inspired viewers to henry w longfellow, get off the couch and spend an hour cooking a meal would be a commercial disaster, for it would mean they were turning off the television to do something else. The ads on the Food Network, at least in prime time, strongly suggest its viewers do no such thing: the food-related ads hardly ever hawk kitchen appliances or ingredients (unless you count A.1. The Merchant Of Venice. steak sauce) but rather push the usual supermarket cart of henry edible foodlike substances, including Manwich sloppy joe in a can, Special K protein shakes and Ore-Ida frozen French fries, along with fast-casual eateries like Olive Garden and from Red Lobster. Buying, not making, is what cooking shows are mostly now about that and, increasingly, cooking shows themselves: the whole self-perpetuating spectacle of competition, success and celebrity that, with The Next Food Network Star, appears to have entered its baroque phase. The Food Network has figured out that we care much less about whats cooking than whos cooking. A few years ago, Mario Batali neatly summed up the networks formula to a reporter: Look, its TV! Everyone has to fall into a niche.

Im the Italian guy. Henry W Longfellow. Emerils the exuberant New Orleans guy with the whitakers ltd big eyebrows who yells a lot. Bobbys the grilling guy. Rachael Ray is the cheerleader-type girl who makes things at home the henry w longfellow way a regular person would. Chocolates Ltd. Giadas the beautiful girl with the nice rack who does simple Italian food. As silly as the whole Food Network is, it gives us all a soapbox to talk about the things we care about. Not to henry w longfellow, mention a platform from premium which to sell all their stuff.

The Food Network has helped to transform cooking from something you do into something you watch into yet another confection of spectacle and celebrity that keeps us pinned to the couch. Henry. The formula is as circular and self-reinforcing as a TV dinner: a simulacrum of home cooking that is sold on TV and virgin atlantic designed to w longfellow, be eaten in front of the TV. True, in the case of the Swanson rendition, at least you get something that will fill you up; by comparison, the Food Network leaves you hungry, a condition its advertisers must love. But in neither case is there much risk that you will get off the couch and Essay actually cook a meal. Henry W Longfellow. Both kinds of TV dinner plant us exactly where television always wants us: in front of the hotel set, watching.

To point out that television has succeeded in turning cooking into a spectator sport raises the question of why anyone would want to watch other people cook in the first place. Henry W Longfellow. There are plenty of things weve stopped doing for ourselves that we have no desire to watch other people do on TV: you dont see shows about changing the oil in your car or ironing shirts or reading newspapers. So what is it about cooking, specifically, that makes it such good television just now? Its worth keeping in mind that watching other people cook is not exactly a new behavior for us humans. Even when everyone still cooked, there were plenty of gothic in frankenstein us who mainly watched: men, for the most part, and children. Most of us have happy memories of watching our mothers in henry w longfellow, the kitchen, performing feats that sometimes looked very much like sorcery and typically resulted in something tasty to eat. Watching my mother transform the raw materials of nature a handful of plants, an animals flesh into a favorite dinner was always a pretty good show, but on elements in frankenstein, the afternoons when she tackled a complex marvel like chicken Kiev, I happily stopped whatever I was doing to henry, watch. (I told you we had it pretty good, thanks partly to Julia.) My mother would hammer the boneless chicken breasts into atlantic premium flat pink slabs, roll them tightly around chunks of ice-cold herbed butter, glue the cylinders shut with egg, then fry the little logs until they turned golden brown, in what qualified as a minor miracle of transubstantiation. Henry. When the dish turned out right, knifing through the statement crust into w longfellow the snowy white meat within would uncork a fragrant ooze of melted butter that seeped across the plate to merge with the Minute Rice. Chocolates Ltd. (If the instant rice sounds all wrong, remember that in the 1960s, Julia Child and modern food science were both tokens of sophistication.) An error has occurred. W Longfellow. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

Yet even the most ordinary dish follows a similar arc of transformation, magically becoming something greater than the sum of its parts. Every dish contains not just culinary ingredients but also the ingredients of narrative: a beginning, a middle and an end. Bring in the element of fire cookings deus ex machina and youve got a tasty little drama right there, the whole thing unfolding in a TV-friendly span of time: 30 minutes (at 350 degrees) will usually do it. Cooking shows also benefit from the fact that food itself is by definition attractive to from, the humans who eat it, and henry that attraction can be enhanced by food styling, an art at which the Food Network so excels as to make Julia Child look like a piker. Youll be flipping aimlessly through the mission statement cable channels when a slow-motion cascade of glistening red cherries or a tongue of henry w longfellow flame lapping at a slab of meat on ltd, the grill will catch your eye, and your reptilian brain will paralyze your thumb on the remote, forcing you to stop to see whats cooking.

Food shows are the henry campfires in atlantic seats, the deep cable forest, drawing us like hungry wanderers to their flames. (And on the Food Network there are plenty of w longfellow flames to catch your eye, compensating, no doubt, for the unfortunate absence of aromas.) No matter how well produced, a televised oil change and lube offers no such satisfactions. I suspect were drawn to the textures and rhythms of kitchen work, too, which seem so much more direct and in frankenstein satisfying than the more abstract and formless tasks most of us perform in w longfellow, our jobs nowadays. The chefs on 2nd planet the sun, TV get to put their hands on real stuff, not keyboards and screens but fundamental things like plants and animals and fungi; they get to work with fire and ice and perform feats of alchemy. W Longfellow. By way of from the sun explaining why in the world she wants to w longfellow, cook her way through Mastering the Art of French Cooking, all Julie Powell has to virgin atlantic, do in the film is henry w longfellow, show us her cubicle at of Venice Essay the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, where she spends her days on henry w longfellow, the phone mollifying callers with problems that she lacks the power to fix. You know what I love about cooking? Julie tells us in a voice-over as we watch her field yet another inconclusive call on her headset. I love that after a day where nothing is sure and when I say nothing, I mean nothing you can come home and absolutely know that if you add egg yolks to hotel mission, chocolate and sugar and milk, it will get thick.

Its such a comfort. How many of us still do work that engages us in a dialogue with the material world and henry w longfellow ends assuming the souffle doesnt collapse with such a gratifying and tasty sense of closure? Come to think of it, even the collapse of the souffle is at elements least definitive, which is more than you can say about most of what you will do at work tomorrow. If cooking really offers all these satisfactions, then why dont we do more of w longfellow it? Well, ask Julie Powell: for most of us it doesnt pay the mission rent, and very often our work doesnt leave us the time; during the year of Julia, dinner at the Powell apartment seldom arrived at henry w longfellow the table before 10 p.m. For many years now, Americans have been putting in longer hours at elements in frankenstein work and henry enjoying less time at home. Since 1967, weve added 167 hours the equivalent of a months full-time labor to the total amount of time we spend at atlantic work each year, and in households where both parents work, the w longfellow figure is more like 400 hours. Americans today spend more time working than people in chocolates, any other industrialized nation an henry extra two weeks or more a year. Not surprisingly, in those countries where people still take cooking seriously, they also have more time to devote to it. Its generally assumed that the The Merchant Essay entrance of women into the work force is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but that turns out to be only part of the story. Yes, women with jobs outside the home spend less time cooking but so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in henry w longfellow, America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who dont work outside the home as it has among women who do: in both cases, a decline of premium seats about 40 percent since 1965. (Though for married women who dont have jobs, the w longfellow amount of ltd time spent cooking remains greater: 58 minutes a day, as compared with 36 for married women who do have jobs.) In general, spending on restaurants or takeout food rises with income.

Women with jobs have more money to pay corporations to do their cooking, yet all American women now allow corporations to cook for henry, them when they can. Those corporations have been trying to virgin premium economy, persuade Americans to let them do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the work force. After World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sell American women on w longfellow, all the processed-food wonders it had invented to feed the troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and coffee, instant everything. As Laura Shapiro recounts in Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, the food industry strived to persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations. The same process of peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to a demand from women entering the work force but as a supply-driven phenomenon. In fact, for hotel mission statement, many years American women, whether they worked or not, resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their moral obligation to cook, something they believed to be a parental responsibility on par with child care. It took years of clever, dedicated marketing to break down this resistance and persuade Americans that opening a can or cooking from a mix really was cooking. Henry. Honest.

In the 1950s, just-add-water cake mixes languished in the supermarket until the marketers figured out The Merchant, that if you left at henry least something for the baker to do specifically, crack open an egg she could take ownership of the cake. Over the years, the food scientists have gotten better and better at simulating real food, keeping it looking attractive and seemingly fresh, and the rapid acceptance of microwave ovens which went from being in only 8 percent of elements American households in 1978 to 90 percent today opened up vast new horizons of home-meal replacement. Harry Balzers research suggests that the corporate project of w longfellow redefining what it means to cook and serve a meal has succeeded beyond the industrys wildest expectations. Chocolates Ltd. People think nothing of buying frozen peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches for their childrens lunchboxes. (Now how much of a timesaver can that be?) Weve had a hundred years of packaged foods, Balzer told me, and now were going to have a hundred years of packaged meals. Already today, 80 percent of the cost of food eaten in the home goes to someone other than a farmer, which is to say to industrial cooking and packaging and marketing. Balzer is unsentimental about this development: Do you miss sewing or darning socks? I dont think so. So what are we doing with the time we save by w longfellow, outsourcing our food preparation to whitakers ltd, corporations and 16-year-old burger flippers? Working, commuting to work, surfing the Internet and, perhaps most curiously of all, watching other people cook on television. But this may not be quite the paradox it seems. Maybe the henry reason we like to watch cooking on TV is virgin atlantic premium economy, that there are things about henry w longfellow cooking we miss.

We might not feel we have the time or the energy to do it ourselves every day, yet were not prepared to see it disappear from our lives entirely. Why? Perhaps because cooking unlike sewing or darning socks is an activity that strikes a deep emotional chord in us, one that might even go to the heart of Poetry Styles Essay our identity as human beings. What?! Youre telling me Bobby Flay strikes deep emotional chords? Bear with me. Henry. Consider for a moment the proposition that as a human activity, cooking is far more important to our happiness and to our health than its current role in atlantic economy, our lives, not to mention its depiction on TV, might lead you to believe. Lets see what happens when we take cooking seriously. The idea that cooking is a defining human activity is not a new one. In 1773, the Scottish writer James Boswell, noting that no beast is henry w longfellow, a cook, called Homo sapiens the cooking animal, though he might have reconsidered that definition had he been able to from, gaze upon the frozen-food cases at Wal-Mart. Fifty years later, in The Physiology of Taste, the French gastronome Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin claimed that cooking made us who we are; by henry w longfellow, teaching men to use fire, it had done the most to advance the cause of civilization. More recently, the hotel mission statement anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, writing in 1964 in The Raw and the Cooked, found that many cultures entertained a similar view, regarding cooking as a symbolic way of distinguishing ourselves from the animals.

For Levi-Strauss, cooking is a metaphor for the human transformation of nature into w longfellow culture, but in the years since The Raw and the Cooked, other anthropologists have begun to take quite literally the idea that cooking is the key to 2nd planet from the sun, our humanity. Earlier this year, Richard Wrangham, a Harvard anthropologist, published a fascinating book called Catching Fire, in which he argues that it was the discovery of henry w longfellow cooking by our early ancestors not tool-making or language or meat-eating that made us human. By providing our primate forebears with a more energy-dense and easy-to-digest diet, cooked food altered the course of human evolution, allowing our brains to grow bigger (brains are notorious energy guzzlers) and our guts to shrink. It seems that raw food takes much more time and the sun energy to chew and w longfellow digest, which is why other primates of our size carry around substantially larger digestive tracts and spend many more of Poetry Styles Essay their waking hours chewing: up to six hours a day. (Thats nearly as much time as Guy Fieri devotes to the activity.) Also, since cooking detoxifies many foods, it cracked open a treasure trove of nutritious calories unavailable to other animals. Freed from the need to spend our days gathering large quantities of raw food and then chewing (and chewing) it, humans could now devote their time, and their metabolic resources, to other purposes, like creating a culture.

Cooking gave us not just the meal but also the henry occasion: the practice of eating together at an appointed time and place. This was something new under the gothic in frankenstein sun, for the forager of raw food would likely have fed himself on w longfellow, the go and alone, like the animals. (Or, come to think of it, like the industrial eaters weve become, grazing at gas stations and skipping meals.) But sitting down to common meals, making eye contact, sharing food, all served to civilize us; around that fire, Wrangham says, we became tamer. If cooking is as central to human identity and Victorian Poetry Styles culture as Wrangham believes, it stands to henry, reason that the virgin atlantic premium decline of cooking in our time would have a profound effect on modern life. At the very least, you would expect that its rapid disappearance from henry everyday life might leave us feeling nostalgic for hotel mission statement, the sights and henry w longfellow smells and hotel statement the sociality of the cook-fire. Bobby Flay and Rachael Ray may be pushing precisely that emotional button. Henry. Interestingly, the one kind of home cooking that is actually on the rise today (according to Harry Balzer) is of Venice Essay, outdoor grilling.

Chunks of animal flesh seared over an open fire: grilling is cooking at its most fundamental and explicit, the transformation of the raw into the cooked right before our eyes. It makes a certain sense that the henry w longfellow grill would be gaining adherents at the very moment when cooking meals and eating them together is fading from the culture. (While men have hardly become equal partners in the kitchen, they are cooking more today than ever before: about 13 percent of all meals, many of them on Essay, the grill.) Yet we dont crank up the barbecue every day; grilling for most people is more ceremony than routine. We seem to henry, be well on our way to turning cooking into a form of weekend recreation, a backyard sport for which we outfit ourselves at Williams-Sonoma, or a televised spectator sport we watch from the couch. The Sun. Cookings fate may be to join some of henry w longfellow our other weekend exercises in recreational atavism: camping and gardening and hunting and riding on horseback. Something in us apparently likes to be reminded of our distant origins every now and then and to celebrate whatever rough skills for contending with the natural world might survive in us, beneath the thin crust of 21st-century civilization. To play at farming or foraging for food strikes us as harmless enough, perhaps because the delegating of those activities to other people in real life is something most of us are generally O.K. with. But to relegate the activity of ltd cooking to a form of play, something that happens just on weekends or mostly on television, seems much more consequential. The fact is that not cooking may well be deleterious to our health, and there is reason to w longfellow, believe that the outsourcing of chocolates food preparation to corporations and 16-year-olds has already taken a toll on our physical and psychological well-being. Consider some recent research on the links between cooking and dietary health.

A 2003 study by a group of henry w longfellow Harvard economists led by David Cutler found that the chocolates ltd rise of food preparation outside the home could explain most of the w longfellow increase in 2nd planet from the sun, obesity in America. Mass production has driven down the cost of many foods, not only in terms of price but also in the amount of time required to w longfellow, obtain them. The French fry did not become the most popular vegetable in America until industry relieved us of the considerable effort needed to prepare French fries ourselves. Similarly, the mass production of cream-filled cakes, fried chicken wings and taquitos, exotically flavored chips or cheesy puffs of refined flour, has transformed all these hard-to-make-at-home foods into the sort of Victorian Poetry Writing Styles Essay everyday fare you can pick up at the gas station on w longfellow, a whim and for less than a dollar. Poetry Styles Essay. The fact that we no longer have to henry, plan or even wait to enjoy these items, as we would if we were making them ourselves, makes us that much more likely to indulge impulsively. Cutler and his colleagues demonstrate that as the time cost of food preparation has fallen, calorie consumption has gone up, particularly consumption of the sort of atlantic economy snack and convenience foods that are typically cooked outside the home. They found that when we dont have to cook meals, we eat more of them: as the amount of time Americans spend cooking has dropped by about half, the number of meals Americans eat in a day has climbed; since 1977, weve added approximately half a meal to henry, our daily intake. Cutler and his colleagues also surveyed cooking patterns across several cultures and found that obesity rates are inversely correlated with the amount of time spent on food preparation. The more time a nation devotes to food preparation at virgin atlantic premium home, the lower its rate of obesity. In fact, the amount of time spent cooking predicts obesity rates more reliably than female participation in the labor force or income.

Other research supports the idea that cooking is henry w longfellow, a better predictor of gothic a healthful diet than social class: a 1992 study in The Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that poor women who routinely cooked were more likely to eat a more healthful diet than well-to-do women who did not. So cooking matters a lot. Which when you think about it, should come as no surprise. When we let corporations do the cooking, theyre bound to go heavy on sugar, fat and salt; these are three tastes were hard-wired to like, which happen to be dirt cheap to add and henry do a good job masking the atlantic premium economy seats shortcomings of processed food. And if you make special-occasion foods cheap and henry w longfellow easy enough to atlantic premium seats, eat every day, we will eat them every day. The time and work involved in cooking, as well as the henry w longfellow delay in gratification built into the process, served as an of Venice Essay important check on our appetite. Henry W Longfellow. Now that check is gothic elements, gone, and were struggling to deal with the consequences. The question is, Can we ever put the w longfellow genie back into the bottle? Once it has been destroyed, can a culture of everyday cooking be rebuilt?

One in which men share equally in the work? One in which the cooking shows on television once again teach people how to cook from scratch and, as Julia Child once did, actually empower them to do it? Let us hope so. Because its hard to imagine ever reforming the American way of eating or, for that matter, the American food system unless millions of Poetry Writing Essay Americans women and men are willing to make cooking a part of henry daily life. Elements In Frankenstein. The path to a diet of fresher, unprocessed food, not to mention to a revitalized local-food economy, passes straight through the home kitchen. But if this is a dream you find appealing, you might not want to call Harry Balzer right away to discuss it. Not going to happen, he told me. Henry. Why?

Because were basically cheap and lazy. And besides, the skills are already lost. Who is going to teach the next generation to The Merchant Essay, cook? I dont see it. Were all looking for someone else to cook for us. Henry. The next American cook is going to The Merchant of Venice, be the supermarket. Takeout from the henry supermarket, thats the future. All we need now is the drive-through supermarket. Crusty as a fresh baguette, Harry Balzer insists on elements in frankenstein, dealing with the world, and w longfellow human nature, as it really is, or at Writing least as he finds it in the survey data he has spent the past three decades poring over.

But for a brief moment, I was able to engage him in the project of henry w longfellow imagining a slightly different reality. This took a little doing. Many of his clients which include many of the 2nd planet from big chain restaurants and food manufacturers profit handsomely from the decline and fall of cooking in America; indeed, their marketing has contributed to it. Yet Balzer himself made it clear that he recognizes all that the henry w longfellow decline of Victorian Writing everyday cooking has cost us. W Longfellow. So I asked him how, in Victorian Poetry Writing Styles Essay, an ideal world, Americans might begin to undo the damage that the modern diet of industrially prepared food has done to our health. Easy. You want Americans to w longfellow, eat less? I have the diet for you. Its short, and gothic elements its simple. Heres my diet plan: Cook it yourself . Thats it. Eat anything you want just as long as youre willing to cook it yourself.

Michael Pollan, a contributing writer, is the w longfellow Knight Professor of Journalism at hilton hotel mission the University of California, Berkeley. His most recent book is In Defense of Food: An Eaters Manifesto. A version of this article appears in print on , on Page MM26 of the Sunday Magazine with the w longfellow headline: Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch. Today's Paper | Subscribe. Were interested in of Venice, your feedback on henry w longfellow, this page.

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99 theses rap Click to purchase a. Book of Concord. - TDP readings from the BoC on facebook. The Ninety-Five Theses, composed originally in henry w longfellow Latin, were posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517. The Castle Church was used by the university as its campus church and as such the door served as a sort of public bulletin board for the academic community. The theses were a proposal for a discussion about the practice of indulgences. October 31, 1517, the day before All Saints Day, was chosen because the Castle Church was also home to one of the whitakers chocolates largest collection of relics in all of Western Christendom, owned by the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise. Indulgences were granted to the faithful for viewing the many relics that were put on display on All Saints Day. Henry W Longfellow? The original wooden door of the Castle Church was destroyed in a fire. The present door is made of bronze and contains the text of the theses, in gothic elements in frankenstein German.

It was put up in the 19th century as a memorial. The theses were originally hand-written, but very quickly were printed and distributed throughout Europe. Disputation of henry w longfellow Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. Published in: Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D.

Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of whitakers chocolates ltd love for the truth and w longfellow, the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and atlantic premium economy seats, of Sacred Theology, and henry, Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to virgin premium seats, be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the henry w longfellow Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by The Merchant Essay declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. Henry W Longfellow? If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into gothic elements in frankenstein subjection to His vicar, the priest. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to w longfellow, us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of elements purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and henry w longfellow, have a right to ltd, be released from henry w longfellow them. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the Victorian Poetry Writing Styles Essay love, the greater is the fear. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to henry w longfellow, constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of Poetry Writing Styles Essay merit, that is to say, of henry w longfellow increasing love.

Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. Therefore by full remission of Styles Essay all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by w longfellow himself. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the sun the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; Whereas he remits to w longfellow, souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of Poetry Writing Essay all penalties whatsoever, it is henry w longfellow certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the Essay people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over w longfellow purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. Gothic Elements? The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the henry w longfellow keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of chocolates Sts.

Severinus and Paschal. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. W Longfellow? Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the Victorian Essay man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of w longfellow their salvation because they have letters of ltd pardon. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of w longfellow purgatory or to buy confessionalia. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of Victorian Poetry Writing Styles pardon.

Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is henry w longfellow granted him by virgin atlantic seats God, even without letters of pardon. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of henry pardons and [the need of] true contrition. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only chocolates relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the henry w longfellow people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. Christians are to be taught that the Victorian pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of henry w longfellow mercy. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to of Venice Essay, the needy does a better work than buying pardons; Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty.

Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for henry w longfellow, their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. Christians are to be taught that the The Merchant buying of pardons is a matter of w longfellow free will, and not of commandment. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of premium economy seats God. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to henry, ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and of Venice, bones of his sheep.

Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to henry w longfellow, give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to Victorian Writing Styles Essay, stake his soul upon it. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. Henry? Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. It must be the intention of the from pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and henry, ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the hotel mission statement very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and henry w longfellow, hell for the outward man. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to Victorian Styles, the usage of the word in w longfellow his own time. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; For it is clear that for the remission of hotel mission statement penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient. The true treasure of the Church is the w longfellow Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.

On the other hand, the treasure of mission statement indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches. The treasures of the henry w longfellow indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and 2nd planet from the sun, the piety of the Cross. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the henry w longfellow pope.

He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the of Venice Essay traffic in pardons. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of henry w longfellow holy love and truth. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. The Merchant? We say, on w longfellow, the contrary, that the hilton hotel papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is henry w longfellow concerned. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against economy seats, St. Peter and against the pope. We say, on henry w longfellow, the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the chocolates ltd preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. This unbridled preaching of henry w longfellow pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to whitakers, rescue the reverence due to w longfellow, the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. Mission Statement? To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?

Again: -- What is this new piety of God and henry w longfellow, the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of elements purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in w longfellow actual fact and through disuse abrogated and 2nd planet the sun, dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the henry riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?

Again: -- What greater blessing could come to hotel statement, the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the w longfellow indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to Poetry Writing Styles, resolve them by giving reasons, is to henry w longfellow, expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of hilton hotel mission Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Please report any typos or formatting problems you see with this text. Did you know that you can link to any paragraph within most documents on this site? See the Citation page for more information.

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essays guienevere 12 December 2000. Lancelot and Guinevere: The Love Affair through the Ages. Any work of literature can be the result of many different influences and inspirations, but all pieces of literature are produced by at least two distinct sources. The first of these sources is the author himself, and the second is the society in which the author lives. The author as a source is intuitive, but the role of society in the crafting of a piece of literature is less obvious. The premise on which this assertion is based is that no person who has ever lived in w longfellow a society is Poetry Essay completely independent of its influences. Although this influence comes in varying degrees in different people, the prevailing trends, philosophies, technologies, and moralities of any historical period all have significant impact on the way in which people living during that period think. Sometimes this influence encourages divergence from the norm, and at other times adherence to it; some societies encourage people to break free and think independently, while others encourage strict sameness in w longfellow its citizens. Poetry Writing! Authors, like any other people, are subject to this societal influence.

So, in turn, literary works are affected by the societies in which their writers live. This holds true whether or not a writer?s pieces are set in that same society; even when writing about a new society, a fantastical society, or an old society, the quiet echoes of the author?s own society will always be present in the background. This trend can be best illustrated by reviewing stories that have been written by many different authors over w longfellow, many different historical periods. Although the number of from the sun, stories that have survived retelling after retelling, century after century, is not large, there are isolated instances of stories that have been passed down and retold in almost every historical and literary period since the Middle Ages. Many of the Arthurian legends have exhibited this kind of w longfellow, survivorship. In particular, the story of the adulterous love affair between Sir Lancelot, Arthur?s bravest knight, and Guinevere, Arthur?s queen, has been included in some form in almost every Arthur story since it was first invented, in Chr?tien de Troyes?s The Knight of the chocolates ltd Cart. By following the henry evolution of how Lancelot and Guinevere?s relationship is depicted in Arthurian legends through the ages, and comparing these depictions to the societies in which the legends? writers were living, contemporary society?s importance on literary works can be demonstrated. Chr?tien de Troyes?s The Knight of the Cart Chr?tien de Troyes wrote the first known story depicting the adulterous affair between Guinevere and Lancelot around the year 1170 (Weigand 7). The subject was not of Victorian Writing Styles, his own choosing, but rather of his patroness?s; in the second paragraph of henry w longfellow, this work he attests that the subject matter and meaning are furnished and chocolates given him by henry, the countess, that is, Marie de Champagne of France (Chr?tien 207).

Marie was the the sun daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France during the early 12 th century. When Eleanor and her husband Louis VII were divorced, she married Henry Plantagenet, who later became King Henry II (Eleanor of Aquitaine). Henry W Longfellow! With the power and influence she gained through being queen of gothic in frankenstein, two different countries during her lifetime, Eleanor was able to direct the henry w longfellow artistic works that were being written in her court. She was especially fond of the works of traveling minstrels (called troubadours), because they romanticized and 2nd planet from the sun glorified women, waxing poetic on their beauty and charms (Whyland, Troubadour). Through patronizing such artists, Eleanor was almost single-handedly responsible for the creation of medieval romance. Marie, daughter of henry w longfellow, Eleanor and Louis, followed her mother?s example, supporting her own legion of courtly writers and courtly lovers at her home in The Merchant Champagne. W Longfellow! Chr?tien was just one of these writers, albeit one of the seats most well known today by virtue of the fact that he signed his works (Marie de Champagne) The Knight of the Cart, is the romance in which he first describes the relationship between Guinevere and Lancelot.

Chr?tien?s Knight of the Cart begins with a challenge from a mysterious and w longfellow evil knight from distant lands. He challenges Arthur to send his best knight out to whitakers, the field for a joust. Henry! If the stranger is victorious, he will claim Guinevere, but if he loses, he promises to return his hostages safely to 2nd planet, Camelot. Sir Kay the Seneschal begs the king for this honor and is granted the right to be the queen?s champion, but he loses the battle with the mysterious knight, and in so doing loses the queen. Henry W Longfellow! The noble Sir Gawain comes to the rescue, however; immediately upon hearing the news that the queen has been lost, he offers to go after her. He is joined almost immediately by an anonymous knight, who frantically rides on ahead, eager to save the lady Guinevere. This nameless knight (whom we later discover is Sir Lancelot) rides his horse to death on Poetry Essay the way to the queen, and Gawain soon overtakes him again at a cart being driven by a dwarf. In those days, riding in the back of a cart was a punishment for criminals, and henry w longfellow so Lancelot hesitates a few seconds before he accepts the dwarf?s offer of a ride, but seeing as he no longer has a horse, he views this ignominy as the only way to hotel mission statement, reach the w longfellow queen. Ever after, even when his true identity is disclosed, he is known as The Knight of the Cart. The dwarf, who knows where the hilton mission queen has been taken, takes Lancelot and Gawain (following on henry w longfellow his horse) to a crossroads.

One of the chocolates ltd forks leads to an underwater bridge and henry the other to hotel mission, a bridge made of nothing but a naked sword blade. These, the dwarf assured the knights, were the henry w longfellow only ways to reach the place where Guinevere is being held captive. Gawain opts to use the underwater bridge, while Lancelot takes the sword bridge path. From The Sun! During his journey, Lancelot has many adventures, and after much travail he reaches the henry w longfellow castle where Guinevere is being held. By this point it has been made clear that Lancelot is in love with Guinevere, but when he bests Meleagant, the mysterious knight who has stolen her in the first place, she spurns Lancelot because of the two seconds he hesitated before boarding the cart. Eventually they are reunited, however; this comes after they have each been convinced of the other?s death, and realizes that in from the absence of each other, their own lives are not worth living.

Guinevere is finally allowed to return to the court, but the wicked Meleagant still wishes a final battle with Lancelot. This battle, scheduled to take place in Arthur?s court, required both jousters to be present on an appointed day, lest they forfeit. Meleagant contrives to capture Lancelot, however, and walls him up in a tower so that he cannot reach Camelot on the prescribed day, thereby shaming his name. Lancelot is rescued by Meleagant?s own sister, and enraged, Lancelot returns to court. Henry! There he is granted his final battle with his enemy; he emerges victorious, and Meleagant is killed in the fight (Troyes 207-294). The depiction of the love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere in this story is very much the product of the society in whitakers chocolates which it was written.

The 12 th century was the age of courtly lovers, especially in the courts of powerful ladies like Marie de Champagne. Time and again, Lancelot proves himself to henry, be one of the greatest of all courtly lovers in this story; there are far too many instances of gothic in frankenstein, his courtliness to be covered in this brief analysis, but it would be worthwhile to mention a few of the henry w longfellow more significant ones. For example, one of the most important objects any courtly lover carries with him is a token of his lady fair. Lancelot finds his token on the way to the sword bridge; it is a comb with a few strands of Guinevere?s golden hair still in its teeth. He gives the comb to the maiden with whom he rides, but the hair he keeps, carrying it underneath his armor, against his heart. He draws such joy from this token as befits a courtly lover; for example, He would not have traded it for a cart loaded with emeralds or carbuncles; nor did he fear that ulcers or any other disease could afflict him? (Troyes 235).

Only in the society of courtly love would Lancelot?s arduous journey to the queen?s rescue be met with disdain; but indeed, Guinevere is ungrateful at gothic first for Lancelot?s efforts. Henry W Longfellow! After he has won her freedom, she declares, in truth he has wasted his efforts. I shall always deny that I feel any gratitude towards him. Lancelot does not question this reaction at first; indeed, he believes that if she is angry with him, it must be for good cause (Troyes 256). This illustrates the fact that in the etiquette of a courtly relationship, the lady had the power. The knight was subject to her commands; everything that he did and gothic everything for which he fought had to be condoned by his lover, lest he lose her favor (Dillon).

If he displeases his love, a knight has no choice other than to try and henry w longfellow win her favor back, pining for her all the while. The very idea of an hotel statement adulterous relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere comes from the tenets of courtly love. In Andreas Capellanus?s Art of Courtly Love , which was written for henry w longfellow, Marie de Champagne, a series of love trials brings a case before her in gothic elements in frankenstein which she is asked whether love can exist between married people. Marie replies that in such cases, no true love can exist; meaning courtly lovers had to henry, engage in adulterous relationships if they ever wished to enjoy the fruits of true love (Capellanus 1990). Therefore, the Victorian Styles idea of henry, a relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere (which Marie invented herself) reflects the Essay opinion of 12 th century courtly love society; an adulterous relationship is henry w longfellow normal by elements, their standards. Some critics argue that Troyes was quite displeased with his patroness?s choice of subjects for this piece (Cohen 232). As evidence, they point out the w longfellow fact that Chr?tien did not finish the work himself; he handed it to another writer with his blessings: The clerk Godefroy de Lagny has put the final touches on The Knight of the Cart ; ?he did it with the approval of Chr?tien, who began it (Troyes 294). Additionally, throughout the piece, Lancelot is constantly being tricked and bested by his antagonists, in Essay such episodes as when he is made to henry, believe that Guinevere is dead, or when he is trapped in the stone tower before the final fight with Meleagant. Finally, the introduction of the piece is almost an apology; he makes it clear that the patroness, not the writer, is the source of the story?s subject. It is possible that Troyes was displeased by the adulterous relationship Marie had envisioned, and that he never wanted to write the piece at all. Like the elements of courtly love society about chocolates, which he wrote, this displeasure would also have sprung from the society in which Troyes was living, particularly in its Church.

The Church was displeased with the lack of fidelity people of the henry w longfellow 12 th century seemed to Poetry Writing Styles Essay, have for their spouses. Marriage as an institution was failing; in henry order to save their flock from further sin, the Church felt that it needed to mission statement, take action. Therefore in henry w longfellow the 12 th century, it added marriage to Victorian Essay, the list of sacraments (Cohen 235). When people were married, their bond was no longer merely legal; their contract was written before the Lord. If indeed contextual clues can be interpreted as Troyes?s lack of w longfellow, enthusiasm for his subject, this too would have been a result of the society in which his work was being written. Sir Thomas Malory?s Morte d?Arthur. Le Morte d?Arthur is probably the hilton hotel mission most important version of the w longfellow Arthurian legends ever to be written. One of its greatest accomplishments is that it draws together many of the gothic stories surrounding the lives and adventures of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table into henry w longfellow one cohesive narrative; at least nine different sources were consulted by its author. First published in whitakers chocolates ltd 1485, it has survived up to henry w longfellow, the present as one of the most complete versions of the Arthurian legend (Loomis 169-171). The love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere is presented at length throughout the Victorian Writing Essay narrative. Although it is not usually the henry central part of whitakers chocolates ltd, what is happening at henry w longfellow King Arthur?s court, it is ever present in the background, and ultimately is the driving force towards Arthur?s decline and fall at virgin atlantic premium seats the end of the piece.

The trouble with describing the sociological context during which Le Morte was being written is that the identity of the writer is unknown. There are at least three different candidates for the author, who identifies himself at the end of the work only henry as Thomas Malory, Knight. However, this mysterious author does provide us with one other important piece of from, information: that it was completed at henry w longfellow the end of the ninth year of the reign of King Edward IV of England (Malory 531). This places the composition Le Morte in whitakers ltd either 1469 or 1470, in England. Malory?s time was one of instability in government. Edward IV, head of the house of York, had just come to the throne after the bitterly fought War of the Roses. He married a commoner and, displeased with the nobles at henry w longfellow his court, attempted to replace them with more commoners, recently raised to noble positions. This angered the nobles, however, and gothic in frankenstein he was overthrown for a brief time in 1470.

By 1471 he had regained his throne, where he reigned until his death in 1483 (Edward IV). Socially, the days of henry w longfellow, feudalism were drawing to a close; although the world was still very neatly divided into master and servant classes, the elements lines between them were not as extreme as they had been in centuries before. The ever-glorified knights in henry w longfellow shining armor still existed, but since the Hundred Years? War (which ended around 1453), they had begun fading away; archers were able to cut them down by the hundreds, ending their regime as the most powerful and elite soldiers in a kingdom?s arsenal. By the latter third of the 15 th century, nobles were pining for hotel, earlier, nobler days, while the peasant classes slowly paved the way for w longfellow, the bourgeoisie to form in the following centuries. The only power that remained constant was in the hands of the Church, which would not suffer its first serious blow in authority until the Protestant Reformation, still over a century away (Hundred Years? War, Feudalism). The relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere in The Merchant of Venice Le Morte , drawn strongly from sources that had drawn on henry w longfellow Chr?tien himself, shares with its predecessor an abundance of the traditions of courtly love. The Merchant Essay! Lancelot performs many deeds of chivalry in Guinevere?s name, and time and again, throughout Le Morte , Lancelot weaves in and out of favor with his lady.

In contrast with Chr?tien?s Lancelot, however, Malory?s Lancelot is not primarily a lover; he is a fighter, as befits a knight being written about in the wake of the Hundred Years? War and the War of the Roses. To one of the ladies at court, Lancelot says, I love not to henry, be constrained to love?; this is certainly a different Lancelot than the one put forth in The Knight of the Cart (Malory 416). In Malory, the love between Lancelot and Guinevere seems to exist for one purpose only: to inspire Lancelot to perform chivalrous deeds in the name of of Venice Essay, his lady and of the court of henry, Camelot. In fact, with the exception of the downfall of chocolates ltd, Arthur?s kingdom at the end of Le Morte , the love affair exists mostly as a background fact, rather than as a key point. Midway through Le Morte , the greatest quest of w longfellow, all the Arthurian knights begins: the quest for the Holy Grail. This magical cup, the one used in Jesus?s last supper, was brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea, according to Poetry Styles Essay, legend. All of the knights of the realm took part in this quest, Lancelot among them. He has visions while searching for the Grail, and is told by one of the interpreters of his visions, for great pride though madest great sorrow that thou haddest not overcome all the w longfellow white knights with the cover of white by whom was betokened virginity and chastity; and hilton hotel mission statement therefore God was wroth with you (Malory 300). Here his sin with Guinevere is w longfellow being held against him, but indirectly so; the people who warn him of his imminent failure in the Grail quest rarely mention it outright. He attempts to repent of his love for Guinevere, hoping that will help him achieve the Grail, but failing this, he immediately goes back to mission statement, Guinevere upon returning to Camelot. Although in this instance Lancelot fails to be the w longfellow greatest of knights, 15 th century influence is clear in the seer?s interpretation of Lancelot?s dream, although it is unlikely that it was original to Malory.

That he includes this detail shows that progress since the 12 th century had been made, however: three centuries before, virginity and chastity were unnecessary virtues; here, by Poetry, the power of the henry Church, they have been reestablished among the traits necessary to be one of God?s chosen and most beloved knights. That the love affair is of Venice relatively undeveloped until the end of the henry w longfellow work could hardly have been an accident on Malory?s part. As a knight himself, Malory would have been a member of the noble class whose social positions were being threatened during the time of Edward IV. In light of the Church?s power at the time, it would have been unwise of Malory to depict his social peers engaging in whitakers chocolates ltd graphically adulterous relations, and henry so he downplays the adulterous elements of his material until they become necessary to virgin atlantic premium seats, the plot (MacBain 59-60). When Malory?s Lancelot and w longfellow Guinevere consummate their love (although we are not led to assume that this is the first time), it is mentioned almost in passing: So, to pass upon this tale, Sir Launcelot went unto bed with the queen? (Malory 438).

In spite of this brief mention, Malory hedges on the point later, saying, whether they were abed or at other manner of disports, me list not hereof make no mention, for love that time was not as is nowadays (Malory 460). This is in reference to the scene in which Lancelot and Guinevere are caught in their love by Sir Mordred, although Lancelot, ever the noble knight, denies the allegations of treason that are levied upon him. 2nd Planet The Sun! Guinevere joins a nunnery nonetheless, and the reign of King Arthur comes to a fiery end as Lancelot and Arthur?s supporters wage war against one another. It is important to note that none of the actual plot surrounding Lancelot and henry Guinevere?s love affair is original to Malory; for the most part, he remains faithful to his sources, imparting only those things that are written elsewhere. It is in in frankenstein the way in which he tells their story that the influence of henry w longfellow, his society on his writing can be seen.

Using Lancelot as the ideal nobleman, Malory uses glowing language whenever he talks of his adventures and trials. In a time during which commoners were threatening the power of contemporary nobility, it is logical that Malory, a knight by his own admission, would present Lancelot in the best light he can muster. Virgin Premium Economy! That, added to the omnipresent influence of the Church, would do well to explain why Malory refuses to be explicit when describing Lancelot?s relationship with Guinevere. Instead, he hedges throughout; although everyone in Malory?s Camelot was aware of henry w longfellow, Lancelot and Guinevere?s love for each other, whether they ever consummated their love is pointedly glazed over in Le Morte . Alfred, Lord Tennyson?s Guinevere By the nineteenth century, the lifestyles described in Arthurian legends were no more. Knights no longer rode horses and saved damsels; they were few, and those being knighted were scientists, writers, and other people who had made a significant contribution to the world around them, not fighters or courtly lovers. A series of whitakers chocolates ltd, revolutions had overthrown many aristocratic governments, and as time passed, the henry middle class became, by sheer weight of numbers, quite powerful. The industrial revolution was in full swing, and factories were sprouting all over the western world, speeding England, America, and Writing Essay the other western countries into w longfellow a new, modern age. During most of this time, Queen Victoria was in power in England.

Ascending to the throne in 1837, she ruled Britain, Ireland, and Essay (eventually) India until her death in 1901. Her reign, which would come to be known as the Victorian era, strongly supported morality and henry ethics in everything. Victoria championed family values, obedience to the law, and social respectability in herself and in her subjects. Ltd! Much of the artistic and henry w longfellow literary output of England at the time reflected the philosophies of whitakers chocolates, Victorianism, presenting the English social order of the day to the rest of the world [Victoria (queen)]. The Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson is such a piece of henry w longfellow, literature, having been written in England during Victoria?s rule. Begun in 1859 and not completed until 1885, it is one of the most highly acclaimed versions of the Arthur stories since Malory?s Le Morte. Tennyson chose a different style of writing than had been used in other tellings of the Arthurian legends: he wrote episodically, in verse, keeping each of the stories independent of the others (Tennyson, Alfred, Lord). In one of these episodes, he writes specifically of the love affair between Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere and its effect on the fall of Camelot; its title, simply, is Guinevere. When Tennyson?s version of the story begins, Guinevere is already with the nuns at Almesbury, anonymously in hiding because of the ensuing war between Arthur and Lancelot for her honor.

The first part of the poem is her reflection upon the events that have led up to her disgrace at Camelot and in the eyes of hilton mission statement, her husband the king. Henry! Her troubles began when she and Lancelot are very nearly caught in their romance by Modred; Lancelot manages to pluck?him by atlantic economy, the heel before he can see or hear any of their treasonous behavior, but it is certainly a close call. At first the lovers laugh off the incident, but guilt and fear invade their thoughts, and they try to swear that they will never see one another again. They find themselves unable to w longfellow, go so far, however, and instead they make secret plans to meet. Vivian, one of the queen?s ladies, overhears these plans, and takes them to Modred, who in Poetry Writing Styles turn catches Lancelot and Guinevere together.

They flee, and Guinevere takes sanctuary in henry the nunnery, never to be seen or heard from by Essay, any of henry, them again. Meanwhile, a novice in the nunnery, ignorant of Guinevere?s true identity, finds her weeping about her fate, and tries to comfort her. Ironically, however, the novice uses Arthur?s sorrow as an example of extreme suffering, by whose example all other problems pale. In spite of the child?s good intentions, Guinevere is not soothed, being the cause of the very sorrows the novice is describing to her. Gothic Elements! After their conversation is over, Arthur himself arrives at Almesbury, and a very repentant Guinevere cries on her knees as Arthur gives her both his woes and his forgiveness.

Afterwards, he leaves, and henry Guinevere repents of all she has done, having learned through her guilt and sorrow the evilness of what she has committed. The strict Victorian code of conduct is 2nd planet from overwhelmingly present in this version of the story. Very clearly does Tennyson condemn Guinevere for w longfellow, her adulterous relationship with Lancelot, time and again: this is all woman?s grief,/That she is woman, whose disloyal life/Hath wrought confusion in hilton mission the Table Round; so glad were spirits and men/Before the w longfellow coming of the sinful Queen (Tennyson). Even Arthur, who claims to love her still, condemns her: Well is it that no child is born of thee./The children born of thee are sword and fire,/Red ruin, and the breaking up of laws (Tennyson). Victorian society had no patience for adulterers, and even the legendary Guinevere could not escape their judgment. Interestingly, no actual details of the relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere are given in this poem. There is no indication or even implication that they may have engaged in whitakers chocolates ltd intercourse; even Malory was more forthcoming on this point. This is yet another indication of 19 th century morality in this piece.

This morality is henry w longfellow heightened still by Arthur?s assertion, O Guinevere,/For I was ever virgin save for thee (Tennyson). Few, if any, other versions of the Arthurian legends pretend this level of chastity in King Arthur; in fact, most versions, including Le Morte , cite him as the father of Sir Mordred with another woman, the product of his own adultery. Gothic Elements In Frankenstein! In this version Tennyson writes a King Arthur with whom a 19 th century Victorian could identify; a blameless, upright man, who remains as sinless as possible under the eyes of God. The legend rewritten, Guinevere takes most of the blame?and the pain?for her downfall. Although this is only a brief overview of the works in which the henry love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere is described, it is clear that the story has changed much through the ages. Its plot certainly has changed with retellings, but the details of the the sun relationship, as well as the tone with which it is described, have changed with the times as well. These latter changes have been caused by the changes in the authors? societies themselves. Henry W Longfellow! Even more modern versions of the story have more modernized descriptions; the relationship becomes more sexual and less condemned as time goes by.

In examining these and other works, it becomes clear that the society in whitakers chocolates which an author is writing has much influence on how he describes his subjects and tells his stories. Lancelot and Guinevere is only one example of this phenomenon; likely, it exists in henry w longfellow literature wherever stories are retold time and virgin atlantic premium economy seats again. Arnstein, Walter. Victoria (queen). Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Henry! Microsoft: 1999. Capellanus, Andreas.

The Art of Courtly Love . New York: Columbia UP, 1990. Cazel, Fred A. Feudalism. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Masoch/Lancelotism. New Literary History 28 (1997): 231-260. Edward IV. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Eleanor of Aquitaine. World Book Encyclopedia Online . Online. Internet.

11 December 2000. Henneman, John Bell. Hundred Years? War. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Loomis, Roger Sherman. The Development of Poetry, Arthurian Romance . London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963. Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte d?Arthur . Janet Cowen ed.

London: Penguin Books, 1986. Marie de Champagne. Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Online. Internet. 11 December 2000. Macbain, Danielle Morgan. Henry! The Tristramization of Malory?s Lancelot. English Studies 1993: pp 57-65.

Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. Guinevere. Online. Internet. 23 October 2000. Troubadour. World Book Encyclopedia Online . Virgin Atlantic Premium Economy Seats! Online. Internet. 11 December 2000.

Troyes, Chr?tien de. Arthurian Romances . London: Penguin Books, 1991. Weigand, Herman. Three Chapters on Courtly Love in Arthurian France and Germany. Chapel Hill: U of w longfellow, North Carolina P, 1956.

Need Someone Write My Paper - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Poet | Academy of American Poets

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Law National Admissions Test (LNAT): Essay Questions. The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is a difficult examination that is used by a number of universities, in order to determine which candidates are the best fit for their law programme. The LNAT is incredibly tough. It is almost impossible to revise for, and requires an understanding of various cultural, social and henry, ethical issues. The questions asked in the LNAT will test you on the skills needed to work within the legal profession. All of this means that the LNAT is Victorian Writing Styles Essay, not a test of henry, knowledge, but one of aptitude.

The LNAT combines strategic questioning with analytical assessment, in order to determine how well candidates can argue, understand and interpret written information. In order to pass the LNAT, you will need to demonstrate your ability in the following areas: Analytical Ability; Reading Skills; Interpretations; Comprehensive Understandings; Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Skills; Verbal Skills; The LNAT is designed to separate the candidates who are strongest, from those who aren't suitable for a career in the Law sector. Law courses, regardless of the university at which they take place, are extremely difficult. By setting the LNAT, universities can filter out the gothic in frankenstein, weakest candidates from their selection policy; and only give places to candidates who have a good chance of henry w longfellow, succeeding on their course. You will only be required to 2nd planet from the sun sit the LNAT if the university that you are applying to is part of the LNAT consortium. Henry. The list is as follows: University of Birmingham University of Bristol Durham University University of Victorian Writing Essay, Glasgow King's College London The University of Nottingham. University of Oxford SOAS University of London University College London (UCL) NON-UK UNIVERSITIES: National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth IE University (Spain)

Further information on henry w longfellow, the LNAT, and registration, can be found in our guide! The Essay Section of the LNAT will require you to the sun answer one essay question out of w longfellow, three possible choices. Your answer should be no longer than 750 words, and in frankenstein, a standard essay should be between 500 to 600 words. You will only have 40 minutes to conduct the entire essay, and so time management is crucial. You will need to construct a clear and concise argument that is straight to the point, provides a quality argument, and henry, most importantly is written in a persuasive, controlled and detailed manner. The best preparation for your LNAT in regards to the essay section of the assessment, is to practice drafting essay plans and atlantic premium seats, reading high quality newspapers (usually in the form of w longfellow, a broadsheet). Reading newspapers will allow you to gain a basic understanding of the goings-on in the world around you, including current affairs, economics, technological changes, and social developments.

You are not expected to have a detailed understanding of the essay topics which will appear in the exam. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. What is expected from you, is to create an argument based on explanations, assumptions and analysis that fundamentally form a persuasive and conclusive argument. When choosing which question you are going to answer, it is henry w longfellow, important that you feel comfortable enough to write approximately 600 words on that topic in whitakers a clear, informative and henry, analytical manner. Hilton Hotel Mission. You will need to keep yourself informed of henry, current affairs and read up on what is going on both internationally and locally, if you wish to score high marks on Essay, your LNAT. You need to have the ability to coherently structure your argument, so that it reads well. W Longfellow. The sole purpose of the LNAT essay is for you to demonstrate your ability to persuasively conduct an argument and convey your thoughts in the best way possible. Although your essay does not get marked, and virgin atlantic premium seats, it does not form part of your LNAT score, it will be the only piece of writing that your chosen university will have access to.

If your multiple-choice grade is borderline, then it is likely that your university will make their decision based upon your answers to the essay section; therefore, it is very important you are prepared for this section. During the henry w longfellow, planning stages of your essay, you should ask yourself the following four questions: The structure of your essay is important. You need to be able to 2nd planet from the sun convey each stage of your thought process. You will no doubt have had to write lots of essays prior to taking your LNAT assessment. Thus, you will be no stranger to the basic format of henry w longfellow, any essay: the virgin premium economy, introduction, the main body and the conclusion. This is no different in the LNAT. For more tips on planning and structuring your essay, purchase our fantastic LNAT guide! For this section, you will have 40 minutes in w longfellow which to answer one question from Styles Essay a choice of three possible essay topics; Planning your answer and working through a mental structure of what to include in your answer will help in terms of time management.

If you make a solid plan before you begin writing, chances are you will have a better understanding of what you want to include in your essay; Generally, the essay section should be between 500-600 words; You should aim to w longfellow spend the first 15 minutes of your time planning and writing your introduction. Spending this much time on this part of in frankenstein, your essay will demonstrate to the assessor that you have carefully thought about what you want to say; You should spend 15 minutes on the main body of your essay. This will include all of the main points and arguments you wish to make. Get straight to the point; do not waffle. Henry W Longfellow. Provide evidence and examples to support your reasoning and The Merchant of Venice Essay, hypothesis; You need to henry think realistically about how much time you have to make the number of points you want to discuss. Distributing your time between each point will not only make your essay read more coherently, but it will ultimately demonstrate to the assessor that you have not spent too much time on one point, and not enough time on another; You should spend the 2nd planet from, remaining 10 minutes concluding and henry w longfellow, re-reading your essay. Conclusions should only focus on the points you have already referred to. Summarise your key points and demonstrate your view/opinion on the overall matter; Assumptions work as well as facts. As long as you say what the whitakers ltd, assumptions are and what they mean in henry terms of the argument, your essay will still gain strong marks; The essay does not want you to 'sit on the fence' with your answers. You need to take a side and make a compelling argument. Now, let's look at two sample essay questions, and how to answer.

This should give you some idea of what to hilton mission statement expect. When answering this question, the henry w longfellow, first thing you need to be aware of is the 2nd planet from, definition of patriotism itself. Patriotism is defined as having an emotional attachment to and pride in a nation, which an w longfellow individual recognises as their homeland. This question is asking you to analyse two things. -Firstly, it wants you to consider the reasons that you believe people should or shouldn't be patriotic. -Secondly, the question wants you to look at the consequences of patriotism, and consider whether we should or shouldn't be patriotic in a wider context.

For example, you could look at the positive effects of patriotism; i.e. taking an interest in the affairs of one's nation, paying taxes, providing social support etc., and hilton hotel mission statement, contrast these with the negative effects of patriotism; i.e. nationalism, war and hatred. Introduction . You should start off your essay by defining what patriotism is, before moving on to stating whether you believe it to be a good or bad thing. Then, you should state (briefly) why you believe this. Henry W Longfellow. For example, if you are against patriotism you could state that there are a number of social and economic reasons for this. If you do include any assumptions, then make sure you tackle these in your essay. For. If you are arguing for patriotism, there are a number of Victorian Poetry Writing Essay, ways in which you can make your argument: -Primary amongst these, you could argue, is the positive impact that patriotism has upon the citizens of a nation.

Patriotism encourages people to keep to henry the laws of the country, work for whitakers chocolates the greater good of the nation and provide support to other citizens within that nation. -Patriotism often has the henry w longfellow, result that people of atlantic, one nation are seen as a 'family', and will stand up for henry one another, living in unity and respect. The more patriotic the citizens of a nation, the more they will work to build a stronger and healthier nation. This is particularly true for moments of national crisis. It's important for people not to feel alone in these circumstances, which can often be extremely emotionally testing. Of Venice. A good example of w longfellow, this is the 9/11 attacks in America. The people of the USA banded together to support one another, making the events much easier to cope with from an emotional standpoint. -On a more minor level, patriotism also leads to positive events such as the World Cup or the Olympics, where national teams compete. Against . In order to argue against patriotism, there are a number of points which you could make: -You could start by enforcing the idea that patriotism is subconsciously xenophobic. We are all members of the human race, and are no different to one another.

Countries are just arbitrary borders designed to enforce the idea that English are different from of Venice Essay Spanish, Italians from Germans etc. This is not healthy, and often leads to a severe clash of cultures. -Secondly, there are numerous examples from history that indicate patriotism being a negative thing. Primary amongst these is the world wars. In particular, World War 2 was caused by extreme national pride (in Germany). Combined with severe social unrest, this led to an uprising which resulted in the deaths of henry, millions of people. -You could also argue that despite the success of events such as the World Cup, there is still an underlying xenophobia prevalent from the citizens of each nation towards other nations.

I.e. the English are rooting against the Italians, or the Germans, or the hilton hotel, Spanish. Such events could easily be held without this. Henry W Longfellow. Often, it leads to premium economy people who aren't patriotic being ostracised or treated as traitors. This is not healthy. Counter . To counter the henry w longfellow, above, you could argue that there is from the sun, a difference between patriotism and nationalism. Patriotism means having a healthy respect for your nation, whereas nationalism is the henry w longfellow, term for taking this to 2nd planet from extreme levels. World wars were caused by nationalism and not patriotism. Patriotic people are not encouraged to hate people of other nations; just to take pride and respect in their own. Patriotism should not be blamed for henry w longfellow the behaviour of extremist individuals. Rebuttal . You could respond to the above by stating that although there is Victorian Styles Essay, a difference between patriotism and nationalism, patriotism breeds nationalism.

By enforcing an unnecessary and unhealthy idea that people of one nation are different from those of another, we generate tension between countries, which leads to a sense of hatred from disenchanted individuals. This results in extremist behaviour, and accelerates global conflicts. Conclusion . Henry W Longfellow. In your conclusion, you should pick a side, and then summarise the points that you have made for virgin atlantic this side. Henry W Longfellow. Just as in the essay, it is a good idea to acknowledge the virgin atlantic seats, other side of the henry, argument or one particular key facet of this side; before dismissing it with a strong counter argument. Make sure you clearly define the side that you have chosen, and the reasons that you have done this.

This question requires you to examine the question of whether schools should have a uniform for their students. That is to say, a uniform which marks them out as being a student of the Essay, school/college/organisation. In order to answer this question, you should consider the following points. Firstly, you should look at the positive and negative elements that having an w longfellow established uniform can bring. Secondly, you should look at whitakers chocolates ltd, whether a uniform becomes obsolete at a certain age, i.e. in school but not in sixth form. Introduction . In your introduction to this essay, you should state where you stand on henry w longfellow, the issue of schools having a uniform. You can use brief and overarching examples, i.e. I believe that this is the case, largely for socio-developmental reasons. Whitakers. You can include assumptions that you expect to make, provided you support them in your essay, and then look at henry w longfellow, whether you believe there is a particular age at which a uniform loses its value.

For . In order to of Venice argue that schools should have a uniform, there are a number of points you could make: -Firstly, you could argue that having a uniform encourages discipline. Just as you would set rules for children to abide by, in order to encourage order, you would set out a uniform as a code of conduct. -Secondly, you could argue that children don't have the maturity to choose clothing that is appropriate for the school environment. They are at a rebellious age, particularly in their teens, and giving them the choice of what to wear to w longfellow school could have negative consequences. -Thirdly, it could be argued that allowing children to wear their own clothes to school will detract from their learning. Gothic In Frankenstein. Schoolkids and teenagers are at a vulnerable age, where they should be focusing on their education. Allowing them to wear their own clothes gives them another thing to think and worry about. -Finally, you could argue that by having a uniform, schools reduce the chances of bullying. Schoolchildren are competitive, and there is a danger that certain individuals will be singled out for henry their choice of clothing, leading to conflict and distress. Against . In order to argue against school uniforms, there are a number of points you could make:

-Primarily, you could argue that we should be encouraging children and teenagers to express their individuality. Their choice of elements, clothing is a fantastic way to do this, and is a key form of expressionism. People are unique, and w longfellow, shouldn't be grouped together in a communist fashion. -You could argue that having a uniform is actually more distracting than not having one, as having a uniform involves sometimes complex rules of hilton hotel mission statement, formality; i.e. keep your shirt buttoned up to this area, keep your socks this high, that can distract from their learning. Allowing children to wear a relaxed and comfortable choice of clothing will have positive effects in the long run. Counter . To add to the above, you could also incorporate a discussion about whether schools should have a dress code, as a pose to a uniform. This would be a more relaxed code of dress, which allowed children to wear their own clothes, whilst still keeping to a set of ground rules i.e. no offensive t-shirts, skirts above knee height, etc. If you are in favour of henry, having a uniform, you could also discuss at what age you believe the need for a uniform becomes obsolete or loses its value. Conclusion . To conclude your essay, you should state clearly which side you are on, using the points made in your essay to back this up.

You should also summarise any other arguments that you have made in the essay, for example on whether schools should have a more relaxed dress code instead of a uniform. For more sample essay questions and answers, make sure you purchase our comprehensive guide! Law National Admissions Test: Essay Questions. This fantastic guide has been created by Richard McMunn, an expert within the virgin atlantic premium economy seats, industry. His top tips will provide you with all of the knowledge you need in order to henry ace the essay section of the whitakers chocolates, LNAT. Absolutely rammed with incredible advice on w longfellow, the second section of the exam; this book contains over 20 sample essay questions and answers, along with detailed tips on everything from registration to paying your LNAT fees. Whitakers Ltd. This truly is the henry w longfellow, ULTIMATE guide available, to passing the Law National Admissions Test. A comprehensive overview of what the LNAT essay section entails, and how it is The Merchant, used to assess law candidates. Top tips on how to prepare for w longfellow the LNAT essay questions, including the best newspapers to premium read!

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