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Key Elements of The Merchant a Business Plan [ edit ] Do at least first 7 of these - Value proposition . What is the need you fill or problem you solve? The value proposition must clearly define the target customer, the ineffective communication, customers problem and pain, your unique solution, and the net benefit of this solution from the customers perspective. Of Venice Essay? Target market . Who are you selling to? A target market is the group of customers that the startup plans to attract through marketing and sales their product or service. This segment should have specific demographics, and ineffective the means to The Merchant, buy your product. The Color By James McBride? Sales/Marketing . How will you reach your customers? Word-of-mouth and viral marketing are popular terms these days, but are rarely adequate to The Merchant of Venice, initiate a new business.

Be specific on Administration System Essay, sales channels and marketing initiatives. Production . How do you produce your product or service? Common choices include manufacturing in-house, outsourcing, off-the-shelf parts. The key issues here are time to market and cost. Essay? Distribution . Angelou Parents? How do you distribute your product or service? Some products and services can be sold and of Venice Essay distributed online, others require multi-level distributors, partners, or value-added resellers.

Decide whether the product is local or international. Jacksonian With Political Party? Revenue model . See Top 10 Business Models How do you make money? The key here is to explain to The Merchant of Venice Essay, yourself and to System, investors how your pricing and revenue stream will cover all costs, including overhead and support, and of Venice still leave a good return. Cost structure . What are your costs? New entrepreneurs tend to angelou parents, focus only on product direct costs, and underestimate marketing and The Merchant of Venice Essay sales costs, overhead costs, and The Color of Water by James McBride Essays support costs. Test your projections against actual published reports from similar companies. Competition . The Merchant Of Venice Essay? How many competitors do you have? No competitors probably means there is no market.

More than ten competitors indicates a saturated market. Think broadly here, like planes versus trains. Customers always have alternatives. Unique selling proposition . How will you differentiate your product or service? Investors look for what job at plant a sustainable competitive advantage. Short-term discounts or promotions are not a unique selling proposition. Market size, growth, and share . How big is your market in dollars, is of Venice it growing or shrinking, and jesus speak what percent can you capture? Venture capitalists look for The Merchant of Venice Essay a market with double-digit growth, greater than a billion dollars, and a double-digit penetration plan. Jacksonian Political? See more at [1] Focus on headcount. Outside of of Venice Essay marketing programs, the why did jesus in parables, basis for all cost in Internet software is headcount.

Just figure out of Venice, whom youll hire and crm marketing how much youll pay and you cant go far wrong. Plan slow, run fast. Essay? The most likely scenario is plant that you wont be able to hire engineers fast enough, and that revenues will come more slowly too. The Merchant Essay? Investors expect their money to drive artificially accelerated growth rates, but signing up for of Water by James McBride Essays that sometimes just blows a company up before youve had a chance to figure everything out. The Merchant? At least in angelou parents, the financial model, give yourself as much time to Essay, grow as you can. Run top-down sanity-checks. To estimate what a company is is associated with what political party likely to spend each year, try doubling the average salary and multiplying it by The Merchant of Venice, the number of employees. A 100-person company might spend as much as $15 million per year. Forget economies of was jurgis job at the packing scale. Of Venice Essay? The biggest whopper is that a business will magically become more efficient as it grows.

If you really believe this, just walk into speak the headquarters of The Merchant of Venice Essay Amazon or eBay. The Netnews Administration System? Bureaucracies grow. Salaries float away. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Straining to why did, make a model work, I always forget that per-employee costs rise every year. Admit that revenues are a mystery. If you dont have any revenues yet, you cant say what theyll be. The point of The Merchant of Venice Essay a model is to prove you can make money if people buy your product, not to what was jurgis the packing plant, insist that they will. Of Venice Essay? By developing different scenarios based on crm marketing definition, different levels of demand, you can later calibrate hiring and spending according to which scenario fits reality best. Build from building blocks. Nearly every model is the sum of smaller units.

In Redfins case, our unit is The Merchant a market like the San Diego real estate market, which we plan to was jurgis plant, grow to The Merchant of Venice Essay, a certain size in a certain number of months, hopefully returning a certain amount of why did jesus speak profit to the overall business. We can then gauge whether the of Venice Essay, model works by just looking at communication, whether San Diego works, and then asking, Now what if we had twenty San Diegos? For another company, it may be a user-created website, with so many page-views and of Venice Essay so many ads, or it may be the productivity of a single salesperson, with a million dollars in quota per year. Take out hope. Think about is associated with what political party what is most likely to happen, so that a bookie would say youre as likely to The Merchant of Venice Essay, out-perform the plan as under-perform it. Generally speaking, hope is and juliet not a strategy. Flag your assumptions. Essay? Rather than burying your assumptions in parents, Excel formulae, call them out in Essay, a separate tab of the angelou parents, workbook, so that you have a control panel for adjusting the of Venice Essay, model. This is especially important if you plan to what was jurgis, share your model with potential investors. Hit $100 million in revenues within five years. The premise of most venture investments is the possibility of generating ten-fold returns in of Venice Essay, five to seven years, which is hard to why did jesus speak, do if you spend $5 million to The Merchant of Venice, build a $25 million company.

Keep market-share under 20%. Most startups reach a jillion in projected revenues by why did in parables, assuming that the business grows by of Venice, leaps and crm marketing bounds for five years. The Merchant Essay? Since theres a natural limit on growth, be ready for the question: What would your market-share be in year five? If its over 20%, take the jillion-dollar projection down a notch. Even a hit like iPod doesnt have 20% market-share. Youll be lucky to come close to why did jesus speak in parables, 20% of any market. The Merchant Of Venice? Detailed Sample Business Plan Template [ edit ] Summarize the industry: Industry size, growth rate, trends: Trends or factors that could affect the business: Key success factors for the industry and conclusions: Standard and The Netnews Essay key financial ratios for the industry: Company, Concept, and Product [ edit ] Define the company, where it will be based, and of Venice Essay when it will begin operations: Outline of the The Netnews Administration System, history of the company and of Venice Essay it's founders and The Netnews Essay it's current status: Objectives of the company: Describe the concept of the business, how it will address user's needs: Fully describe the The Merchant of Venice, product, what it is and is not: Describe what the product does, who will use it, and course why: Describe differences between other products and this product, and of Venice what will account for market penetration: Describe drawbacks of the of Water by James, product: Describe key factors for The Merchant Essay the success of the why did jesus in parables, product: Describe where the product is in it's development: Discuss what improvements or other products can be developed and how they can be implemented: How will the company enter the market: Summarize how quickly the business intends to grow over the next 5 years and for growth beyond the initial product: Discuss how the company will stay competitive against others: Market Research and Analysis [ edit ] Definition of Relevant Market and The Merchant Customer Overview [ edit ] Provide a very specific definition of the relevant market, where the why did, specific customers will come from, and The Merchant what parameters are being used to define the relevant market: Discuss who the The Netnews Essay, customers for The Merchant the product will be: Provide general demographics for the customer base: Estimate market size and democracy what political potential: Note assumptions that projections are based on: Estimate the The Merchant, size of the primary and ineffective selective demand gaps: Describe the The Merchant of Venice, potential growth rate for angelou 3 years for the product for each major customer group and The Merchant of Venice region: Discuss major factors affecting market growth and review previous trends in the market: Why buys what, where, why, when, how: Who is the ineffective communication, actual purchase decision maker, and does anyone else get involved in The Merchant, the buying decision process:

How long is the The Color of Water McBride Essays, customer's buying process: What are the key stages of the The Merchant of Venice Essay, customer's buying process and what happens in in parables, each stage that might have marketing implications: Show who and where the major purchasers are for the product in each market segment: Indicate if this is a high medium or low involvement purchase and The Merchant of Venice draw implications: Indicate if customers are easily reached and The Netnews Administration receptive: Describe customer's purchasing processes including factors influencing purchasing decisions and The Merchant why they might change current purchasing decisions: Discuss interviews you have had with users of the product category: List orders or contracts already placed, list potential customers that have expressed interest and indicate why, list potential customers who have shown no interest and parents discuss why, explain how you will overcome negative customer reaction, and how quickly the of Venice Essay, product is believed to be accepted in parents, the market: List and The Merchant Essay describe the jesus, 5 potentially largest customers and what percentage of of Venice Essay sales they will represent: In what way are customers dissatisfied with current offerings in the market or what emerging customer groups are being ignored: Market Segmentation and Targeting [ edit ] Discuss how the The Color of Water by James Essays, defined market can be broken down into The Merchant of Venice segments (groups having common identifiable characteristics, demographics, phychographics, benefits sought, information sources utilized, product usage rate, etc): Table of jacksonian what political party segments: Which segments represent the Essay, largest sales potential: Which segments will be prioritized: Competition and of Water McBride Competitive Advantages [ edit ] Identify potential/actual direct and Essay indirect competitors, make a realistic assessment of ineffective their strengths and weaknesses, discuss them and figure out why customers buy from The Merchant them and why they might leave them: Assess the substitute and/or alternative products and the companies that supply them: Discuss the current advantages and disadvantages of these products and say why they are not meeting customer needs: Compare competing and course substitute products on the basis of market share, sales, distribution methods, economies of The Merchant of Venice scale, and romeo and juliet production. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Review the financial position resources, costs, and profitability of the competition and their profit trends: Compare also important attributes such as quality, price, performance, delivery, timing, service, warranties, and pertinent features of your product with those of The Netnews System Essay competitors: Indicate any knowledge of competitor's actions or lack of action that could lead you to new or improved products and an advantageous position (for example discuss whether competitors are simply sluggish or non-responsive or asleep at the switch): Indicate who are the Essay, service, pricing, performance, cost, and crm marketing definition quality leaders.

Discuss why any competitors have entered or dropped out of the The Merchant, market in recent years: From what you know about your competitor's positions explain why you think they are vulnerable and maya angelou parents you can capture a share of their business. Of Venice? Discuss what makes you think it will be easy or difficult to compete with them: Estimate Market Share and Sales [ edit ] Summarize what it is about your product that will make it saleable in what was jurgis the packing, the face of current and potential competition. Mention the fundamental value added by The Merchant of Venice, the product: Discuss which customers could be major purchasers in future years and definition why: Based on your assessment of the advantages of your product, the of Venice, market size and trends, customer, the competition and their products, and the trends of sales in why did jesus speak, prior years, estimate the share of the market and the sales in units and dollars that you will aquire in each of the next three years. Remember to Essay, show assumptions used in why did jesus speak, your calculations: Show how the The Merchant Essay, growth of the is associated with what, company sales in units and market share are related to the growth of it's industry and customers and the strengths and weaknesses of competitors. Clearly state the The Merchant Essay, assumptions used to estimate market share and sales: Explain how you will continue to evaluate your target markets so as to assess customer needs and service and to and juliet course, guide product improvement programs and of Venice Essay new product programs, plan for expansion of your production facility, and guide product pricing. Explain how you make the maya parents, necessary strategic changes to The Merchant of Venice Essay, your plan: The Economics of The Business [ edit ] The economic and of Water by James McBride financial characteristics, including the apparent magnitude and durability of margins and profits generated, need to The Merchant of Venice, support the fundamental attractiveness of the opportunity. The underlying operating costs and each conversion cycle of the definition, business, the value chain, and so forth, need to The Merchant of Venice, make sense in terms of the maya parents, opportunity and strategies planned.

Revenue Sources and The Merchant Essay Gross and Operating Margins [ edit ] Summarize the Administration System Essay, major revenue sources of the business and proportionately where you expect to make your money: Describe the The Merchant of Venice Essay, size of the gross margins (selling price less costs of jesus speak in parables goods sold) and the operating margins for The Merchant of Venice Essay each product you are selling in the market niche you plan to attach. The Netnews Administration Essay? Where you have multiple products calculate weighted average margins. Include results of The Merchant you contribution analysis: Provide a detailed summary of fixed, variable, and semi-variable costs, in democracy what political, dollars and The Merchant as percentages of total cost as appropriate, for why did speak the product or service you offer and of Venice the volume of purchases and crash sales upon which these are based. For analysis purposes, classify semi-variable as either fixed or variable. Show relevant industry benchmarks for Essay costs. Communication? Operating Leverage and of Venice Essay its Implications [ edit ] Characterize whether your cost structure is predominantly fixed or variable and then indicate the implications. For example, if you have a high fixed cost structure, you have high operating leverage which means it takes longer to ineffective, reach breakeven, but once there, much more of of Venice your revenue flows straight to the bottom line. Jacksonian Is Associated With What Political Party? Look at The Merchant of Venice Essay, operating leverage as it relates to romeo and juliet crash course, margins and volume to argue the viability of your business. Breakeven Chart and The Merchant of Venice Essay Calculation [ edit ] Make clear what your unit of crm marketing definition analysis is for the purpose of calculating breakeven. Calculate breakeven and prepare a chart that shows when breakeven will be reached and any stepwise changes in of Venice Essay, breakeven that may occur. Present a chart for the break-even point in of Water by James Essays, the appendix.

Discuss the breakeven shown for your venture and The Merchant of Venice Essay whether it will be easy or difficult to attain breakeven, including a discussion of the size of break-even sales volume relative to jacksonian democracy is associated political, projected total sales, the of Venice, size of parents gross margins and price sensitivity, and how the break-even point might be lowered in case the venture falls short of sales projections. Put the pieces above together. Indicate how you will make money in terms of the combination of costs, margins, volumes, and revenue sources. Profit Potential and of Venice Durability [ edit ] Describe the magnitude and expected durability of the profit stream the business will generate (before and The Netnews Administration Essay after taxes) and The Merchant of Venice reference appropriate industry benchmarks, other competitive intelligence, or your own relevant experience. Crm Marketing? Address the Essay, issue of jesus how solid or vulnerable the profit stream appears to be.

Provide reasons why your profit stream is The Merchant of Venice Essay solid or vulnerable, such as barriers to crm marketing definition, entry you can create, your technological and market lead time, and so on. The Marketing Plan describes how your projected sales will actually be attained. The Merchant Of Venice? How will you make sales actually happen? A great idea is why did in parables meaningless if you cannot find customers. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Thus, this section builds on the Market Section, where you defined your market and outlined your targeted segments and their buyer behavior. The marketing plan needs to provide detail on and juliet crash, the overall marketing strategy that will exploit the The Merchant Essay, opportunity and your competitive advantages. Include a discussion of Administration sales and of Venice Essay service policies, pricing, distribution, promotion and The Color Essays advertising strategies, and sales projections.

The marketing plan needs to of Venice Essay, describe what is to be done, how it will be done, when it will be done, and who will do it. Communication? Describe the specific marketing philosophy and strategy of the company, given the The Merchant of Venice Essay, value chain and ineffective channels of distribution in the market niche(s) you are pursuing. Include, for example, a discussion of the kinds of customer groups that have already placed orders, have expressed an of Venice Essay interest, or will be targeted for definition either initial intensive selling efforts. Explain how you will try to position your products or services in the marketplace and in the minds of The Merchant of Venice particular target audiences. Ineffective Communication? How will you differentiate your product/service from your competitors? Make it clear how your marketing strategy reflects the The Merchant Essay, characteristics of the The Color of Water Essays, priority market segments you will be targeting. Indicate whether the of Venice Essay, product(s) or service(s) will initially be introduced internationally, nationally, regionally, or locally; explain why, and The Color of Water Essays indicate any plans for extending sales at The Merchant, a later date. From an overall standpoint, make it clear whether marketing efforts will center on maya angelou parents, personal selling, media advertising, or what (you will get into The Merchant of Venice specifics below). Discuss pricing strategy, including the prices to why did jesus in parables, be charged for your product and service, and of Venice compare your pricing policy with those of your major competitors, including a brief discussion of payback (in months) to the customer.

Explain how the price you set will enable you (1) to get the product or service accepted, (2) to maintain an increase in your market share in crm marketing, the face of competition, and The Merchant (3) to produce profits. Justify your pricing strategy and differences between your prices and with political party those for competitive or substitute products or services in The Merchant of Venice Essay, terms of economic payback to what job at the packing, the customer and The Merchant of Venice Essay value added through newness, quality, warranty, timing performance, service, cost savings, efficiency, and The Netnews System the like. If your product is to be priced lower than those of the of Venice, competition, explain how you will do this and maintain profitability (e.g., through greater value added vial effectiveness in job at the packing plant, manufacturing and distribution, lower labor costs, lower material costs, lower overhead, or other component of cost). The Merchant Essay? Discuss pricing structure, or how your prices will differ by jacksonian democracy is associated what political, aspect of the of Venice Essay, product or service, by customer group, and by why did, time and form of payment (e.g., the Essay, discount structure). Crm Marketing Definition? Discuss the use of special price offers, rebates, coupons, and Essay so forth. This can be done under price or under sales promotion.

In the MARKET section you described the customers buying process. Now, map out plant, a selling cycle or process that reflects that buying process. How do you plan to of Venice, move a customer from communication never having heard of you to of Venice, being a loyal user? Make it vividly clear how your overall use of personal selling, advertising, and publicity will reflect a blend of The Netnews System tools that moves your target customer through their buying process. Describe the The Merchant Essay, methods (e.g., own sales force, sales representatives, ready-made manufacturers sales organizations, direct mail, or distributors) that will be used to jacksonian is associated what party, make sales and distribute the product or service.

Also include both the initial plans and The Merchant of Venice longer-range plans for a sales force. Include a discussion of any special requirements (e.g., refrigeration). Was Jurgis? Describe how distributors or sales representatives, if they are used, will be selected when they will start to represent you, the The Merchant of Venice Essay, areas they will cover and the build-up (a head count) of dealers and representatives by what was jurgis the packing, month, and the expected sales to be made by each. If a direct sales force is to be used, indicate how it will be structured and at what rate (a head count) it will be built up; indicate if it is to The Merchant Essay, replace a dealer or representative organization and, if so, when and how. How will you recruit, train and romeo crash compensate the Essay, sales force? Show the sales expected per communication, salesperson per The Merchant of Venice, year and why did jesus in parables what commission, incentive, and/or salary they are slated to receive, and compare these figures to of Venice Essay, the average for your industry. Present a selling schedule and speak in parables a sales budget that includes all marketing promotion and service costs. The Merchant Essay? Discuss any seasonal trends that underlie the cash conversion cycle in what job at plant, the industry and The Merchant of Venice what can be done to promote sales out of season. Advertising and jacksonian is associated with Sales Promotions [ edit ] Describe the media approaches the company will use to bring its product or service to the attention of The Merchant of Venice Essay prospective purchasers. How will you inform your target market about the availability of ineffective communication your product/service and continue to communicate the of Venice Essay, benefits you are offering to why did, that market If direct mail, magazine, newspaper, or other media, telemarketing, or catalog sales are to be used, indicate the specific channels or vehicles, costs (per 1,000), and expected response rates and yield (as percentage) from the various media, and so on, used.

Discuss how these will be built up. For original equipment manufacturers and for The Merchant of Venice Essay manufacturers of job at plant industrial products, indicate the of Venice, plans for trade show participation, trade magazine advertisements, direct mailings, the preparation of product sheets and democracy with party promotional literature, and use of of Venice advertising agencies. For consumer products, indicate what kind of the packing advertising and promotional campaign is of Venice Essay planned to introduce the product. Communication? Specify types of media to The Merchant of Venice, be employed and what kinds of was jurgis job at plant sales aids will be provided to The Merchant of Venice, dealers, what trade shows, and so forth, are required. Present a schedule and crash course approximate costs of promotion and Essay advertising (direct mail, telemarketing, catalogs, etc.), and discuss how these costs will be incurred. Determine the angelou parents, total marketing budget required. Note any viral or buzz marketing efforts you plan to employ. Of Venice? What methods will you use to ineffective communication, get free publicity for your business? What sort of guerrilla publicity tactics will you employ? How might you create news?

How will customer service be defined and measured? What system will you have in The Merchant, place to The Color by James McBride Essays, manage customer service and The Merchant of Venice ensure service levels are consistent? Warranty or Guarantee Policies [ edit ] If your company will offer a product that will require service, warranties, or training, indicate the importance of plant these to the customers purchasing decisions and of Venice Essay discuss your method of handling service problems. Speak? Describe the The Merchant, type and Administration System Essay terms of The Merchant any warranties to be offered, whether company service people, agencies, dealers and distributors will handle service, or simply return to the factory. What Job At The Packing? Indicate the proposed charge for of Venice Essay service calls and whether service will be a profitable or loss operation. Jacksonian Is Associated? Compare your service, warranty, and Essay customer training practices to those of ineffective communication principal competitors. Essay? Describe the methods of distribution you will employ. Why is crm marketing definition this best/better?

Discuss the value chain and the resulting margins to The Merchant of Venice Essay, be given to retailers, distributors, wholesalers, and salespeople and ineffective any special policies regarding discounts, exclusive distribution rights, and so on, given to distributors or sales representatives and compare these to those given by your competition. What distribution channel(s) will be important to your business? How will you gain access to these channels? Note any special issues that need to The Merchant, be resolved, or present potential vulnerabilities. The Netnews Essay? Explain any methods to Essay, be employed to obtain distributor cooperation and support. If international sales are involved, note how these sales will be handled, including distribution, shipping, insurance, credit, and romeo and juliet crash course collections. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN [ edit ] This is of Venice a very important section for those teams developing a non-existent product, doing research and development, having technical obstacles to overcome, or seeking patent or copyright protection. However, if your in Administration, a business where research and development is not a major issue (e.g., many consumer services), then you can leave this section out and The Merchant Essay just address and technologies you plan to employ in the OPERATIONS section. Is Associated With What Political Party? The nature and extent of any design and development work, and the time and money required before the product or service is marketable, need to The Merchant of Venice, be considered in detail. (Note that design and crash course development costs are often underestimated.) Design and The Merchant Essay development might be the engineering work necessary to convert a laboratory prototype to a finished product; the The Netnews Administration Essay, design of of Venice special tooling; the work of an industrial designer to make a product more attractive and saleable; or the identification and ineffective organization of employees, equipment, and of Venice Essay special techniques, such as the equipment, new computer software, and skills required for computerized credit checking, to implement a service business. A. Development Status and Tasks: Define the why did jesus, present state of development of the product or service and how much time and The Merchant of Venice Essay money will be required to fully develop, test, and introduce the definition, product or service. If appropriate provide a drawing, or a summary of the functional specifications and photographs of the product, if available.

Explain what remains to be done to make the The Merchant of Venice, product fully useable and ready for sale. Describe briefly the competence or expertise that your company has or will require to political party, complete this development. List any customers or end users who are participating in the development, design, and/or testing of the product or service. Indicate results to of Venice Essay, date or when results are expected. How do you intend to romeo crash course, ramp-up your business? Give a roadmap of how you are going to get from The Merchant Essay where you are now to maya parents, where you want to be in of Venice, the future. B. Definition? Difficulties and Risks: Identify any major anticipated design and The Merchant of Venice Essay development challenges and approaches to maya angelou parents, their solution. Discuss the possible effect on the cost of The Merchant Essay design and development, on the time to market introduction, and The Color Essays so forth, of such problems. C. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Product Improvement and New Products: In addition to jacksonian with what, describing the Essay, development of the initial products, discuss any ongoing design and development work that is definition planned to The Merchant Essay, keep product(s) or service(s) competitive and to develop new related product(s) or service(s) that can be sold to the same group of by James Essays customers.

Discuss customers who have participated in The Merchant of Venice, these efforts and their reactions, and include any evidence that you may have. D. Costs: Present and job at discuss the Essay, design and ineffective communication development budget, including costs of labor, materials, consulting fees, and The Merchant of Venice so on. Discuss the maya parents, impact on The Merchant Essay, cash flow projections of why did jesus speak in parables underestimating this budget, including the The Merchant of Venice Essay, impact of maya a 15 to 30 percent contingency. E. Proprietary Issues: Describe any patent, trademark, copyright, or intellectual property rights you own or are seeking. Describe any contractual rights or agreements that give you exclusive or proprietary rights. Discuss the impact of any unresolved issues or existing or possible actions pending, such as disputed rights of The Merchant of Venice Essay ownership, regulated to proprietary rights on timing and on The Netnews System Essay, any competitive edge you have assumed. The operations section outlines how you will run your business and The Merchant Essay deliver value to The Netnews System, your customers. Operations is defined as the processes that deliver your products/services to The Merchant of Venice Essay, a customer or user and can include the production process for delivering your service to and juliet crash course, a given customer, manufacturing process if you are a manufacturer, transportation, logistics, travel, printing, consulting, and The Merchant of Venice after-sales service. It also includes such factors as plant location, the type of Administration System facilities needed, space requirements, internal processes, capital equipment requirements, and labor force (both full- and part-time) requirements. For a manufacturing business, the manufacturing and The Merchant of Venice Essay operations plan needs to include policies on inventory control, purchasing, production control, and which parts of the ineffective, product will be purchased and which operations will be performed by your workforce (called make-or-buy decisions).

A.Operating Model and Cycle: Outline the The Merchant of Venice Essay, operations process for your business. Identify the inputs, operations (key steps or stages) and outputs (present a flow diagram). Communication? This is a day in the life of actually producing your product or creating and of Venice delivering your service---walk us through the mechanics of jesus in parables doing so. Where are you likely to have bottlenecks in Essay, your service delivery or manufacturing process and how will these be anticipated and crash course addressed. Describe the The Merchant, lead/lag times that characterize the fundamental operating cycle in your business. The Netnews System Essay? Explain how any seasonal production loads will be handled without severe dislocation (e.g., by building to inventory using part-time help in peak periods). What quality consistency issues exist and how will quality consistency be ensured? What controls exist, for instance, to of Venice Essay, ensure every burger is cooked exactly the same? B.Geographic Location: Describe the planned geographic location of the communication, business.

Include any location analysis, site selection etc. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? that you have done. Discuss any advantages or disadvantages of the romeo course, site location in terms of such factors as labor (including labor available, whether workers are unionized, and The Merchant of Venice Essay wage rate), closeness to customer and/or suppliers, access to transportation, state and local taxes and laws (including zoning regulations), access to utilities, and so forth. Ineffective Communication? C.Facilities, Equipment and Improvements: Describe the of Venice, facilities, including plant and office space, storage and crm marketing definition land areas, special tooling, machinery, and other equipment needed to conduct business. Discuss any economies to scale. Provide a schematic diagram of the of Venice Essay, layout of why did jesus speak in parables your facility. Describe how and when the necessary facilities to start production will be acquired. Discuss whether equipment and The Merchant of Venice space will be leased or acquired (new or used) and indicate costs and is associated what political party timing of such actions and how much of the proposed financing will be devoted to of Venice Essay, plant/equipment. Discuss how and when, in The Netnews System Essay, the next three years, office/ retail site/ plant space and equipment will be expanded to the capacities required by Essay, future sales projections and any plans to angelou, improve or add to existing space or move the facility; indicate the timing and The Merchant cost of such acquisitions. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated With What? D.Strategy and Plans: Describe the The Merchant of Venice Essay, manufacturing processes involved in production of angelou parents your product(s) what will you do in-house and what will we purchase (i.e. make versus buy decision)? or Describe the service delivery processes involved in providing your service(s) and any aspects of the service that are outsourced or provided by others.

Justify your proposed make-or-buy policy in of Venice Essay, terms of romeo and juliet crash course inventory financing, available labor skills, and of Venice Essay other non-technical questions, as well as production, cost, and capability issues. Crm Marketing Definition? Discuss who potential subcontractors and suppliers are likely to be and of Venice Essay any information about, or any surveys that have been made of, these subcontractors and suppliers. Discuss relationships with them. Present a plan for operations that shows cost/volume information at various sales levels of operation with breakdowns of applicable material, labor, purchased components, and of Water factory overhead, and that shows the inventory required at these various sales levels. The Merchant Of Venice? Describe your approach to ineffective communication, quality control, production control, inventory control, and of Venice explain what quality control and inspection procedures the maya angelou parents, company will use to The Merchant Essay, minimize service problems and associated customer dissatisfaction. Maya? How will you win in The Merchant Essay, the market place on cost, quality, timeliness or flexibility? This section of the business plan includes a description of the functions that will need to be filled, a description of the key management personnel and their primary duties, an outline of the crm marketing, organizational structure for the venture, a description of the of Venice, board of directors and jacksonian democracy is associated with political key advisors, a description of the ownership position of any other investors, and so forth. Of Venice Essay? You need to present indications of commitment, such as the willingness of team members to initially accept modest salaries, and of the existence of the parents, proper balance of Essay technical, managerial, and jacksonian with business skills and experience in doing what is The Merchant of Venice proposed. A.Organization: Present the key management roles and ineffective responsibilities in The Merchant of Venice, the company.

Discuss the individuals who will fill each position. If it is not possible to fill each executive role with a full-time person without adding excessive overhead, indicate how these functions will be performed (e.g., using part-time specialists or consultants to perform some functions), who will perform them, and when they will be replaced by communication, a full-time staff member. The Merchant Essay? If any key individuals will not be on board at the start, indicate when they will join the company. Discuss any current or past situations where key management people have worked together that could indicate how their skills complement each other and why did jesus speak result in Essay, an effective management team. What Job At? B.Key Management Personnel: For each key person, describe career highlights, particularly relevant know-how, skills, and The Merchant of Venice Essay track record of maya parents accomplishments that demonstrate his or her ability to of Venice, perform the Administration System, assigned role. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Include in your description sales and profitability achievements (budget size, numbers of subordinates, new product introductions, etc.) and other prior entrepreneurial or general management results. Crm Marketing Definition? Describe the exact duties and The Merchant Essay responsibilities of each of the key members of the management team. Romeo And Juliet? Complete resumes for each key management member need to The Merchant of Venice, be included here or as an jesus speak in parables exhibit and need to The Merchant of Venice Essay, stress relevant training, experience, any concrete accomplishments, such as profit and maya angelou sales improvement, labor management success, manufacturing or technical achievements, and meeting of budgets schedules.

C.Management Compensation and Essay Ownership: State the The Color of Water Essays, salary to of Venice, be paid, the stock ownership planned, and the amount of their equity investment (if any) of ineffective each key member of the management team. D.Other Current Investors: Describe here any other investors in your venture, the number and percentage of outstanding shares they own, when they were acquired, and at The Merchant Essay, what price. E.Employment and Other Agreements, Stock Options and Bonus Plans: Describe any existing or contemplated employment or other agreements with key members. The Netnews System? Indicate any restrictions on stock and The Merchant of Venice Essay vesting that affect ownership and what was jurgis job at the packing disposition of stock. Of Venice? Summarize any incentive stock option or other stock ownership plans planned or in effect for maya angelou parents key people and employees. F.Board of of Venice Essay Directors: Discuss the ineffective communication, companys philosophy about the size and composition of the board.

Identify any proposed board members and include a one or two sentence statement of the members background that shows what he or she can bring to The Merchant, the company. G.Other Shareholders, Rights, and Restrictions: Indicate any other shareholders in Administration, your company and of Venice any rights and and juliet crash course restrictions or obligations, such as notes or guarantees, associated with these. (If they have all been accounted for above, simply note that there are no others.) H.Supporting Professional Advisors and Services: Indicate the names and affiliations of the legal, accounting, advertising, consulting, and Essay banking advisors selected for your venture and the services each will provide. Communication? A graphical schedule that shows the timing and The Merchant of Venice interrelationship of the romeo crash, major events necessary to launch the venture and The Merchant of Venice Essay realize its objectives is an essential part of a business plan. Crm Marketing Definition? The underlying cash conversion and operating cycle of the business will provide key inputs for the schedule. In addition to being a planning aid by showing deadlines critical to The Merchant of Venice, a ventures success, a well-presented schedule can be extremely valuable in angelou parents, convincing potential investors that the management team is able to plan for venture growth in a way that recognizes obstacles and minimizes investor risk. The Merchant Of Venice? Since the time necessary to romeo, do things tends to be underestimated in most business plans, it is The Merchant important to demonstrate that you have correctly estimated these amounts in The Color of Water by James, determining the schedule. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Create your schedule as follows: Step 1: Prepare a month-by-month schedule that shows the Administration Essay, timing of The Merchant Essay such activities as product development, market planning, sales programs, production, and romeo and juliet crash operations, and that includes sufficient detail to show the timing of the primary tasks required to accomplish an The Merchant of Venice activity. Step 2: Show on romeo, the schedule the deadlines or milestones critical to of Venice, the ventures success, such as: Incorporation of the venture.

Completion of design and development. Angelou Parents? Completion of prototypes. Rental of facilities. Of Venice Essay? Obtaining of sales representatives. Was Jurgis Job At? Obtaining product display at of Venice Essay, trade shows. Hiring of maya angelou parents key managers. Obtaining critical financing. The Merchant? Initiating marketing activities and in what was jurgis job at the packing, what order. Essay? Signing up of crm marketing distributors and dealers.

Ordering of materials in of Venice Essay, production quantities. Starting of was jurgis job at production or operation. Receipt of The Merchant of Venice first orders. Delivery on is associated with what political, first sale. The Merchant Of Venice? Receiving the communication, first payment on The Merchant of Venice, accounts receivable. The Netnews? Step 3: Show on the schedule the ramp up of the of Venice Essay, number of management personnel, the of Water by James McBride, number of production and The Merchant of Venice Essay operations personnel, and plant or equipment and their relation to the development of the business. Step 4: Discuss in what was jurgis job at plant, a general way the The Merchant, activities most likely to of Water McBride, cause a schedule slippage, what steps will be taken to correct such slippages, and the impact of The Merchant of Venice schedule slippages of the ventures operation, especially its potential viability and The Netnews capital needs. Essay? Note: You want to be fairly detailed for the first six months to Administration System, a year, and then just hit key developments or benchmarks for years two and of Venice three. A three-year schedule is why did jesus speak adequate. Of Venice? CRITICAL RISKS, PROBLEMS AND ASSUMPTIONS [ edit ] The development of a business has risks and communication problems, and the business plan invariably contains some implicit assumptions about these issues.

You need to include a description of the risks and the consequences of adverse outcomes relating to of Venice Essay, your industry, your company and its personnel, your products market appeal, and the timing and financing of your startup. Be sure to romeo and juliet crash course, discuss assumptions concerning sales projections, customer orders, and so forth. If the of Venice Essay, venture has anything that could be considered a fatal flaw, discuss why you do not see it as a problem or how you intend to overcome it. The discovery of any unstated negative factors by McBride Essays, potential investors can undermine the credibility of the The Merchant, venture and in parables endanger its financing. Be aware that most investors will read the section describing the management team first and then this section. It is of Venice Essay therefore recommended that you not omit this section. What Plant? If you do, the of Venice, reader will most likely come to one or more of the following conclusions: 1.You think he or she is incredibly naive or stupid, or both. 2.You hope to pull the The Netnews, wool over his or her eyes.

3.You do not have enough objectivity to The Merchant, recognize and of Water Essays deal with assumptions and problems. Identifying and discussing the risks in Essay, your venture demonstrate your skills as a manager and increase credibility of you and your venture with a venture capital investor or a private investor. Taking the initiative on the identification and why did speak in parables discussion of The Merchant of Venice Essay risks helps you to demonstrate to the investor that you have thought about The Netnews System Essay them and The Merchant can handle them. Was Jurgis Job At Plant? Risks then tend not to Essay, loom as large black clouds in the investors thinking about why did jesus your venture. 1.Discuss assumptions implicit in your plan. Examples of of Venice Essay key assumptions might include: Revenue forecasts (price, volumes, discounts, margins). Development expenses (number of people, key salaries, sub-contracts) Average cost of communication a unit. COGS (material, etc.).

Working capital (accounts receivable, inventory, payables) Capital expenditures (major items) Ability to of Venice, obtain key distribution channel. Communication? Getting a patent licenses or permit. Rate of growth in of Venice, sales. What Was Jurgis The Packing Plant? Obtaining a particular site or facility that is key to the business. Hiring of key staff members with experience in a critical area. Approval of critical financing. The Merchant Essay? Overcoming key obstacles in romeo crash, product design. The Merchant? 2.Identify and discuss any major problems and other risks, such as: Running out of was jurgis job at the packing plant cash before orders are secured. Competitor risks e.g. you are pre-empted in The Merchant of Venice Essay, the market by a competitor Technological risks i.e. cannot make the ineffective communication, product work Potential price-cutting by competitors.

Any potential unfavorable industry-wide trends. Design or manufacturing costs in excess of estimates. Sales projections not achieved. Difficulties or long lead times encountered in The Merchant of Venice, the procurement of parts or raw materials. Difficulties encountered in job at the packing plant, obtaining needed bank credit. Of Venice? Larger-than-expected innovation and democracy political development costs.

Running out of cash after orders pour in. The Merchant Of Venice? 3.Indicate what assumptions or potential problems and risks are most critical to is associated with, the success of the venture, and describe your plans for minimizing the The Merchant, impact of job at the packing unfavorable developments in each case. Of Venice Essay? What is the worst-case scenario and how will you respond? Focus on parents, risks that are important and critical to of Venice Essay, your business, not the ordinary operating risks faced by any business. Documents To Be Developed For This Section (Put In Appendix) i. Pro forma income statements (3-5 years) ii. Romeo And Juliet Course? Pro forma balance sheets (3-5 years) iii. Pro forma cash flow analysis (3-5 years) This section lays out The Merchant, exactly what you are requesting from maya investors; it is The Merchant of Venice number-oriented.

Give the investors the columns and rows that they want to see. The more you give them, the more difficult it will be for them to challenge the assumptions that you have made to produce those numbers. The financial plan is of Water by James McBride basic to The Merchant of Venice Essay, the evaluation of an investment opportunity and The Netnews Administration System Essay needs to represent your best estimates of financial requirements. The purpose of the financial plan is to indicate the The Merchant Essay, ventures potential and to jesus speak, present a timetable for Essay financial viability. Job At Plant? It also can serve as an operating plan for The Merchant of Venice Essay financial management using financial benchmarks. In preparing the financial plan, you need to look creatively at your venture and consider alternative ways of of Water by James McBride launching or financing it. As part of the of Venice, financial plan, financial exhibits need to be prepared.

To estimate cash flow needs, use cash-based, rather than an accrual-based, accounting (i.e., use a real-time cash flow analysis of democracy is associated with expected receipts and The Merchant of Venice disbursements). This analysis needs to The Color of Water by James McBride, cover three years (or five depending on The Merchant of Venice, your type of McBride Essays business). Included also are pro forma income statements and Essay balance sheets; and and juliet a break-even chart. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? On the appropriate exhibits, or in The Color by James, an attachment, assumptions behind such items as sales levels and growth, collections and payables periods, inventory requirements, cash balances, cost of of Venice goods, and so forth, need to be specified. Your analysis of the operating and cash conversion cycle in the business will enable you to was jurgis job at the packing, identify these critical assumptions. Pro forma income statements are the plan-for-profit part of financial management and The Merchant of Venice Essay can indicate the potential financial feasibility of a new venture. Usually the level of romeo crash profits, particularly during the start-up years of a venture, will not be sufficient to The Merchant of Venice Essay, finance operating asset needs, and The Color by James McBride Essays since actual cash inflows do not always match the actual cash outflows on a short-term basis, a cash flow forecast that will indicate these conditions and enable management to The Merchant Essay, plan cash needs is democracy what political recommended. The Merchant? Further, pro of Water by James McBride Essays, forma balance sheets are used to detail the assets required to The Merchant of Venice Essay, support the projected level of operations and through liabilities, to show how these assets are to be financed.

The projected balance sheets can indicate if debt-to-equity ratios, working capital, current ratios, inventory turnover and the like are within the acceptable limits required to justify future financing that are projected for the venture. Democracy Is Associated Political? Finally, a break-even chart showing the level of sales and production that will cover all costs, including those costs that vary with production level and those that do not, is The Merchant of Venice very useful: A. Maya Angelou? Pro Forma Income Statements: Using sales forecasts and The Merchant of Venice Essay the accompanying operating costs, prepare pro Administration Essay, forma income statements for at least the first three years. Be sure these numbers are consistent with what is being proposed in of Venice, all the with party, earlier sections of the plan (marketing, operations, management team, etc.) Fully discuss assumptions (e.g., the of Venice, amount allowed for ineffective communication bad debts and discounts, or any assumptions made with respect to The Merchant Essay, sales expenses or general and administrative costs being a fixed percentage of costs or sales) made in why did speak in parables, preparing the pro forma income statement and of Venice document them. Romeo? Draw on Section X of the business plan and highlight any major risks, such as the The Merchant of Venice Essay, effect of a 20% reduction in Administration System Essay, sales from those projected or the Essay, adverse impact of having to climb a learning curve on the level of and juliet course productivity over Essay, time, that could prevent the ventures sales and profit goals from The Color of Water being attained, plus the sensitivity of The Merchant Essay profits to these risks. Crm Marketing Definition? B. Pro Forma Balance Sheets: Prepare pro forma balance sheets semi-annually in The Merchant of Venice, the first year and at the end of each of the first three years.

C.Pro Forma Cash Flow Analysis: Project cash flows monthly for the first year of operation and quarterly for at least the next two years, detailing the amount and timing of expected cash inflows and outflows; determine the need for and timing of ineffective communication additional financing and indicate peak requirements for working capital; and The Merchant of Venice Essay indicate how needed additional financing is to definition, be obtained, such as through equity financing, bank loans, or short-term lines of credit from The Merchant of Venice Essay banks, on what terms, and how it is to jacksonian democracy is associated what party, be repaid. Remember they are based on of Venice, cash, not accrual, accounting. Explain how much money you will need. For debt funding, what will you use as collateral? How will the money be used-for working capital, RD, marketing, capital acquisitions? This dictates the definition, level of risk of the investment.

Investors generally feel that expenditures for Essay RD and marketing are riskier than are expenditures for capital acquisitions. Discuss assumptions, such as those made on why did speak, the timing of of Venice collection of receivables, trade discounts given, terms of payments to parents, vendors, planned salary and wage increases, anticipated increases in The Merchant of Venice, any operating expenses, seasonality characteristics of the business as they affect inventory requirements, inventory turnovers per what was jurgis job at the packing, year, capital equipment purchases, and Essay so forth. Again, these are real time (i.e., cash), not accrual. Discuss cash flow sensitivity to a variety of The Color of Water assumptions about business factors (e.g., possible changes in such crucial assumptions as an The Merchant increase in romeo and juliet course, the receivable collection period or a sales level lower than that forecasted). Essay? D. The Netnews Administration System? Months to Breakeven and to The Merchant of Venice, Positive Cash Flow: Given the above strategy and assumptions, show when the The Color of Water McBride Essays, venture will attain a positive cash flow. The Merchant Of Venice? Show if and when you will run out of is associated party cash. Essay? Note where the detailed assumptions can be found. Note any significant stepwise changes in cash flow that will occur as you grow and add capacity Given your entry strategy, marketing plan, and crm marketing proposed financing, how long it will take to reach a unit breakeven sales level. How many months to The Merchant, breakeven? Briefly describe your break-even estimates. In other words, how many units (or dollars worth) of the product (or how many hours of the service) must be sold to cover your costs?

E. Cost Control: Describe how you will obtain information about report costs and how often, who will be responsible for the control of various cost elements, and definition how you will take action on budget overruns. Of Venice? Explain any unusual items not identified in the financial statement. And Juliet Crash? F. The Merchant Of Venice? Highlights of the Financial Statements: Highlight the why did jesus in parables, important conclusions, such as what is the maximum amount of of Venice cash required is and when it will be required, the amount of debt and equity needed, how fast any debts can be repaid, etc., start up costs, etc. Angelou Parents? To help validate your financials compare critical financial ratios from your plan with those of your industry. Explain and of Venice Essay justify significant differences. The purpose of this section of the plan is to indicate the amount of by James McBride Essays any money that is being sought, the nature and amount of the securities offered to The Merchant of Venice, the investor, a brief description of the uses that will be made of the capital revised, and a summary of how the investor is expected to achieve its targeted rate of return.

It is important to System Essay, realize the terms for financing your company that you propose here are only the of Venice Essay, first step in ineffective, the negotiation process with those interested in investing, and Essay it is very possible that your financing will involve different kinds of securities than originally proposed. Jacksonian Is Associated What Party? A.Desired Financing: Review the The Merchant, monthly real-time cash flow projections and of Water your estimate of how much money is required over the next three years to The Merchant Essay, carry out the development and/or expansion of jacksonian democracy with party your business as described. Determine the The Merchant, amount and why did speak timing of cash infusions required to prevent cash balances from going negative. Add a cash safety cushion ( 25% as a good guesstimate) to the anticipated cash needs to The Merchant Essay, protect against unexpected expenses or delayed income. The Color By James McBride Essays? Determine the type of funding that will suit your business: debt/equity or non-traditional financing.

Indicate how this capital requirement will be obtained -- from whom and how much will be obtained via term loans or lines of credit. Essay? B.Offering (deal structure pitch for speak money): If you have decided to seek equity capital, then you need to The Merchant Essay, describe the Essays, type of security being offered (e.g., common stock, convertible debentures, debt with warrants, debt plus stock), the of Venice, unit price, and the total amount of romeo and juliet crash securities to be sold in this offering. If securities are not just common stock, indicate by of Venice Essay, type, interest, maturity, and conversion conditions. Show the jacksonian democracy with what political party, percentage of the The Merchant of Venice, company that the investor in with political party, this offering will hold after it is Essay completed or after exercise of jacksonian with what party any stock conversion or purchase rights in The Merchant of Venice Essay, the case of convertible debentures or warrants i.e. what share of ineffective communication your company does the The Merchant, investor get for a specified investment. Romeo And Juliet Crash? Securities sold through a private placement and that are therefore exempt from SEC registration should include the following statement in Essay, this part of the plan: The shares being sold pursuant to this offering are restricted securities and may not be resold readily. Course? The prospective investor should recognize that such securities might be restricted as to of Venice Essay, resale for indefinite period of time.

Each purchaser will be required to jacksonian democracy is associated what political party, execute a Non-Distribution Agreement satisfactory in form to of Venice Essay, corporate counsel. If you are seeking a loan, then you need to indicate to angelou parents, the potential lender how the loan will be repaid and what the The Merchant of Venice, interest rate is. Jesus In Parables? What is the collateral for the loan? C.Capitalization: Present in tabular form the The Merchant, current and proposed (post-offering) number of outstanding shares of common stock. Indicate any shares offered by key management people and show the number of shares that they will hold after completion of the jesus in parables, proposed financing. The Merchant Of Venice? Indicate how many shares of your companys common stock will remain authorize debut un-issued after the offering and democracy is associated with what how many of these will be reserved for stock options for future key employees. Identify any other terms that you are willing to negotiate as part of the of Venice, deal e.g. right of first refusal, seat on board, voting rights, and maya angelou other rights and preferences. D.Use of The Merchant Essay Funds: Investors like to romeo crash course, know how their money is going to be spent. Provide a brief description of of Venice Essay how the crm marketing, capital raised will be used. Of Venice Essay? Summarize as specifically as possible what amount will be used for such things as product design and The Netnews development, capital equipment, marketing, and The Merchant of Venice general working capital needs. E.Investors Return (Exit Strategy).

What is the why did, value of your company? How did you calculate this value? Indicate how your valuation and proposed ownership shares will result in the desired rate of of Venice Essay return for the investors you have targeted. What will be the communication, likely harvest or exit mechanism (IPO, outright sale, merger, MBO, operate and grow, etc.)? What is the of Venice, exit strategy for the investors and founders? COVERING YOUR BASES: FORTY ISSUES TO DIE FOR [ edit ] As the Nuts and what the packing Bolts booklet makes clear, there is much that goes into a great business plan. Below is a checklist of things you might want to ensure appear somewhere in your plan. Essay? While this is not a comprehensive list, it covers the primary issues. 1. The Color? Define the industry and The Merchant of Venice Essay characterize it in crm marketing definition, terms of of Venice Essay size and the life cycle and draw implications. Crm Marketing? If it has an The Merchant of Venice Essay SIC or NAICS industry code, indicate so. McBride? 2. Of Venice Essay? Develop a diagram of the why did, value-added chain and the approximate number of firms at The Merchant of Venice, each level, and the packing indicate the The Merchant of Venice Essay, proportion that are large firms or chains.

3. Evaluate the attractiveness of the industry in parents, terms of Essay Porters 5-factor model. Was Jurgis The Packing? 4. Identify at Essay, least three ways that companies are differentiating themselves in democracy political party, this industry. 5. Of Venice? Specify other leading trends in the industry (e.g., in costs, prices, marketing approaches, new products or services, use of technology, etc.) and identify the three most critical success factors in why did speak in parables, this industry. The Merchant Essay? 6. Summarize key industry financial norms for companies in this industry. Was Jurgis Job At The Packing Plant? 7. The Merchant? Identify the principal components of the business concept. Be sure you are defining the in parables, concept in The Merchant of Venice, terms of customer value and crm marketing customer benefits. Apply the five key criteria for of Venice Essay a good business concept. 8. What is the need that the job at, business exists to The Merchant, satisfy? How well satisfied is that need already? How high are the customers switching costs from whatever they are currently using or doing? 9. Maya Angelou? What is the set of forces creating the The Merchant, opportunity?

What is the was jurgis the packing plant, likely window of opportunity? 10. How is the market defined? What is the size of the market opportunity in dollars, units or both? Distinguish current market size from market potential and estimate the The Merchant Essay, size of the primary and selective demand gaps. What is the The Color of Water by James McBride Essays, growth rate of the of Venice Essay, market? 11. Party? How are you segmenting the The Merchant, market?

Are the key segments homogenous, sizeable, reachable, and responsive? Provide descriptors of the why did in parables, customers who make up the key segments. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? Which segments will you be targeting (provide a prioritization)? Who will be your early adopters? Are their segments with different price elasticities? 12. Develop a simple model of The Color of Water by James McBride Essays customer buying behavior for this product or service. How long is the The Merchant of Venice, buying process? Who is the decision-maker? Why do they buy?

It is a high or low involvement purchase? How loyal are customers to existing vendors/products? 13. What are the by James, key factors affecting sales in of Venice Essay, the market? Will there be patterns to the companys sales. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated With Political Party? Is seasonality an Essay issue? Is the business cyclical? Do interest rates have an impact? 14. Crash Course? Who are the direct competitors? Identify the The Merchant of Venice Essay, strengths and ineffective weaknesses of each.

How is each differentiating itself? Who are the indirect competitors? As a group, how much of a threat are they and why? 15. Be sure that you have developed a price list. Do prices adequately reflect: a) overall marketing strategy, b) costs, c) competition, d) customer demand, and of Venice e) legal issues? 16.

Explain whether the what job at, company will be set up as a sole proprietorship, a partnership, an S corporation, a C corporation, or a limited liability company. 17. Describe the economics of the business. What is your average price, average cost per unit and Essay average margin? How much of your cost structure is definition fixed versus variable?

How much operating leverage do you have, and what are the The Merchant Essay, implications of ineffective this? Calculate your contribution margin and breakeven levels in The Merchant of Venice, dollars and crm marketing definition units. Essay? Make it clear where you will be making your money (for instance, in a bar, how much of crm marketing definition profit will come from drinks versus food, in a copier business how much will come from The Merchant of Venice selling machines versus selling service?) 18. Romeo And Juliet? Have you formulated measurable objectives? Are you certain youve established objectives in all the The Merchant of Venice, appropriate performance areas? 19. Crash? How will you ensure that the company has a strong market-orientation?

20. Of Venice Essay? What will be the principal or core competencies of the jesus speak in parables, company? Is strategy built around these competencies. 21. Separate from the The Merchant Essay, business concept, define the companys product mix.

Assess the crm marketing, companys principal offering to customers in terms of the core, tangible and of Venice Essay augmented product. Be sure to jacksonian what, include such product-related issues as hours, facility layout, parking, etc. 22. How will the companys products be positioned? 23. If it is a service business, develop a diagram of the visible and non-visible aspects of the service delivery system. Of Venice? 24. How will operations be organized? If it is jacksonian democracy what party a manufacturing or assembly operation, what is the overall layout. Provide a schematic as well as a diagram of the workflow. Essay? If its a service business, again describe the operational layout, and then how the definition, service will be delivered.

25. Are any product policies needed (warrantees, returns policies)? If so, what will they be. 26. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? What is the companys unique selling proposition? 27. Have you developed an integrated communications mix that matches the customers buying process. Summarize the companys complete mix of customer communications, including personal selling, advertising, sales promotion and publicity. Ineffective? Explain how they will be coordinated and managed as a mix.

28. The Merchant Of Venice? What will the crm marketing definition, distribution channel look like? How much market coverage will this give you? What key approaches will be used to The Merchant, achieve cooperation among channel members? 29. How is customer service to crm marketing definition, be defined, measured and managed?

What are the key components of customer service? Construct a comprehensive list of the of Venice Essay, points of course customer contact involving any personnel, paperwork or facilities of the The Merchant Essay, company. Ineffective Communication? 30. The Merchant Essay? What is the The Netnews Administration System, current stage of product development? Is a prototype completed? What further RD work is needed and by when will it be completed?

Whats the ongoing plan for RD? 31. Provide a detailed cash flow statement for each of the of Venice, first 3-5 years of jesus operation. The Merchant Essay? Provide pro forma income statements and is associated with political balance sheets for the first three years. 32.

Have you identified all of the of Venice Essay, resources (human, financial, channels, customer base, information) the company will require to start up and plant achieve success over The Merchant of Venice, the first 3 years? 33. Identify the why did jesus speak, major direct competitors and assess the strengths, weaknesses, strategy and source of The Merchant of Venice Essay differentiation relied upon by The Color of Water McBride Essays, each of The Merchant them. Ineffective Communication? 34. The Merchant Essay? How will the firms logistical arrangements work (inventory policies, physically getting products to customers, warehousing/storage)? What is the romeo and juliet crash course, intended order cycle time? 35. Who will be the The Merchant Essay, key members of the management team?

Provide a resume of why did speak in parables each of of Venice Essay these individuals in an appendix. The Packing Plant? Briefly describe the role of each in the firm and how it fits their background and experience. Also, will there be a board of directors or advisors? 36. What are your staffing needs beyond the management team? What kind of people are you looking for and what is of Venice Essay your plan for getting them? 37.

Identify the major technology, legal/regulatory, economic and social developments that are likely to Administration Essay, impact on of Venice, this business in The Color, the next two years, and of Venice indicate the crm marketing definition, likely impact. The Merchant Of Venice? 38. The Netnews? How much money are you asking for, from which sources, how will investors earn their return, and when? Will funding come in The Merchant of Venice, stages? 39. Identify the The Color McBride, five major downside risks or things that could go wrong, and indicate your contingencies for dealing with each of The Merchant of Venice them. Romeo Crash? 40. The Merchant Essay? Is there internal consistency in ineffective communication, your plan? For example, can one see the of Venice, logical fit and System consistency between you target market, the product/service you are selling, your marketing approach, and The Merchant Essay the budget you have put together?

Business Plan Evaluation: Written Syracuse Business Plan Competition March 2004 Judge Name:____________. Course? Please provide a rigorous evaluation of The Merchant this first draft of the why did, teams written plan. The Merchant Of Venice Essay? They will have an plant opportunity to revise, but we will also be eliminating some teams. Could you first rate the of Venice, written plan first on communication, each of the The Merchant of Venice Essay, nine content areas listed in The Color Essays, Part I below, and then rate the overall document in of Venice Essay, Part II. Your written comments are also very much appreciated and angelou will be shared with the team.

It is critical that we give them tangible help on how to The Merchant, improve. I.Coverage of Key Components (please rate each area below on a 5- point scale where 1 = poor, 5 = excellent) a.The Industry (definition, size, growth, structure, key trends, success factors) __________ b.The Business Concept and Product(s) (core concept for. Romeo And Juliet Course? c.The Market (definition, size, market potential, target. d. Economics of the Business (margins, breakeven, cost. Of Venice Essay? e. Job At? Marketing (pricing, promotion, selling, distribution, f. The Merchant? Operations (staffing requirement, how product or. Definition? g. Non-financial resource requirements (people, h.Management Team (players, roles, experience/credibility, Compensation, board of The Merchant Essay directors, key advisors) __________ i.Venture financing (money needed, from where, how. The Netnews Administration? j.Financials (projected cash flow, income statement, balance. II. The Merchant Of Venice? Overall Document (again, please rate each area below on definition, a 5-point. a. The Merchant Of Venice? Pragmatism/Realism __________ b. Completeness/Comprehensiveness __________ c. Internal Consistency __________ d. Maya Angelou? Writing Style __________ e. Professionalism of the Document __________. The Merchant Of Venice? III. Overall Recommended Score (100 = outstanding---I want to invest) __________. IV. Written Comments on parents, the Written Plan (Please provide a page---or more if possible---of detailed suggestions to The Merchant of Venice, the team on how they can improve the plan prior to romeo and juliet crash, the major cut that will determine which 15 teams go to The Merchant of Venice, the finals): (attach comment sheet(s)) Judges Rating Sheet Name of Concept___________________ Business Plan Evaluation: Oral Presentation Syracuse Business Plan Competition April 2004 Judge # ___.

Please rate the presentation of the business plan first on each of the seven content areas listed in Part I below, and then rate the presentation itself in Part II. Maya? In Part III, please give the presentation an of Venice overall rating from 0 to 100. Your written comments are very much appreciated and will be shared with the The Netnews Administration Essay, team. Of Venice Essay? I. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated Political Party? Coverage of Key Components (please rate each area below on a 5- point scale where 1 = poor, 5 = excellent) a. The Opportunity (forces creating the opportunity, size of the. Of Venice? k.The Business Concept (core concept for why did in parables capitalizing on Essay, the. l.The Market (definition, size, market potential, target. m.Operations (staffing requirements, how product or. Of Water McBride Essays? n.Marketing (pricing, promotion, selling, distribution, how an actual sale will be accomplished) __________ o.Economics of the Business (margins, breakeven, cost. p.Financials (projected cash flow, income statement, balance. II. Of Venice? Overall Assessment of The Netnews Administration Essay Oral Presentation (again, please rate each area below on a 5- point scale where 1 = poor, 5 = excellent) a. Powerpoint or other audiovisuals __________ b. Ability to capture audience attention __________ c. Completeness of the presentation __________ d. Mastery of The Merchant Essay facts and material related to venture __________ e. Professionalism of the presentation __________ f. Handling of questions __________. III.

Overall Recommended Score (100 = Outstanding, I want to invest!) __________.

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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from finding a great title to writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while how-to video tutorials are a fun way to find out more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, Ill answer the first two questions in this article. The third question How do you know if your song is good? is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then its a good song. It doesnt matter what anyone else thinks.

If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on the dance floor thats a good song with the potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and makes them want to listen? Well, thats where song craft comes in. ? What is The Merchant song craft and why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and create a memorable experience for The Color McBride Essays, listeners. The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they werent invented just to Essay, drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the message at why did jesus speak in parables the heart of The Merchant Essay, a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in what you have to say.

Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the Go Ahead and Do It! exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the The Netnews Essay hardest tasks in The Merchant of Venice songwriting. And its also one of the The Netnews Administration most important because if you start well, youll have a lot less trouble later on. Youll know where youre going and youll have plenty of things to say. Theres always the The Merchant of Venice temptation to parents, jump right in of Venice Essay and begin with the first thing that occurs to ineffective, you. You know you want to write a song lyrics with a melody and some chords but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about of Venice, what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners cant understand or relate to. So which comes first lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above.

There are a lot of ways to start a song and you could start with one of those, but Im going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, its going to define the message of the song. Crm Marketing Definition. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of The Merchant of Venice Essay, a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the why did speak in parables building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Make sure its a phrase that rings true in of Venice Essay your ears. Something that makes you say, Ive got to know more about that! Because if YOU want to know, others will want to know.

TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and theyre easy to The Color of Water by James McBride, remember. The ideal length for a title is of Venice one to five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for good titles that have energy for jacksonian is associated with political, you. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of maya angelou, good titles. Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by reading through a popular magazine: A Dream On The Edge, Hiding in the Shadows, What You Cant Change, Slipping Away. When you watch television always keep a little corner of The Merchant Essay, your mind alert for The Netnews System Essay, dialogue lines that capture your attention. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. Listen to your friends and crm marketing definition family to Essay, see if you can pick out interesting phrases.

Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases. Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Jesus Speak In Parables. Write down at least three phrases. Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song. Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like.

Draw a big circle around that phrase. Of Venice. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. Heres how. Now, lets begin to turn your title into a great lyric by simply asking a few questions the why did jesus questions suggested by your title. Essay. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, youll be able to Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in definition your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered.

Some of the of Venice questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. Youll need to ineffective, answer both. Let me give you a few examples Take a classic song title like Heartbreak Hotel. Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is Essay a heartbreak hotel? What happens there?

Where is it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in maya this great Rock standard. What is a heartbreak hotel? A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry.

Where is it? Down at The Merchant Essay the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swifts I Knew You Were Trouble suggests questions like Who was trouble? What kind of trouble? and crm marketing How did things turn out? If these questions arent answered in the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Heres the of Venice Essay lyric. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like Youre Gonna Miss This recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking What is it were going to crm marketing definition, miss? and Why will we miss it? Check out the lyric. You might be surprised by the answer! Thats the sign of a great song. It draws the The Merchant listener in jacksonian democracy with questions, then answers them in a fresh way. Of course, youll also have questions you want to write about.

Exploring our own feelings and experiences is of Venice a big part of The Color by James McBride, what drives us to write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If youd like to hear a lyric example, listen to Be With You, a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the of Venice Essay singer saying this? Whats happening?

Who is ineffective involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and The Merchant of Venice Essay situations. Ed and I wrote about the by James Essays feelings we wanted to express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the same title. Of Venice Essay. You can choose the questions you want to answer and the way you want to answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT Go back and look at the title you circled in the previous exercise. What questions does it suggest to you? What would you like to say about it? Make a list of questions youd like to definition, answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have.

Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Write more than you think youll need; you wont use all of it. Remember, its just raw material. Explore the possibilities. Dont worry about rhyming, just say what you want to say. The Merchant Essay. Thats the why did best place to The Merchant, start.

? Add images related words to bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and jacksonian democracy is associated what political party a painter has tubes of paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. These are your raw materials. Youre going to create that raw material yourself by using the of Venice words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title. Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Lets say your song title is You Make Me Smile. To create raw material based on this title, think of words and speak images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like happy, sunny, bright, and fun. These are words you can use in your lyric, but theyre a little bit abstract. Lets see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and The Merchant of Venice Essay really make them feel like smiling. Take the words happy and fun, for ineffective, instance.

What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations. The sound of of Venice Essay, laughter and music. Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on the town. Bright lights and The Color Essays crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether theyre good or not at The Merchant this stage. Just write down everything that comes to you. You wont use all of it, but you never know what might end up in your song. Now, lets try the word sunny. Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of summer and being outdoors, which makes me think of crm marketing, grass, trees, and flowers.

Flowers make me think of The Merchant of Venice, colors gold, red, purple and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of jacksonian democracy is associated with what political party, words that evoke mental images bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to do with smiling and feeling good. And they all came from starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in a hit song, heres part of the chorus lyric of Smile by Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool.

Forget how to breathe. Just the of Venice Essay thought of you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to of Water, picture how the The Merchant Essay singer is feeling instead of democracy political party, just having to take his word for it. This is one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Check out Smile by Uncle Kracker on The Merchant of Venice, Spotify, read the lyrics online, or watch the video to Essay, hear even more fun images and ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of contrasting words and The Merchant images, ones that suggest the opposite. For example, I wrote a song called California Girl. Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free a kind of or paradise. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free).

If youd like to hear how I turned these lists of related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the angelou parents video of The Merchant, my song California Girl or listen and read the lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT Make a list of words, images, and democracy with what political phrases related to your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Dont think about of Venice, rhyming or making sense of things at this point. And try not to be critical of your ideas just write down what comes to you. Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and phrases.

Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Ineffective Communication. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you. This is a great exercise for Essay, stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to get familiar with one very important aspect of songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from beginning to end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to The Color McBride Essays, feel familiar and enough variety to The Merchant of Venice Essay, keep them interested. It also gives you, the songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of The Color Essays, todays hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and variations to play with.

Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. But try using this one to get started. Its been the foundation of many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song.

Chorus: We may hear the Essay chorus of a song three, four or more times. The lyric and melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the heart of the song. The title of the ineffective communication song almost always appears in the chorus section and may be repeated two or more times. Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and chord progression from the Essay verse or chorus. It provides a break from the The Color of Water by James repetition of verse and chorus. The lyric often provides an The Merchant of Venice Essay, insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to answer in crm marketing definition each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the most important question to answer there.

Often, that question is What does this feel like? Be sure to The Merchant of Venice, use your title in of Water by James Essays your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from The Merchant your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by having the ineffective singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of of Venice, your chorus lyric, move on to a verse. The Color McBride Essays. Verse lyrics tend to of Venice, be more conversational, so keep it simple and just answer the question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Dont believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer.

You cant do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and rhythm all the elements of a song melody. The only difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and theres more repetition. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to do is speak them to get a raw melody started. Its the jacksonian melody part of speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by The Merchant of Venice, changing the angelou parents melody you can give the same words an The Merchant of Venice, entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase Oh, no? as if you are asking a simple question.

Now, say the maya same phrase Oh no! as if you are anxious and frightened. Notice the of Venice Essay difference in the melody? In the question, the jacksonian democracy what party melody goes up at the end. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the melody moves downward. Exaggerate the The Merchant emotion in the second phrase and youll really hear it.

Now try saying Oh no with a sarcastic, disbelieving, youve got to be kidding tone. Its an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. Speak In Parables. If youve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on Essay, the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. By James. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that dont really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase. The Merchant. Youll make the meaning clear and sound natural and believable to your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT To achieve the conversational tone of many of todays verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Keep the pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the of Water by James McBride Essays little ups and downs in your speaking voice. The Merchant. Youll want to make changes later but, for now, this will give you a good place to start. Administration System. Remember, this is your raw material, not the finished melody.

Choruses often have more energy and The Merchant Essay urgency, conveying more of the songs emotional heart. As we saw with the Oh, no! phrase, the more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to be. Thats why very emotional Pop and The Netnews System Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Speak the chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the The Merchant rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally. This will get you started on your chorus. Once youve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and of Water by James Essays start roughing out the The Merchant chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the original spoken word melody in case I want to go back to it. Communication. Of course, there are other ways to of Venice, write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and ineffective communication youre going to The Merchant of Venice, be writing your own melody and chords.

Skip down to the next section for some ideas on how to find and System Essay use chord progressions that work well for todays songs. Work on the melody and chords using the of Venice verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Then write the The Color of Water by James McBride Essays rest of the lyric to Essay, the final melody. If youre going to be looking for jacksonian democracy is associated what party, a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the lyric now. Filling in the rest of the of Venice Essay lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of what youve done is a tough job but if youve gotten this far, you can do the definition rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Dont twist words out of order or write a line just to make something rhyme!

A vowel rhyme rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants will work just fine for The Merchant of Venice Essay, popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to angelou parents, find lists of interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If youre not getting anything usable, walk away literally. Take a walk and let things settle for awhile.

Keep the lyrics youve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in your head. The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Dont settle for anything less. Of Venice Essay. There are times when youll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when youre fresh. Youll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Administration. Keep working on the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by it. Many songwriters begin their songs by The Merchant, strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme.

Todays hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on the melody to keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You dont have to The Color of Water Essays, reinvent the wheel. There are loads of useful chord progressions that depend on just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in The Merchant Essay general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to ineffective, everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs.

Im going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions arent hard to The Merchant Essay, pick up. Listen to a recent hit song and learn to crm marketing definition, play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to The Merchant of Venice, play recent hits. There are also fake books with chords and ineffective communication websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of hit songs. The Merchant Of Venice. Just do a quick web search using the song title and the word chords.

If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you dont use any of the crm marketing definition melody or lyric from the hit song. The Merchant Of Venice. These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you dont play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are instant piano and guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out maya, my Resources page for a good one. Essay. Or you can take a few lessons from ineffective a local music teacher. Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher. Of Venice Essay. If you decide to take lessons, be sure to tell the ineffective teacher you want to learn to read and play CHORDS.

You dont need to The Merchant Essay, learn note reading. In general, songwriters dont have to be great musicians. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to follow our emotions none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and communication licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and Essay keep the ineffective communication emotional feel front and of Venice center. Heres a resource for those of you who dont play an instrument and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an instant backing track that can inspire ideas and get you singing your lyrics to a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the jacksonian democracy with chords are not.

If you want to pitch your song commercially, youll need to record a new instrumental track. You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of todays top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and atmosphere to scenes. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is ideal for this use. If youre interested in this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and in parables films. Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene. As an The Merchant, exercise, choose a scene and System try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book Shortcuts to Songwriting for Film TV available at The Merchant of Venice Amazon.com. So lets say you have this fabulous lyric. Its got emotion and good song craft but you dont play guitar or keyboards.

Maybe writing melodies just isnt your strength. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated With Political. Or youre a musician who doesnt write lyrics. The Merchant. Time to look for a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to The Color, a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, its a good idea to copyright it with the U.S. Of Venice Essay. Library of Congress.

Youll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at the Copyright Office web site. Theres a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on a single form to The Netnews Essay, save money. Back to the hunt for The Merchant of Venice, collaborators Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at TAXI.com. You dont have to be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. Ineffective Communication. Not only The Merchant of Venice are these folks serious about writing songs, most of crm marketing definition, them are actively pitching to TAXIs opportunities a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in The Merchant of Venice Essay your area will have a music department.

Talk to one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know youre looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out ineffective communication, clubs in your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of The Merchant of Venice, music youre interested in, ask if theyre willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them youd like to collaborate on songs to pitch to publishers for other artists. Theyll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in touch with one. Why Did Jesus In Parables. The teacher might be interested in Essay writing with you or may know a student who is looking for democracy is associated party, a collaborator.

Once youve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and good structure that keeps the listeners attention, youll want to make a demo to show it off. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. Its now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. Although a course in home recording is beyond the scope of this article, here are a couple of ways to get started HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and audio recording capability (to record vocals and guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. Ineffective. For Mac users theres Garageband for The Merchant, MAC . Democracy With Party. Its included in the iLife software package.

Youll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of of Venice, these programs. Apple has one for under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: Theres a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on jesus, your chords.

BIAB will even create a melody and a title! Its inexpensive, fun, creative, and a great place to The Merchant of Venice Essay, start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. There are versions for both PC (BIAB for Windows) and is associated what political party Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of of Venice, your demo. They can record the crm marketing instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. Youll have a chance to of Venice, give input or talk with the producer ahead of time. I suggest giving the why did jesus speak service an idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel.

Heres a list of services and online musicians Ive used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. There are other ways to approach songwriting but theyre just other doors. Once you go through the door, thats when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on of Venice Essay, your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to learn what theyre doing. Heres a list of hit songs that Ive posted with a look at what makes them tick. Youll find tips on how to use these ideas in The Netnews songs of of Venice, your own. You dont need to reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. The Color Of Water McBride Essays. Stand on the shoulders of giants; use what others have discovered and The Merchant build on it. Make it your own!

Dont worry that youll end up sounding like someone else youll always sound just like you . Crm Marketing Definition. No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!

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Nov 17, 2017 The Merchant of Venice Essay,

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the The Merchant examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Definition. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnt the of Venice Essay point of the essay that youre supposed to be using information from the passage in The Netnews Administration Essay, your answer, which you dont know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and The Merchant of Venice, no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the speak way you explain each example builds the The Merchant Essay authors argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.

In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of Administration System Essay these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you havent already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article.

The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyre all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the authors claim Theyre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyre all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of The Merchant of Venice what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the System author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just dont have the time to analyze and of Venice, write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatll be likely to found across persuasive passages about angelou parents many different issues we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. The Merchant Essay. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to maya parents, you how effective pre-planned examples are. The Merchant. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for The Color by James McBride any SAT Essay prompt.

The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to The Merchant of Venice, discuss the maya two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and of Venice Essay, Statistics and by James McBride, Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to Essay, bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and with, facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data.

Here're a couple of examples of The Merchant of Venice Essay statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of The Color about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the The Merchant of Venice Essay World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to The Netnews Essay, actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an of Venice Essay example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the in parables most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves.

In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of Essay tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of speak in parables grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Americas Serengeti. Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because its more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the of Venice example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of communication nature to illustrate the of Venice same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the angelou parents reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the The Merchant Essay migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and jacksonian with what party, so makes it more likely that the The Merchant Essay reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. Crm Marketing Definition. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but its not always a major part of The Merchant Essay how the author builds her/his argument.

It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. Jacksonian Democracy What. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the of Venice claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of definition view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the of Venice author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an why did jesus speak in parables effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: You could say some computer games develop creativity, says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. But I dont see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and The Merchant of Venice, painta lot of really practical and creative endeavors. But its not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument?

It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. Maya Parents. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to The Merchant Essay, make it seem as if the of Water by James McBride discussions going to be more fair. This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of The Merchant view before moving on. Democracy With Party. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is of Venice present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the why did jesus in parables author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite of Venice Essay, point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the ineffective opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument.

Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. The Merchant Essay. In some cases, the Administration Essay clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. The Merchant Essay. Its the thinking the logic, the analysis that develops the argument and ties the jesus speak claim and evidence together. This is one of the Essay trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in maya angelou parents, my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and The Merchant, explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the crm marketing explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Of Venice. Here's a pretty clear instance of communication a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of Essay evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITs Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students interest in history and was directly linked to of Water by James, an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to of Venice, use) clear, logical reasoning to crm marketing definition, draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim?

In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the authors argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on of Venice a computer or tablet is The Netnews System way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on Essay faith, the reader is forced to definition, reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of The Merchant argument building. What. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. The Merchant Essay. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is maya angelou parents light on facts or logic).

Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that dont seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is of Venice Essay Paul Bogard again: show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. The Color Of Water McBride Essays. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of The Merchant of Venice Essay light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authors shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to jesus speak in parables, rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war.

If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to The Merchant Essay, the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the crm marketing passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from The Merchant appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of maya angelou reality took place when it became clear to The Merchant Essay, me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and McBride, their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an The Merchant Essay example of The Netnews Administration System a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?

Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the of Venice Essay reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to speak in parables, get them to Essay, agree that the with party Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and The Merchant Essay, thinking about the author's question, the democracy what political party reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the The Merchant of Venice Essay reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an jacksonian is associated with what political arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to Essay, support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how youll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of Administration Essay time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay.

We've written a bunch of detailed guides to The Merchant of Venice Essay, make sure you do. Took the maya angelou old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about The Merchant of Venice whats changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer.

How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to is associated what party, your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to Essay, improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on maya how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on of Venice social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Ineffective Communication. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and The Merchant of Venice Essay, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

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Nov 17, 2017 The Merchant of Venice Essay,

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competence essay Berkshire's Corporate Performance vs. the of Venice Essay SP 500. Annual Percentage Change. Average Annual Gain ? 1965-2001. Overall Gain ? 1964-2001. Notes: Data are for calendar years with these exceptions: 1965 and 1966, year ended 9/30; 1967, 15 months ended 12/31.

Starting in 1979, accounting rules required insurance companies to value the equity securities they hold at market rather than at the lower of cost or market, which was previously the requirement. In this table, Berkshire's results through 1978 have been restated to conform to the changed rules. In all other respects, the results are calculated using the numbers originally reported. The SP 500 numbers are pre-tax whereas the The Netnews Administration Essay Berkshire numbers are after-tax . If a corporation such as Berkshire were simply to have owned the of Venice SP 500 and communication, accrued the appropriate taxes, its results would have lagged the SP 500 in years when that index showed a positive return, but would have exceeded the SP in The Merchant of Venice years when the index showed a negative return. Over the years, the crm marketing definition tax costs would have caused the aggregate lag to be substantial. BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. To the Shareholders of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.: Berkshires loss in net worth during 2001 was $3.77 billion, which decreased the per-share book value of both our Class A and The Merchant Essay, Class B stock by 6.2%.

Over the last 37 years (that is, since present management took over) per-share book value has grown from parents $19 to $37,920, a rate of 22.6% compounded annually.* * All figures used in The Merchant this report apply to Berkshire's A shares, the communication successor to The Merchant of Venice the only stock that the angelou parents company had outstanding before 1996. The B shares have an economic interest equal to 1/30th that of the A. Per-share intrinsic grew somewhat faster than book value during these 37 years, and in 2001 it probably decreased a bit less. We explain intrinsic value in our Owners Manual, which begins on page 62. I urge new shareholders to The Merchant of Venice Essay read this manual to become familiar with Berkshires key economic principles.

Two years ago, reporting on jacksonian democracy is associated with what political 1999, I said that we had experienced both the The Merchant Essay worst absolute and relative performance in our history. The Netnews Administration System! I added that relative results are what concern us, a viewpoint Ive had since forming my first investment partnership on May 5, 1956. Meeting with my seven founding limited partners that evening, I gave them a short paper titled The Ground Rules that included this sentence: Whether we do a good job or a poor job is to The Merchant Essay be measured against the general experience in securities. We initially used the Dow Jones Industrials as our benchmark, but shifted to the SP 500 when that index became widely used. Communication! Our comparative record since 1965 is chronicled on the facing page; last year Berkshires advantage was 5.7 percentage points.

Some people disagree with our focus on The Merchant Essay relative figures, arguing that you cant eat relative performance. But if you expect ? as Charlie Munger, Berkshires Vice Chairman, and parents, I do ? that owning the The Merchant SP 500 will produce reasonably satisfactory results over time, it follows that, for The Color McBride Essays, long-term investors, gaining small advantages annually over that index must prove rewarding. Just as you can eat well throughout the year if you own a profitable, but highly seasonal, business such as Sees (which loses considerable money during the summer months) so, too, can you regularly feast on investment returns that beat the averages, however variable the absolute numbers may be. Though our corporate performance last year was satisfactory, my performance was anything but. I manage most of Berkshires equity portfolio, and The Merchant of Venice, my results were poor, just as they have been for several years. Of even more importance, I allowed General Re to ineffective communication take on business without a safeguard I knew was important, and on September 11 th , this error caught up with us. Ill tell you more about my mistake later and what we are doing to correct it. Another of my 1956 Ground Rules remains applicable: I cannot promise results to of Venice partners. But Charlie and I can promise that your economic result from Berkshire will parallel ours during the period of communication your ownership: We will not take cash compensation, restricted stock or option grants that would make our results superior to yours.

Additionally, I will keep well over 99% of The Merchant Essay my net worth in Berkshire. My wife and I have never sold a share nor do we intend to. Charlie and I are disgusted by crm marketing definition, the situation, so common in the last few years, in Essay which shareholders have suffered billions in losses while the CEOs, promoters, and other higher-ups who fathered these disasters have walked away with extraordinary wealth. Indeed, many of crm marketing definition these people were urging investors to The Merchant Essay buy shares while concurrently dumping their own, sometimes using methods that hid their actions. To their shame, these business leaders view shareholders as patsies, not partners. Though Enron has become the by James Essays symbol for The Merchant of Venice, shareholder abuse, there is no shortage of egregious conduct elsewhere in democracy is associated with corporate America. One story Ive heard illustrates the The Merchant of Venice all-too-common attitude of managers toward owners: A gorgeous woman slinks up to a CEO at a party and through moist lips purrs, Ill do anything ? anything ? you want.

Just tell me what you would like. System Essay! With no hesitation, he replies, Reprice my options. One final thought about Berkshire: In the The Merchant Essay future we wont come close to replicating our past record. To be sure, Charlie and I will strive for above-average performance and will not be satisfied with less. But two conditions at Berkshire are far different from what they once were: Then, we could often buy businesses and securities at much lower valuations than now prevail; and more important, we were then working with far less money than we now have. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated! Some years back, a good $10 million idea could do wonders for us (witness our investment in The Merchant of Venice Essay Washington Post in 1973 or GEICO in 1976). Crm Marketing! Today, the combination of ten such ideas and a triple in the value of each would increase the of Venice net worth of Berkshire by only of 1%. We need elephants to make significant gains now ? and they are hard to find.

On the positive side, we have as fine an crm marketing definition array of operating managers as exists at any company. Of Venice Essay! (You can read about The Color of Water by James, many of them in a new book by Robert P. Miles: The Warren Buffett CEO .) In large part, moreover, they are running businesses with economic characteristics ranging from good to of Venice superb. The ability, energy and loyalty of these managers is simply extraordinary. We now have completed 37 Berkshire years without having a CEO of an operating business elect to leave us to work elsewhere. Our star-studded group grew in 2001. First, we completed the purchases of two businesses that we had agreed to buy in 2000 ? Shaw and democracy political, Johns Manville. The Merchant Of Venice Essay! Then we acquired two others, MiTek and XTRA, and contracted to The Color of Water by James McBride buy two more: Larson-Juhl, an acquisition that has just closed, and The Merchant, Fruit of the Loom, which will close shortly if creditors approve our offer. All of these businesses are led by smart, seasoned and trustworthy CEOs. Additionally, all of McBride our purchases last year were for cash, which means our shareholders became owners of these additional businesses without relinquishing any interest in of Venice Essay the fine companies they already owned. We will continue to follow our familiar formula, striving to ineffective communication increase the value of the excellent businesses we have, adding new businesses of The Merchant of Venice Essay similar quality, and crm marketing definition, issuing shares only grudgingly. Acquisitions of of Venice 2001. A few days before last years annual meeting, I received a heavy package from St.

Louis, containing an ineffective unprepossessing chunk of metal whose function I couldnt imagine. There was a letter in the package, though, from Gene Toombs, CEO of a company called MiTek. He explained that MiTek is the worlds leading producer of this thing Id received, a connector plate, which is used in of Venice making roofing trusses. Gene also said that the U.K. parent of by James MiTek wished to sell the company and The Merchant of Venice Essay, that Berkshire seemed to him the jesus speak ideal buyer. Liking the The Merchant of Venice Essay sound of his letter, I gave Gene a call. It took me only a minute to realize that he was our kind of manager and MiTek our kind of business. We made a cash offer to the U.K. owner and before long had a deal. Genes managerial crew is exceptionally enthusiastic about the company and wanted to participate in the purchase. Therefore, we arranged for 55 members of the MiTek team to buy 10% of the company, with each putting up a minimum of political $100,000 in cash. Many borrowed money so they could participate.

As they would not be if they had options, all of these managers are true owners . They face the downside of decisions as well as the upside. They incur a cost of Essay capital. Democracy With Political! And they cant reprice their stakes: What they paid is what they live with. Charlie and I love the high-grade, truly entrepreneurial attitude that exists at MiTek, and we predict it will be a winner for all involved. In early 2000, my friend, Julian Robertson, announced that he would terminate his investment partnership, Tiger Fund, and that he would liquidate it entirely except for four large holdings. One of these was XTRA, a leading lessor of of Venice truck trailers.

I then called Julian, asking whether he might consider selling his XTRA block or whether, for that matter, the companys management might entertain an offer for the entire company. Julian referred me to Lew Rubin, XTRAs CEO. System! He and I had a nice conversation, but it was apparent that no deal was to be done. Then in June 2001, Julian called to say that he had decided to sell his XTRA shares, and Essay, I resumed conversations with Lew. The XTRA board accepted a proposal we made, which was to be effectuated through a tender offer expiring on September 11 th . The Color McBride! The tender conditions included the usual out, allowing us to withdraw if the stock market were to close before the offers expiration. Throughout much of the 11 th , Lew went through a particularly wrenching experience: First, he had a son-in-law working in the World Trade Center who couldnt be located; and second, he knew we had the option of backing away from our purchase. The story ended happily: Lews son-in-law escaped serious harm, and Berkshire completed the transaction. Trailer leasing is of Venice, a cyclical business but one in which we should earn decent returns over time. Lew brings a new talent to Berkshire, and we hope to expand in leasing. On December 3 rd , I received a call from Craig Ponzio, owner of Larson-Juhl, the U.S. leader in custom-made picture frames. Craig had bought the company in 1981 (after first working at its manufacturing plant while attending college) and thereafter increased its sales from $3 million to $300 million.

Though I had never heard of Larson-Juhl before Craigs call, a few minutes talk with him made me think we would strike a deal. He was straightforward in describing the business, cared about who bought it, and was realistic as to price. Why Did Jesus Speak In Parables! Two days later, Craig and Steve McKenzie, his CEO, came to Omaha and in ninety minutes we reached an The Merchant of Venice Essay agreement. In ten days we had signed a contract. Larson-Juhl serves about 18,000 framing shops in definition the U.S. and is also the industry leader in Canada and much of Europe. We expect to see opportunities for making complementary acquisitions in the future. As I write this letter, creditors are considering an offer we have made for Fruit of the The Merchant of Venice Essay Loom. The company entered bankruptcy a few years back, a victim both of angelou too much debt and Essay, poor management. And, a good many years before that, I had some Fruit of the why did speak Loom experience of my own. In August 1955, I was one of five employees, including two secretaries, working for the three managers of Graham-Newman Corporation, a New York investment company. Graham-Newman controlled Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron (PR), an anthracite producer that had excess cash, a tax loss carryforward, and a declining business.

At the Essay time, I had a significant portion of ineffective communication my limited net worth invested in of Venice PR shares, reflecting my faith in the business talents of my bosses, Ben Graham, Jerry Newman and Howard (Micky) Newman. This faith was rewarded when PR purchased the Union Underwear Company from Jack Goldfarb for $15 million. Union (though it was then only The Netnews System, a licensee of the of Venice Essay name) produced Fruit of the Loom underwear. The company possessed $5 million in cash ? $2.5 million of which PR used for the purchase ? and was earning about $3 million pre-tax, earnings that could be sheltered by the tax position of jacksonian democracy what political PR. And, oh yes: Fully $9 million of the remaining $12.5 million due was satisfied by of Venice, non-interest-bearing notes, payable from 50% of any earnings Union had in excess of $1 million. ( Those were the crm marketing days; I get goosebumps just thinking about such deals.) Subsequently, Union bought the licensor of the The Merchant Essay Fruit of the Loom name and, along with PR, was merged into ineffective Northwest Industries. Fruit went on to achieve annual pre-tax earnings exceeding $200 million. John Holland was responsible for Fruits operations in Essay its most bountiful years. In 1996, however, John retired, and management loaded the company with debt, in part to make a series of acquisitions that proved disappointing. Jacksonian Democracy Political! Bankruptcy followed.

John was then rehired, and he undertook a major reworking of operations. Of Venice! Before Johns return, deliveries were chaotic, costs soared and relations with key customers deteriorated. While correcting these problems, John also reduced employment from a bloated 40,000 to 23,000. In short, hes been restoring the old Fruit of the Loom, albeit in a much more competitive environment. Stepping into maya angelou Fruits bankruptcy proceedings, we made a proposal to creditors to which we attached no financing conditions, even though our offer had to remain outstanding for many months. We did, however, insist on a very unusual proviso: John had to be available to continue serving as CEO after we took over. To us, John and the brand are Fruits key assets. I was helped in The Merchant of Venice this transaction by my friend and former boss, Micky Newman, now 81.

What goes around truly does come around. Our operating companies made several bolt-on acquisitions during the year, and I cant resist telling you about one. In December, Frank Rooney called to tell me H.H. Brown was buying the inventory and McBride, trademarks of The Merchant of Venice Essay Acme Boot for $700,000. That sounds like small potatoes. But ? would you believe it? ? Acme was the jacksonian democracy is associated what political second purchase of PR, an acquisition that took place just before I left Graham-Newman in the spring of 1956. Of Venice Essay! The price was $3.2 million, part of it again paid with non-interest bearing notes, for a business with sales of The Netnews Administration $7 million. After PR merged with Northwest, Acme grew to be the worlds largest bootmaker, delivering annual profits many multiples of what the The Merchant of Venice Essay company had cost PR. But the by James McBride business eventually hit the skids and of Venice Essay, never recovered, and that resulted in our purchasing Acmes remnants. In the frontispiece to Security Analysis , Ben Graham and Dave Dodd quoted Horace: Many shall be restored that now are fallen and many shall fall that are now in with party honor. Fifty-two years after I first read those lines, my appreciation for what they say about business and The Merchant, investments continues to ineffective grow.

In addition to bolt-on acquisitions, our managers continually look for ways to grow internally. The Merchant Of Venice! In that regard, heres a postscript to a story I told you two years ago about R.C. Willeys move to Boise. As you may remember, Bill Child, R.C. Maya Angelou! Willeys chairman, wanted to extend his home-furnishings operation beyond Utah, a state in which his company does more than $300 million of business (up, it should be noted, from $250,000 when Bill took over 48 years ago). The company achieved this dominant position, moreover, with a closed on Sunday policy that defied conventional retailing wisdom. I was skeptical that this policy could succeed in Boise or, for that matter, anyplace outside of Utah. The Merchant Essay! After all, Sunday is the day many consumers most like to shop. Bill then insisted on something extraordinary: He would invest $11 million of his own money to build the Boise store and would sell it to Berkshire at cost (without interest!) if the communication venture succeeded. If it failed, Bill would keep the store and eat the loss on its disposal.

As I told you in the 1999 annual report, the store immediately became a huge success ? and it has since grown. Shortly after the Boise opening, Bill suggested we try Las Vegas, and this time I was even more skeptical. How could we do business in a metropolis of that size and The Merchant of Venice, be closed on why did speak Sundays, a day that all of our competitors would be exploiting? Buoyed by The Merchant, the Boise experience, however, we proceeded to locate in Henderson, a mushrooming city adjacent to Las Vegas. The result: This store outsells all others in the R.C. Willey chain, doing a volume of business that far exceeds the volume of any competitor and that is twice what I had anticipated. I cut the The Netnews Administration System ribbon at the grand opening in Essay October ? this was after a soft opening and a few weeks of exceptional sales ? and, just as I did at Boise, I suggested to the crowd that the new store was my idea.

It didnt work. Today, when I pontificate about retailing, Berkshire people just say, What does Bill think? (Im going to draw the line, however, if he suggests that we also close on Saturdays.) The Economics of Property/Casualty Insurance. Our main business ? though we have others of System Essay great importance ? is insurance. The Merchant! To understand Berkshire, therefore, it is necessary that you understand how to evaluate an ineffective insurance company. Essay! The key determinants are: (1) the amount of float that the democracy business generates; (2) its cost; and (3) most critical of all, the long-term outlook for both of these factors. To begin with, float is money we hold but don't own. In an The Merchant of Venice Essay insurance operation, float arises because premiums are received before losses are paid, an interval that sometimes extends over many years. During that time, the why did insurer invests the of Venice money.

This pleasant activity typically carries with it a downside: The premiums that an insurer takes in usually do not cover the losses and expenses it eventually must pay. That leaves it running an underwriting loss, which is the cost of float. An insurance business has value if its cost of float over time is less than the cost the The Netnews Administration System company would otherwise incur to The Merchant of Venice obtain funds. But the business is a lemon if its cost of float is higher than market rates for money. Historically, Berkshire has obtained its float at by James Essays a very low cost. Indeed, our cost has been less than zero in about half of the years in which we've operated; that is, we've actually been paid for of Venice, holding other people's money. Over the jesus in parables last few years, however, our cost has been too high, and in 2001 it was terrible. The table that follows shows (at intervals) the float generated by the various segments of Berkshire's insurance operations since we entered the business 35 years ago upon acquiring National Indemnity Company (whose traditional lines are included in the segment Other Primary).

For the table we have calculated our float ? which we generate in large amounts relative to of Venice Essay our premium volume ? by adding net loss reserves, loss adjustment reserves, funds held under reinsurance assumed and unearned premium reserves, and then subtracting insurance-related receivables, prepaid acquisition costs, prepaid taxes and deferred charges applicable to assumed reinsurance. (Got that?) Yearend Float (in $ millions) Last year I told you that, barring a mega-catastrophe, our cost of definition float would probably drop from its 2000 level of The Merchant Essay 6%. I had in mind natural catastrophes when I said that, but instead we were hit by a man-made catastrophe on September 11 th ? an event that delivered the insurance industry its largest loss in history. Why Did Speak In Parables! Our float cost therefore came in at a staggering 12.8%. It was our worst year in float cost since 1984, and a result that to a significant degree, as I will explain in the next section, we brought upon ourselves. If no mega-catastrophe occurs, I ? once again ? expect the cost of our float to be low in the coming year. We will indeed need a low cost, as will all insurers. The Merchant Essay! Some years back, float costing, say, 4% was tolerable because government bonds yielded twice as much, and crm marketing definition, stocks prospectively offered still loftier returns.

Today, fat returns are nowhere to be found (at least we can't find them) and Essay, short-term funds earn less than 2%. Under these conditions, each of our insurance operations, save one, must deliver an underwriting profit if it is to be judged a good business. The exception is our retroactive reinsurance operation (a business we explained in last year's annual report), which has desirable economics even though it currently hits us with an annual underwriting loss of about $425 million. Principles of Insurance Underwriting. When property/casualty companies are judged by their cost of float, very few stack up as satisfactory businesses. And interestingly ? unlike the situation prevailing in many other industries ? neither size nor brand name determines an insurer's profitability.

Indeed, many of the biggest and best-known companies regularly deliver mediocre results. What counts in this business is underwriting discipline. The winners are those that unfailingly stick to three key principles: They accept only those risks that they are able to properly evaluate (staying within their circle of competence) and that, after they have evaluated all relevant factors including remote loss scenarios, carry the expectancy of profit. These insurers ignore market-share considerations and are sanguine about speak in parables, losing business to The Merchant of Venice competitors that are offering foolish prices or policy conditions. They limit the business they accept in a manner that guarantees they will suffer no aggregation of losses from The Netnews System a single event or from related events that will threaten their solvency. Essay! They ceaselessly search for ineffective communication, possible correlation among seemingly-unrelated risks.

They avoid business involving moral risk: No matter what the rate, trying to The Merchant Essay write good contracts with bad people doesn't work. While most policyholders and clients are honorable and ethical, doing business with the angelou few exceptions is usually expensive, sometimes extraordinarily so. In pricing property coverages, for example, we had looked to the past and taken into account only Essay, costs we might expect to incur from windstorm, fire, explosion and earthquake. But what will be the largest insured property loss in history (after adding related business-interruption claims) originated from is associated with what political party none of these forces. In short, all of The Merchant Essay us in the industry made a fundamental underwriting mistake by focusing on experience, rather than exposure, thereby assuming a huge terrorism risk for which we received no premium. Experience, of course, is a highly useful starting point in crm marketing underwriting most coverages. The Merchant Essay! For example, it's important for insurers writing California earthquake policies to know how many quakes in the state during the past century have registered 6.0 or greater on the Richter scale. This information will not tell you the by James McBride Essays exact probability of a big quake next year, or where in the state it might happen. But the statistic has utility, particularly if you are writing a huge statewide policy, as National Indemnity has done in The Merchant of Venice Essay recent years. At certain times, however, using experience as a guide to pricing is not only useless, but actually dangerous. Late in a bull market, for example, large losses from Administration directors and officers liability insurance (DO) are likely to of Venice be relatively rare.

When stocks are rising, there are a scarcity of targets to sue, and both questionable accounting and management chicanery often go undetected. At that juncture, experience on high-limit DO may look great. But that's just when exposure is likely to be exploding, by communication, way of ridiculous public offerings, earnings manipulation, chain-letter-like stock promotions and a potpourri of other unsavory activities. When stocks fall, these sins surface, hammering investors with losses that can run into the hundreds of billions. Juries deciding whether those losses should be borne by small investors or big insurance companies can be expected to hit insurers with verdicts that bear little relation to those delivered in The Merchant of Venice Essay bull-market days. Even one jumbo judgment, moreover, can cause settlement costs in later cases to democracy is associated with what party mushroom. Consequently, the correct rate for The Merchant of Venice, DO excess (meaning the insurer or reinsurer will pay losses above a high threshold) might well, if based on exposure , be five or more times the premium dictated by experience . Insurers have always found it costly to ignore new exposures. Why Did Speak In Parables! Doing that in the case of terrorism, however, could literally bankrupt the industry. No one knows the probability of a nuclear detonation in a major metropolis this year (or even multiple detonations, given that a terrorist organization able to construct one bomb might not stop there).

Nor can anyone, with assurance, assess the of Venice Essay probability in this year, or another, of deadly biological or chemical agents being introduced simultaneously (say, through ventilation systems) into multiple office buildings and manufacturing plants. An attack like that would produce astronomical workers' compensation claims. Here's what we do know: The probability of such mind-boggling disasters, though likely very low at present, is not zero. The probabilities are increasing, in an irregular and immeasurable manner, as knowledge and materials become available to angelou parents those who wish us ill. Fear may recede with time, but the danger won't ? the war against terrorism can never be won. The best the The Merchant of Venice Essay nation can achieve is The Netnews Administration Essay, a long succession of stalemates. There can be no checkmate against hydra-headed foes.

Until now, insurers and reinsurers have blithely assumed the financial consequences from the incalculable risks I have described. Under a close-to-worst-case scenario, which could conceivably involve $1 trillion of damage, the insurance industry would be destroyed unless it manages in some manner to The Merchant of Venice Essay dramatically limit its assumption of terrorism risks. Only the U.S. Jesus Speak In Parables! Government has the resources to absorb such a blow. If it is unwilling to do so on a prospective basis, the general citizenry must bear its own risks and count on the Government to come to of Venice its rescue after a disaster occurs. Why, you might ask, didn't I recognize the above facts before September 11 th ? The answer, sadly, is that I did ? but I didn't convert thought into maya angelou action. I violated the Noah rule: Predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does. I consequently let Berkshire operate with a dangerous level of of Venice Essay risk ? at General Re in particular. I'm sorry to say that much risk for which we haven't been compensated remains on our books, but it is running off by communication, the day.

At Berkshire, it should be noted, we have for some years been willing to assume more risk than any other insurer has knowingly taken on. That's still the case. The Merchant Of Venice Essay! We are perfectly willing to with what lose $2 billion to $2 billion in a single event (as we did on September 11 th ) if we have been paid properly for assuming the risk that caused the The Merchant loss (which on jacksonian what that occasion we weren't). Indeed, we have a major competitive advantage because of our tolerance for huge losses. Berkshire has massive liquid resources, substantial non-insurance earnings, a favorable tax position and The Merchant of Venice Essay, a knowledgeable shareholder constituency willing to accept volatility in earnings. This unique combination enables us to assume risks that far exceed the appetite of even our largest competitors. Over time, insuring these jumbo risks should be profitable, though periodically they will bring on why did speak a terrible year.

The bottom-line today is that we will write some coverage for terrorist-related losses, including a few non-correlated policies with very large limits. But we will not knowingly expose Berkshire to losses beyond what we can comfortably handle. We will control our total exposure, no matter what the of Venice Essay competition does. Insurance Operations in 2001. Over the speak in parables years, our insurance business has provided ever-growing, low-cost funds that have fueled much of Berkshire's growth. Charlie and I believe this will continue to be the case. But we stumbled in a big way in 2001, largely because of underwriting losses at Essay General Re. In the past I have assured you that General Re was underwriting with discipline ? and definition, I have been proven wrong.

Though its managers' intentions were good, the company broke each of the three underwriting rules I set forth in The Merchant of Venice the last section and has paid a huge price for doing so. One obvious cause for definition, its failure is that it did not reserve correctly ? more about this in the next section ? and therefore severely miscalculated the cost of the product it was selling. The Merchant Of Venice! Not knowing your costs will cause problems in maya parents any business. In long-tail reinsurance, where years of unawareness will promote and prolong severe underpricing, ignorance of Essay true costs is dynamite. Additionally, General Re was overly-competitive in The Color of Water McBride Essays going after, and The Merchant Essay, retaining, business. While all concerned may intend to angelou parents underwrite with care, it is nonetheless difficult for able, hard-driving professionals to curb their urge to prevail over competitors. If winning, however, is equated with market share rather than profits, trouble awaits. No must be an important part of any underwriter's vocabulary.

At the risk of sounding Pollyannaish, I now assure you that underwriting discipline is being restored at General Re (and its Cologne Re subsidiary) with appropriate urgency. Joe Brandon was appointed General Re's CEO in September and, along with Tad Montross, its new president, is committed to of Venice Essay producing underwriting profits. Last fall, Charlie and I read Jack Welch's terrific book, Jack, Straight from the Gut (get a copy!). In discussing it, we agreed that Joe has many of Jack's characteristics: He is smart, energetic, hands-on, and expects much of both himself and his organization. When it was an independent company, General Re often shone, and maya parents, now it also has the considerable strengths Berkshire brings to Essay the table. Crm Marketing! With that added advantage and Essay, with underwriting discipline restored, General Re should be a huge asset for Berkshire. I predict that Joe and Tad will make it so. At the National Indemnity reinsurance operation, Ajit Jain continues to add enormous value to Berkshire. Working with only 18 associates, Ajit manages one of the world's largest reinsurance operations measured by assets, and the largest, based upon the size of individual risks assumed. I have known the The Netnews Essay details of almost every policy that Ajit has written since he came with us in 1986, and never on The Merchant even a single occasion have I seen him break any of The Netnews System Essay our three underwriting rules.

His extraordinary discipline, of course, does not eliminate losses; it does, however, prevent foolish losses. And that's the The Merchant of Venice Essay key: Just as is the case in investing, insurers produce outstanding long-term results primarily by avoiding dumb decisions, rather than by making brilliant ones. Since September 11 th , Ajit has been particularly busy. Why Did In Parables! Among the policies we have written and retained entirely for our own account are (1) $578 million of of Venice Essay property coverage for a South American refinery once a loss there exceeds $1 billion; (2) $1 billion of definition non-cancelable third-party liability coverage for losses arising from of Venice acts of terrorism at definition several large international airlines; (3) 500 million of property coverage on a large North Sea oil platform, covering losses from terrorism and sabotage, above 600 million that the The Merchant of Venice insured retained or reinsured elsewhere; and The Netnews Administration, (4) significant coverage on the Sears Tower, including losses caused by The Merchant of Venice Essay, terrorism, above a $500 million threshold. Ineffective! We have written many other jumbo risks as well, such as protection for the World Cup Soccer Tournament and the 2002 Winter Olympics. In all cases, however, we have attempted to avoid writing groups of policies from The Merchant of Venice which losses might seriously aggregate. We will not, for example, write coverages on a large number of jesus speak in parables office and apartment towers in The Merchant of Venice a single metropolis without excluding losses from The Netnews System both a nuclear explosion and the fires that would follow it. No one can match the speed with which Ajit can offer huge policies. After September 11 th , his quickness to The Merchant respond, always important, has become a major competitive advantage. So, too, has our unsurpassed financial strength. Some reinsurers ? particularly those who, in The Color of Water McBride turn, are accustomed to laying off much of their business on a second layer of reinsurers known as retrocessionaires ? are in a weakened condition and would have difficulty surviving a second mega-cat.

When a daisy chain of retrocessionaires exists, a single weak link can pose trouble for The Merchant of Venice Essay, all. In assessing the soundness of their reinsurance protection, insurers must therefore apply a stress test to all participants in the chain, and crm marketing definition, must contemplate a catastrophe loss occurring during a very unfavorable economic environment. The Merchant Of Venice! After all, you only find out who is swimming naked when the tide goes out. In Parables! At Berkshire, we retain our risks and The Merchant of Venice, depend on no one. And whatever the crm marketing definition world's problems, our checks will clear. Ajit's business will ebb and The Merchant, flow ? but his underwriting principles won't waver.

It's impossible to overstate his value to Berkshire. GEICO, by far our largest primary insurer, made major progress in 2001, thanks to Tony Nicely, its CEO, and his associates. Quite simply, Tony is an owner's dream. GEICO's premium volume grew 6.6% last year, its float grew $308 million, and it achieved an underwriting profit of $221 million. This means we were actually paid that amount last year to parents hold the $4.25 billion in The Merchant of Venice float, which of course doesn't belong to Berkshire but can be used by by James McBride Essays, us for investment. The only disappointment at GEICO in 2001 ? and it's an important one ? was our inability to add policyholders. Our preferred customers (81% of our total) grew by 1.6% but our standard and non-standard policies fell by The Merchant of Venice, 10.1%. Overall, policies in crm marketing definition force fell .8%. New business has improved in recent months. Our closure rate from telephone inquiries has climbed, and our Internet business continues its steady growth. We, therefore, expect at least a modest gain in policy count during 2002.

Tony and I are eager to commit much more to marketing than the $219 million we spent last year, but at the moment we cannot see how to do so effectively. In the meantime, our operating costs are low and far below those of our major competitors; our prices are attractive; and our float is cost-free and growing. Our other primary insurers delivered their usual fine results last year. These operations, run by Rod Eldred, John Kizer, Tom Nerney, Michael Stearns, Don Towle and Don Wurster had combined premium volume of $579 million, up 40% over 2000. Their float increased 14.5% to The Merchant of Venice $685 million, and they recorded an underwriting profit of $30 million.

In aggregate, these companies are one of the finest insurance operations in the country, and crm marketing, their 2002 prospects look excellent. Loss Development and Insurance Accounting. Bad terminology is the enemy of of Venice Essay good thinking. Jacksonian Democracy With Party! When companies or investment professionals use terms such as EBITDA and pro forma, they want you to unthinkingly accept concepts that are dangerously flawed. (In golf, my score is frequently below par on a pro forma basis: I have firm plans to restructure my putting stroke and therefore only count the swings I take before reaching the green.) In insurance reporting, loss development is Essay, a widely used term ? and one that is seriously misleading. Jacksonian Democracy Is Associated With What! First, a definition: Loss reserves at an insurer are not funds tucked away for Essay, a rainy day, but rather a liability account. If properly calculated, the Administration System Essay liability states the amount that an insurer will have to The Merchant of Venice pay for all losses (including associated costs) that have occurred prior to maya angelou parents the reporting date but have not yet been paid. When calculating the reserve, the insurer will have been notified of many of the losses it is destined to pay, but others will not yet have been reported to it. These losses are called IBNR, for Essay, incurred but not reported. Indeed, in The Netnews Administration some cases (involving, say, product liability or embezzlement) the insured itself will not yet be aware that a loss has occurred.

It's clearly difficult for an insurer to put a figure on the ultimate cost of of Venice all such reported and why did jesus speak, unreported events. But the ability to do so with reasonable accuracy is vital. Otherwise the The Merchant of Venice insurer's managers won't know what its actual loss costs are and how these compare to the premiums being charged. GEICO got into why did speak in parables huge trouble in the early 1970s because for several years it severely underreserved, and The Merchant Essay, therefore believed its product (insurance protection) was costing considerably less than was truly the case. Consequently, the crm marketing company sailed blissfully along, underpricing its product and selling more and more policies at The Merchant ever-larger losses. When it becomes evident that reserves at past reporting dates understated the liability that truly existed at the time, companies speak of definition loss development. In the of Venice Essay year discovered, these shortfalls penalize reported earnings because the catch-up costs from prior years must be added to current-year costs when results are calculated. This is what happened at General Re in 2001: a staggering $800 million of loss costs that actually occurred in earlier years, but that were not then recorded, were belatedly recognized last year and charged against current earnings. The mistake was an honest one, I can assure you of that. Nevertheless, for several years, this underreserving caused us to believe that our costs were much lower than they truly were, an error that contributed to woefully inadequate pricing.

Additionally, the overstated profit figures led us to pay substantial incentive compensation that we should not have and to maya incur income taxes far earlier than was necessary. We recommend scrapping the term loss development and Essay, its equally ugly twin, reserve strengthening. Of Water McBride! (Can you imagine an insurer, upon finding its reserves excessive, describing the reduction that follows as reserve weakening?) Loss development suggests to investors that some natural, uncontrollable event has occurred in the current year, and reserve strengthening implies that adequate amounts have been further buttressed. The truth, however, is that management made an error in Essay estimation that in turn produced an error in the earnings previously reported. The losses didn't develop ? they were there all along. Communication! What developed was management's understanding of the The Merchant of Venice Essay losses (or, in the instances of chicanery, management's willingness to finally fess up). A more forthright label for the phenomenon at issue would be loss costs we failed to recognize when they occurred (or maybe just oops). Underreserving, it should be noted, is a common ? and serious ? problem throughout the jacksonian democracy political party property/casualty insurance industry. At Berkshire we told you of our own problems with underestimation in 1984 and 1986. Generally, however, our reserving has been conservative.

Major underreserving is The Merchant Essay, common in cases of companies struggling for survival. Maya Parents! In effect, insurance accounting is a self-graded exam, in that the insurer gives some figures to its auditing firm and generally doesn't get an argument. (What the auditor gets, however, is a letter from management that is designed to The Merchant of Venice take his firm off the hook if the numbers later look silly.) A company experiencing financial difficulties ? of a kind that, if truly faced, could put it out of business ? seldom proves to be a tough grader. Who, after all, wants to prepare his own execution papers? Even when companies have the best of intentions, it's not easy to reserve properly. I've told the story in the past about the fellow traveling abroad whose sister called to tell him that their dad had died. Crm Marketing! The brother replied that it was impossible for of Venice Essay, him to get home for the funeral; he volunteered, however, to shoulder its cost. Upon returning, the brother received a bill from the The Color mortuary for $4,500, which he promptly paid.

A month later, and a month after that also, he paid $10 pursuant to an add-on invoice. When a third $10 invoice came, he called his sister for an explanation. Oh, she replied, I forgot to tell you. We buried dad in a rented suit. There are a lot of of Venice rented suits buried in the past operations of insurance companies. Sometimes the problems they signify lie dormant for decades, as was the case with asbestos liability, before virulently manifesting themselves. Difficult as the The Netnews job may be, it's management's responsibility to adequately account for all possibilities. Conservatism is essential. When a claims manager walks into the CEO's office and says Guess what just happened, his boss, if a veteran, does not expect to hear it's good news.

Surprises in the insurance world have been far from symmetrical in their effect on earnings. Because of this one-sided experience, it is folly to suggest, as some are doing, that all property/casualty insurance reserves be discounted , an approach reflecting the of Venice fact that they will be paid in the future and that therefore their present value is less than the stated liability for them. Discounting might be acceptable if reserves could be precisely established. The Netnews Administration Essay! They can't, however, because a myriad of The Merchant Essay forces ? judicial broadening of policy language and medical inflation, to name just two chronic problems ? are constantly working to make reserves inadequate. Crm Marketing! Discounting would exacerbate this already-serious situation and, additionally, would provide a new tool for the companies that are inclined to The Merchant of Venice fudge. I'd say that the effects from telling a profit-challenged insurance CEO to lower reserves through discounting would be comparable to those that would ensue if a father told his 16-year-old son to have a normal sex life. Jacksonian Democracy With What! Neither party needs that kind of push. Sources of of Venice Essay Reported Earnings.

The table that follows shows the main sources of is associated with what Berkshire's reported earnings. In this presentation, purchase-accounting adjustments (primarily relating to The Merchant of Venice goodwill) are not assigned to the specific businesses to jesus speak which they apply, but are instead aggregated and shown separately. This procedure lets you view the earnings of our businesses as they would have been reported had we not purchased them. In recent years, our expense for goodwill amortization has been large. Going forward, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) will no longer require amortization of goodwill.

This change will increase our reported earnings (though not our true economic earnings) and simplify this section of the report. of Net Earnings. (after taxes and. (1) Includes Acme Brick from August 1, 2000; Benjamin Moore from December 18, 2000; Johns Manville from February 27, 2001; and Essay, MiTek from July 31, 2001. (2) From date of acquisition, January 8, 2001. Here are some highlights (and lowlights) from 2001 relating to our non-insurance activities:

Our shoe operations (included in other businesses) lost $46.2 million pre-tax, with profits at H.H. Brown and Justin swamped by losses at Dexter. I've made three decisions relating to Dexter that have hurt you in a major way: (1) buying it in the first place; (2) paying for it with stock and crm marketing definition, (3) procrastinating when the need for The Merchant of Venice, changes in its operations was obvious. I would like to speak in parables lay these mistakes on Charlie (or anyone else, for that matter) but they were mine. Dexter, prior to our purchase ? and of Venice, indeed for a few years after ? prospered despite low-cost foreign competition that was brutal. Why Did Jesus Speak! I concluded that Dexter could continue to cope with that problem, and I was wrong. We have now placed the Dexter operation ? which is still substantial in size ? under the Essay management of Frank Rooney and Jim Issler at H.H. Brown. These men have performed outstandingly for Berkshire, skillfully contending with the extraordinary changes that have bedeviled the footwear industry.

During part of of Water by James McBride 2002, Dexter will be hurt by unprofitable sales commitments it made last year. The Merchant! After that, we believe our shoe business will be reasonably profitable. MidAmerican Energy, of The Netnews Administration System which we own 76% on a fully-diluted basis, had a good year in 2001. Of Venice! Its reported earnings should also increase considerably in 2002 given that the company has been shouldering a large charge for the amortization of parents goodwill and of Venice Essay, that this cost will disappear under the new GAAP rules. Last year MidAmerican swapped some properties in England, adding Yorkshire Electric, with its 2.1 million customers. We are now serving 3.6 million customers in the U.K. and are its 2 nd largest electric utility. We have an equally important operation in Iowa as well as major generating facilities in California and the Philippines. At MidAmerican ? this may surprise you ? we also own the second-largest residential real estate brokerage business in angelou the country. We are market-share leaders in a number of large cities, primarily in the Midwest, and of Venice Essay, have recently acquired important firms in Atlanta and Southern California. Jesus Speak! Last year, operating under various names that are locally familiar, we handled about of Venice, 106,000 transactions involving properties worth nearly $20 billion. Speak In Parables! Ron Peltier has built this business for us, and it's likely he will make more acquisitions in 2002 and the years to come.

Considering the recessionary environment plaguing them, our retailing operations did well in 2001. In jewelry, same-store sales fell 7.6% and pre-tax margins were 8.9% versus 10.7% in 2000. Of Venice! Return on invested capital remains high. Same-store sales at our home-furnishings retailers were unchanged and so was the why did jesus speak in parables margin ? 9.1% pre-tax ? these operations earned. Here, too, return on invested capital is excellent. We continue to expand in both jewelry and home-furnishings. Of Venice! Of particular note, Nebraska Furniture Mart is constructing a mammoth 450,000 square foot store that will serve the greater Kansas City area beginning in the fall of communication 2003. Despite Bill Child's counter-successes, we will keep this store open on Sundays. The large acquisitions we initiated in The Merchant Essay late 2000 ? Shaw, Johns Manville and Benjamin Moore ? all came through their first year with us in great fashion. Charlie and I knew at the time of The Color McBride our purchases that we were in good hands with Bob Shaw, Jerry Henry and The Merchant Essay, Yvan Dupuy, respectively ? and we admire their work even more now. Together these businesses earned about $659 million pre-tax.

Shortly after yearend we exchanged 4,740 Berkshire A shares (or their equivalent in B shares) for the 12.7% minority interest in Shaw, which means we now own 100% of the The Netnews Administration System Essay company. Shaw is our largest non-insurance operation and will play a big part in Berkshire's future. All of the The Merchant of Venice income shown for Flight Services in jacksonian with political party 2001 ? and a bit more ? came from FlightSafety, our pilot-training subsidiary. Its earnings increased 2.5%, though return on The Merchant invested capital fell slightly because of the $258 million investment we made last year in simulators and other fixed assets. My 84-year-old friend, Al Ueltschi, continues to run FlightSafety with the same enthusiasm and definition, competitive spirit that he has exhibited since 1951, when he invested $10,000 to start the company. If I line Al up with a bunch of 60-year-olds at the annual meeting, you will not be able to pick him out. After September 11 th , training for commercial airlines fell, and today it remains depressed. However, training for business and general aviation, our main activity, is at near-normal levels and should continue to The Merchant grow. In 2002, we expect to spend $162 million for 27 simulators, a sum far in excess of our annual depreciation charge of jesus $95 million. Those who believe that EBITDA is in any way equivalent to true earnings are welcome to pick up the tab.

Our NetJets® fractional ownership program sold a record number of planes last year and also showed a gain of 21.9% in service income from management fees and hourly charges. Nevertheless, it operated at a small loss, versus a small profit in 2000. We made a little money in the U.S., but these earnings were more than offset by European losses. Measured by the value of of Venice Essay our customers' planes, NetJets accounts for The Netnews System Essay, about half of the industry. We believe the other participants, in aggregate, lost significant money. Maintaining a premier level of safety, security and service was always expensive, and the cost of The Merchant sticking to those standards was exacerbated by September 11 th . No matter how much the cost, we will continue to be the industry leader in all three respects. The Color Of Water! An uncompromising insistence on of Venice delivering only the best to his customers is embedded in the DNA of Rich Santulli, CEO of the of Water McBride company and the inventor of fractional ownership. I'm delighted with his fanaticism on these matters for both the company's sake and my family's: I believe the Buffetts fly more fractional-ownership hours ? we log in excess of 800 annually ? than does any other family. In case you're wondering, we use exactly the same planes and crews that serve NetJet's other customers. NetJets experienced a spurt in new orders shortly after September 11 th , but its sales pace has since returned to normal. Per-customer usage declined somewhat during the year, probably because of the recession.

Both we and our customers derive significant operational benefits from The Merchant Essay our being the The Netnews System Essay runaway leader in the fractional ownership business. We have more than 300 planes constantly on the go in the U.S. and can therefore be wherever a customer needs us on very short notice. The ubiquity of our fleet also reduces our positioning costs below those incurred by operators with smaller fleets. These advantages of scale, and others we have, give NetJets a significant economic edge over competition. Under the competitive conditions likely to prevail for a few years, however, our advantage will at The Merchant of Venice best produce modest profits. Our finance and financial products line of The Netnews System business now includes XTRA, General Re Securities (which is in a run-off mode that will continue for an extended period) and a few other relatively small operations. The bulk of the assets and liabilities in The Merchant this segment, however, arise from a few fixed-income strategies, involving highly-liquid AAA securities, that I manage. Speak! This activity, which only makes sense when certain market relationships exist, has produced good returns in the past and has reasonable prospects for continuing to do so over the next year or two.

Below we present our common stock investments. The Merchant! Those that had a market value of more than $500 million at the end of 2001 are itemized. (dollars in millions) We made few changes in our portfolio during 2001. As a group, our larger holdings have performed poorly in the last few years, some because of disappointing operating results. Charlie and I still like the of Water by James basic businesses of all the companies we own. But we do not believe Berkshire's equity holdings as a group are undervalued. Our restrained enthusiasm for these securities is matched by decidedly lukewarm feelings about the prospects for stocks in general over the next decade or so. I expressed my views about equity returns in a speech I gave at an Allen and Company meeting in July (which was a follow-up to a similar presentation I had made two years earlier) and an edited version of my comments appeared in a December 10 th Fortune article. I'm enclosing a copy of that article. You can also view the Fortune version of my 1999 talk at our website www.berkshirehathaway.com . Charlie and The Merchant, I believe that American business will do fine over time but think that today's equity prices presage only moderate returns for investors.

The market outperformed business for a very long period, and that phenomenon had to end. A market that no more than parallels business progress, however, is likely to leave many investors disappointed, particularly those relatively new to the game. Here's one for those who enjoy an odd coincidence: The Great Bubble ended on March 10, 2000 (though we didn't realize that fact until some months later). Why Did Jesus! On that day, the NASDAQ (recently 1,731) hit its all-time high of 5,132. That same day, Berkshire shares traded at $40,800, their lowest price since mid-1997. During 2001, we were somewhat more active than usual in junk bonds. These are not, we should emphasize, suitable investments for of Venice Essay, the general public, because too often these securities live up to their name. Administration System! We have never purchased a newly-issued junk bond, which is the only kind most investors are urged to buy. When losses occur in this field, furthermore, they are often disastrous: Many issues end up at The Merchant a small fraction of with their original offering price and some become entirely worthless. Despite these dangers, we periodically find a few ? a very few ? junk securities that are interesting to us.

And, so far, our 50-year experience in distressed debt has proven rewarding. In our 1984 annual report, we described our purchases of Washington Public Power System bonds when that issuer fell into disrepute. We've also, over The Merchant of Venice, the years, stepped into other apparent calamities such as Chrysler Financial, Texaco and RJR Nabisco ? all of which returned to grace. Still, if we stay active in junk bonds, you can expect us to have losses from time to time. Occasionally, a purchase of distressed bonds leads us into something bigger. Early in the Fruit of the of Water by James McBride Loom bankruptcy, we purchased the company's public and bank debt at about 50% of face value. The Merchant Of Venice! This was an unusual bankruptcy in Essay that interest payments on The Merchant of Venice senior debt were continued without interruption, which meant we earned about a 15% current return. Our holdings grew to 10% of Fruit's senior debt, which will probably end up returning us about 70% of face value. Through this investment, we indirectly reduced our purchase price for the whole company by a small amount. In late 2000, we began purchasing the obligations of FINOVA Group, a troubled finance company, and crm marketing definition, that, too, led to of Venice Essay our making a major transaction.

FINOVA then had about The Color by James Essays, $11 billion of debt outstanding, of which we purchased 13% at about two-thirds of face value. We expected the Essay company to of Water McBride go into bankruptcy, but believed that liquidation of its assets would produce a payoff for creditors that would be well above our cost. The Merchant Essay! As default loomed in crm marketing definition early 2001, we joined forces with Leucadia National Corporation to present the The Merchant of Venice company with a prepackaged plan for bankruptcy. The plan as subsequently modified (and I'm simplifying here) provided that creditors would be paid 70% of speak face value (along with full interest) and that they would receive a newly-issued 7% note for the 30% of their claims not satisfied by cash. Of Venice Essay! To fund FINOVA's 70% distribution, Leucadia and Berkshire formed a jointly-owned entity ? mellifluently christened Berkadia ? that borrowed $5.6 billion through FleetBoston and, in turn, re-lent this sum to FINOVA, concurrently obtaining a priority claim on is associated with its assets. Berkshire guaranteed 90% of the Berkadia borrowing and also has a secondary guarantee on the 10% for of Venice Essay, which Leucadia has primary responsibility. (Did I mention that I am simplifying?).

There is a spread of about two percentage points between what Berkadia pays on its borrowing and what it receives from FINOVA, with this spread flowing 90% to Berkshire and 10% to Leucadia. As I write this, each loan has been paid down to The Netnews System $3.9 billion. As part of the of Venice Essay bankruptcy plan, which was approved on August 10, 2001, Berkshire also agreed to offer 70% of communication face value for up to $500 million principal amount of the $3.25 billion of new 7% bonds that were issued by FINOVA. (Of these, we had already received $426.8 million in principal amount because of our 13% ownership of the original debt.) Our offer, which was to run until September 26, 2001, could be withdrawn under a variety of conditions, one of Essay which became operative if the New York Stock Exchange closed during the offering period. When that indeed occurred in the week of September 11 th , we promptly terminated the ineffective communication offer. Many of FINOVA's loans involve aircraft assets whose values were significantly diminished by The Merchant of Venice Essay, the events of September 11 th . Other receivables held by the company also were imperiled by angelou, the economic consequences of the of Venice attack that day.

FINOVA's prospects, therefore, are not as good as when we made our proposal to the bankruptcy court. Nevertheless we feel that overall the crm marketing transaction will prove satisfactory for Berkshire. Of Venice! Leucadia has day-to-day operating responsibility for why did in parables, FINOVA, and we have long been impressed with the business acumen and managerial talent of its key executives. It's déjà vu time again: In early 1965, when the investment partnership I ran took control of Berkshire, that company had its main banking relationships with First National Bank of Boston and a large New York City bank. Previously, I had done no business with either. Fast forward to 1969, when I wanted Berkshire to buy the Illinois National Bank and Trust of Rockford. We needed $10 million, and I contacted both banks. There was no response from The Merchant of Venice Essay New York.

However, two representatives of the Boston bank immediately came to why did Omaha. They told me they would supply the money for our purchase and that we would work out the of Venice details later. For the next three decades, we borrowed almost nothing from banks. (Debt is a four-letter word around Berkshire.) Then, in February, when we were structuring the The Color of Water FINOVA transaction, I again called Boston, where First National had morphed into FleetBoston. Chad Gifford, the The Merchant of Venice company's president, responded just as Bill Brown and maya angelou, Ira Stepanian had back in 1969 ? you've got the of Venice Essay money and Administration System, we'll work out the details later. And that's just what happened. FleetBoston syndicated a loan for $6 billion (as it turned out, we didn't need $400 million of it), and it was quickly oversubscribed by 17 banks throughout the world. Sooooo . . The Merchant Of Venice Essay! . if you ever need $6 billion, just give Chad a call ? assuming, that is, your credit is AAA.

One more point about our investments: The media often report that Buffett is angelou, buying this or that security, having picked up the fact from reports that Berkshire files. These accounts are sometimes correct, but at of Venice other times the transactions Berkshire reports are actually being made by Lou Simpson, who runs a $2 billion portfolio for GEICO that is quite independent of me. Normally, Lou does not tell me what he is ineffective, buying or selling, and I learn of of Venice Essay his activities only The Color of Water McBride, when I look at a GEICO portfolio summary that I receive a few days after the end of each month. Lou's thinking, of course, is quite similar to mine, but we usually end up in The Merchant Essay different securities. Parents! That's largely because he's working with less money and can therefore invest in The Merchant of Venice smaller companies than I. Oh, yes, there's also another minor difference between us: In recent years, Lou's performance has been far better than mine. Berkshire follows a highly unusual policy in respect to charitable contributions ? but it's one that Charlie and I believe is both rational and fair to owners. First, we let our operating subsidiaries make their own charitable decisions, requesting only that the owners/managers who once ran these as independent companies make all donations to their personal charities from crm marketing definition their own funds, instead of using company money.

When our managers are using company funds, we trust them to make gifts in a manner that delivers commensurate tangible or intangible benefits to the operations they manage. Last year contributions from The Merchant Berkshire subsidiaries totaled $19.2 million. At the parent company level, we make no contributions except those designated by shareholders. Maya Angelou! We do not match contributions made by directors or employees, nor do we give to the favorite charities of the Buffetts or the Mungers. However, prior to our purchasing them, a few of our subsidiaries had employee-match programs and The Merchant of Venice, we feel fine about maya parents, their continuing them: It's not our style to of Venice tamper with successful business cultures. To implement our owners' charitable desires, each year we notify registered holders of A shares (A's represent 86.6% of our equity capital) of a per-share amount that they can instruct us to contribute to as many as three charities. Shareholders name the charity; Berkshire writes the check.

Any organization that qualifies under the crm marketing definition Internal Revenue Code can be designated by shareholders. Last year Berkshire made contributions of $16.7 million at the direction of 5,700 shareholders, who named 3,550 charities as recipients. Since we started this program, our shareholders' gifts have totaled $181 million. Most public corporations eschew gifts to The Merchant of Venice Essay religious institutions. These, however, are favorite charities of The Color of Water by James Essays our shareholders, who last year named 437 churches and synagogues to receive gifts. Additionally, 790 schools were recipients. A few of our larger shareholders, including Charlie and Essay, me, designate their personal foundations to get gifts, so that those entities can, in turn, disburse their funds widely. I get a few letters every week criticizing Berkshire for contributing to Planned Parenthood.

These letters are usually prompted by an organization that wishes to see boycotts of Berkshire products. The letters are invariably polite and sincere, but their writers are unaware of crm marketing a key point: It's not Berkshire, but rather its owners who are making charitable decisions ? and these owners are about as diverse in their opinions as you can imagine. For example, they are probably on both sides of the abortion issue in roughly the same proportion as the of Venice American population. We'll follow their instructions, whether they designate Planned Parenthood or Metro Right to Life, just as long as the charity possesses 501(c)(3) status. Communication! It's as if we paid a dividend, which the shareholder then donated. Our form of disbursement, however, is The Merchant, more tax-efficient. In neither the purchase of goods nor the hiring of personnel, do we ever consider the religious views, the gender, the race or the sexual orientation of the persons we are dealing with. It would not only be wrong to do so, it would be idiotic. We need all of the talent we can find, and maya angelou, we have learned that able and trustworthy managers, employees and suppliers come from a very wide spectrum of humanity. To participate in our future charitable contribution programs, you must own Class A shares that are registered in The Merchant Essay the name of the crm marketing definition actual owner, not the nominee name of a broker, bank or depository. Shares not so registered on of Venice Essay August 31, 2002 will be ineligible for the 2002 program.

When you get the The Color of Water Essays contributions form from us, return it promptly. Designations received after the of Venice due date will not be honored. The Annual Meeting. This year's annual meeting will be on Saturday, May 4, and we will again be at the Civic Auditorium. The doors will open at 7 a.m., the movie will begin at 8:30, and the meeting itself will commence at 9:30. There will be a short break at noon for food. (Sandwiches can be bought at the Civic's concession stands.) Except for that interlude, Charlie and I will answer questions until 3:30. The Color Of Water By James Essays! Give us your best shot. For at The Merchant of Venice Essay least the angelou next year, the Civic, located downtown, is the only site available to us. We must therefore hold the The Merchant of Venice meeting on ineffective communication either Saturday or Sunday to avoid the traffic and parking nightmare sure to occur on a weekday.

Shortly, however, Omaha will have a new Convention Center with plenty of parking facilities. Assuming that we then head for the Center, I will poll shareholders to The Merchant of Venice Essay see whether you wish to return to The Color McBride Essays the Monday meeting that was standard until 2000. We will decide that vote based on a count of shareholders, not shares. (This is of Venice, not a system, however, we will ever institute to decide who should be CEO.) An attachment to the proxy material that is enclosed with this report explains how you can obtain the credential you will need for admission to the meeting and ineffective communication, other events. As for plane, hotel and car reservations, we have again signed up American Express (800-799-6634) to give you special help. They do a terrific job for us each year, and I thank them for it. In our usual fashion, we will run buses from the Essay larger hotels to the meeting. Afterwards, the buses will make trips back to the hotels and to Nebraska Furniture Mart, Borsheim's and the airport. Even so, you are likely to find a car useful. We have added so many new companies to crm marketing definition Berkshire this year that I'm not going to The Merchant detail all of the angelou parents products that we will be selling at of Venice Essay the meeting.

But come prepared to communication carry home everything from bricks to candy. And underwear, of course. Assuming our Fruit of the Loom purchase has closed by May 4, we will be selling Fruit's latest styles, which will make you your neighborhood's fashion leader. Buy a lifetime supply. GEICO will have a booth staffed by a number of its top counselors from around the country, all of them ready to supply you with auto insurance quotes. In most cases, GEICO will be able to give you a special shareholder discount (usually 8%). This special offer is of Venice Essay, permitted by 41 of the 49 jurisdictions in which we operate. Bring the details of your existing insurance and check out whether we can save you money. At the McBride Essays Omaha airport on Saturday, we will have the of Venice usual array of jacksonian is associated what aircraft from NetJets® available for your inspection. Just ask a representative at the Civic about viewing any of these planes.

If you buy what we consider an Essay appropriate number of items during the weekend, you may well need your own plane to take them home. And, if you buy a fraction of a plane, we might even throw in crm marketing definition a three-pack of briefs or boxers. At Nebraska Furniture Mart, located on a 75-acre site on 72 nd Street between Dodge and Pacific, we will again be having Berkshire Weekend pricing, which means we will be offering our shareholders a discount that is customarily given only to employees. We initiated this special pricing at NFM five years ago, and of Venice, sales during the speak Weekend grew from $5.3 million in of Venice 1997 to $11.5 million in 2001. To get the discount, you must make your purchases on Thursday, May 2 through Monday, May 6 and also present your meeting credential. The period's special pricing will even apply to maya angelou the products of several prestigious manufacturers that normally have ironclad rules against discounting but that, in the spirit of our shareholder weekend, have made an of Venice exception for speak in parables, you. We appreciate their cooperation. NFM is open from of Venice Essay 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekdays and 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Saturdays and ineffective communication, Sundays. Borsheim's ? the largest jewelry store in the country except for Tiffany's Manhattan store ? will have two shareholder-only events. The first will be a cocktail reception from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. on The Merchant Essay Friday, May 3. The second, the The Netnews System main gala, will be from The Merchant of Venice 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday, May 5. Shareholder prices will be available Thursday through Monday, so if you wish to why did avoid the large crowds that will assemble on Friday evening and Sunday, come at other times and identify yourself as a shareholder.

On Saturday, we will be open until 6 p.m. Borsheim's operates on a gross margin that is fully twenty percentage points below that of its major rivals, so the more you buy, the more you save (or at least that's what my wife and daughter tell me). Come by and let us perform a walletectomy on you. In the mall outside of Borsheim's, we will have some of the world's top bridge experts available to Essay play with our shareholders on Sunday afternoon. We expect Bob and Petra Hamman along with Sharon Osberg to jacksonian is associated political party host tables. The Merchant Of Venice Essay! Patrick Wolff, twice U.S. chess champion, will also be in jacksonian democracy with political party the mall, taking on The Merchant of Venice all comers ? blindfolded! Last year, Patrick played as many as six games simultaneously ? with his blindfold securely in place ? and this year will try for seven.

Finally, Bill Robertie, one of only two players who have twice won the backgammon world championship, will be on hand to test your skill at that game. Come to the mall on Sunday for the Mensa Olympics. Gorat's ? my favorite steakhouse ? will again be open exclusively for Berkshire shareholders on Sunday, May 5, and jacksonian what, will be serving from The Merchant Essay 4 p.m. until 10 p.m. Please remember that to come to Gorat's on Sunday, you must have a reservation. To make one, call 402-551-3733 on April 1 ( but not before ). If Sunday is sold out, try Gorat's on one of the other evenings you will be in ineffective town.

Show your sophistication by ordering a rare T-bone with a double order of hash browns. The usual baseball game will be held at Rosenblatt Stadium at The Merchant Essay 7 p.m. on Saturday night. Democracy With What! This year the Omaha Royals will play the The Merchant of Venice Essay Oklahoma RedHawks. Jesus! Last year, in an attempt to emulate the career switch of of Venice Essay Babe Ruth, I gave up pitching and tried batting. Bob Gibson, an Omaha native, was on the mound and I was terrified, fearing Bob's famous brush-back pitch. Instead, he delivered a fast ball in the strike zone, and with a Mark McGwire-like swing, I managed to The Netnews connect for a hard grounder, which inexplicably died in the infield. Of Venice! I didn't run it out: At my age, I get winded playing a hand of bridge. I'm not sure what will take place at the ballpark this year, but come out and be surprised.

Our proxy statement contains instructions for democracy is associated with what political party, obtaining tickets to the game. Those people ordering tickets to the annual meeting will receive a booklet containing all manner of of Venice Essay information that should help you enjoy your visit in is associated political party Omaha. Essay! There will be plenty of action in of Water town. Of Venice! So come for Woodstock Weekend and join our Celebration of Capitalism at the Civic. Finally, I would like to thank the wonderful and incredibly productive crew at World Headquarters (all 5,246.5 square feet of it) who make my job so easy. Berkshire added about by James McBride Essays, 40,000 employees last year, bringing our workforce to of Venice Essay 110,000. At headquarters we added one employee and why did jesus speak in parables, now have 14.8. (I've tried in The Merchant vain to definition get JoEllen Rieck to change her workweek from four days to Essay five; I think she likes the national recognition she gains by being .8.)

The smooth handling of the maya angelou parents array of duties that come with our current size and scope ? as well as some additional activities almost unique to Berkshire, such as our shareholder gala and The Merchant of Venice, designated-gifts program ? takes a very special group of people. And that we most definitely have.

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Further Questions: Do you like hyperlinks included in resumes for sample or demonstration purposes? This week we asked people who hire librarians: Do you like hyperlinks included in of Venice Essay, resumes for sample or demonstration purposes? How have you seen this done well (or poorly)? Were fine with it. I send all of the of Water McBride, applications to each of the search team electronically so they can click on links for that sort of thing. Its nice if someone has an The Merchant, example of a project that is applicable.

Remember that the committee members may print out your application for the initial screening meeting, so that may be lost. But committee members will review applications before and communication after that meeting. I cant recall if Ive seen someone do this. Laurie Phillips, Associate Dean for Technical Services, J. Edgar Louise S. Monroe Library, Loyola University New Orleans. When we were hiring a new Graphics person, we found candidates used this feature and it was very useful. Dont know how it would work for of Venice, other positions. I have seen applicants do this in speak, their publishing and presenting section which I find helpful given we are hiring for The Merchant Essay, faculty positions. I have also seen this done throughout an applicants CV to show general, non-scholarly work which I think is distracting an inappropriate. The Netnews Essay. Some applicants will provide one link to a professional blog (or similar) where they have non-scholarly work in The Merchant of Venice, one place which is acceptable, in this case, however, it is parents, work that the applicant has selected which has not gone through a peer review process like a presentation or publication would have. Julie Leuzinger, Department Head, Eagle Commons Library, University of North Texas.

Yes, so long as they are well labeled. They are excellent for lengthy resumes, and in our case, sample MARC records which have been prepared. J. The Merchant Essay. McRee (Mac) Elrod, Special Libraries Catalouging. Thank YOU for reading! If you liked reading, youre going to really love COMMENTING. Welcome to crowd-sourced resume review for maya parents, LIS job hunters! Please help the job hunter below by using the of Venice, comment button to offer constructive criticism on her resume. Some guidelines for constructive feedback are here, and the ALA NMRT has brief tips for of Water McBride, reviewing resumes here. This 3 page resume was submitted by a job hunter,

To submit your resume or CV For Public Review, send it as a Word document, PDF, PNG or JPEG to hiringlibrariansresumereviewATgmail. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. It will be posted as-is, so please remove any information that you are not comfortable having publically available (I suggest removing your address and phone number at Essay a minimum). Please include a short statement identifying if its a resume or CV and describing the types of positions youre using it for (ie institution type, position level, general focus). The Merchant. Finally, you will also need to The Netnews Administration System, confirm that you agree to of Venice Essay, comment on at least five other posted resumes. Job Hunters Web Guide: Academic Library Jobs. Im glad to be able to present this site, not only because it will be a great resource for all you academic librarians (present and speak in parables future), but because I think Molly has done a good job of explaining how a job ad junkie can turn a quirky habit into a very helpful resource. Todays post looks at Academic Library Jobs. What is Essay, it?

Please give us your elevator speech! Academic Library Jobs is a mobile-friendly website that features a curated list of job listings in academic libraries. Maya. It includes job listings from public and private colleges and universities in The Merchant Essay, the United States, most requiring a masters degree in a library-related field. When was it started? Why was it started? It started about a year before it was actually launched. Crm Marketing. #128578; In the summer of 2012, I was working in a university IT department, and, like many people Ive talked to, spent my breaks surfing job ads on my phone. The Merchant Essay. I noticed that many job ads were pretty hard to view that way, and why did in parables Id end up emailing myself a reminder to check a particular job when I got home.

I had been wanting to Essay, try my hand at app development, so I decided to write an app that would deliver job ads. Then I started trying to narrow down the by James Essays, kinds of job ads it would include. I kept drifting toward the library jobs (I have an The Merchant, MLIS, but have worked in IT for a long time), and more specifically, toward academic library jobs, because I love working in higher ed. The problem was that it was taking me so long to develop the app that a lot of great jobs were going by. Finally, in ineffective communication, May of 2013, I decided to ditch my app aspirations and find a responsive WordPress theme, so that at least I would have a mobile-friendly site where I could post the jobs I was seeing. I found ThemeHorses Clean Retina, which looks lovely on every device Ive tried it on, with minimal CSS tweaking. Fortunately, since I had already designed and built the database for the app, I knew where I wanted to go with categories and tags, and what information I wanted to provide with each listing.

I decided to Essay, include college-town profiles too, because I believe that place is such an important consideration when youre looking for jobs. I do. [Molly Ives Brower] I do all the WordPress wrangling, the job-ad curation, and the tweeting. I do use the editorial we from time to time, just because I like that particular affectation. Definition. #128578; Are you a career expert? What are your qualifications? Im not a career expertalthough Ive had 17 jobs since 1988, so I do have a lot of The Merchant of Venice Essay, experience applying for jobs and interviewing. These days Im an ineffective, IT consultant, but one of my clients is a library, and of Venice I keep up with some of my favorite library issues, thanks to jacksonian is associated with party, Twitter and my friends in the library world (including my husband, who is the director of an academic library). My primary qualification to do this is The Merchant of Venice Essay, that I am a job-ad junkie. Speak In Parables. When I started library school I was a clerk/typist in the serials department of a university library, and one of my jobs was to open the of Venice Essay, mail. Every time we got a new issue of Library Journal or other publications that advertised library jobs (I remember a weekly newsletter that was almost nothing but job ads), I would read them to of Water McBride, try to The Merchant of Venice Essay, decide what kind of librarian I wanted to be and where I wanted to live when I finished my degree.

Ive never really gotten out of the habit of looking at job ads. Its become a hobby. Another hobby of mine is visiting college towns, so Ive actually been to a lot of the definition, places I link to. Of Venice. Ive been known to drive two hours out of my way to visit, say, Carbondale, Illinois or Oneonta, New York (Oneonta is one of my favorite college towns, actually). But I havent traveled the entire country, of course, so there are a lot Ive never even been close to. Who is your target audience? Academic librarians and communication people who want to be academic librarians. Whats the best way to use your site? Should users consult it daily? Or as needed?

Should they already know what they need help with, or can they just noodle around? They can certainly consult it daily if they want to, or they can just follow the RSS feeds. Of Venice Essay. I dont have ads, so it doesnt matter to me if people read the parents, feeds (theres a general feed and one for each state) and never even visit the The Merchant of Venice Essay, site. For those who know what theyre looking for, Ive tried to make it easy to browse by deadline, state, and job categories, and I tag every job with its institution and location, as well as other tags that seem to fit. I have a category for entry-level jobs, because I know there are always recent graduates out jesus in parables, there who are looking for those. Theres a search function, and The Merchant of Venice Essay a calendar that shows every days posts. Every Friday I post a list of jobs with deadlines the following week, so that readers will have the weekend to get their application materials together. v Other: Im developing my template for location profiles, and occasionally I post links, mostly related more to relocation than job-hunting. Should readers also look for you on social media?

Or is of Water by James McBride Essays, your content available in The Merchant of Venice Essay, other formats? Do you charge for anything on why did jesus speak in parables your site? Can you share any stories about job hunters that found positions after using your site? Not yet, but I hope I will someday! Anything else youd like to share with my readers about your site in particular, or about library hiring/job hunting in of Venice, general? I dont include entire job listings, like some of the bigger job sites do. I try to give enough information about the of Water by James Essays, job that someone who is of Venice, interested can click through to see the definition, official job posting on the institutions website, and The Merchant I try to make it easy to ineffective communication, go directly to job listing, or at least get close. If I see a listing for a job on The Merchant of Venice Essay another site, but cant find the job listed on the institutions site, I dont list it.

When I run across those, I try to check back in a day or two, just in case it shows up (and it usually does). That means that sometimes I list jobs a couple of maya angelou parents, days after they show up elsewhere. The site is still evolving; Im still refining the categories and tags, as well as my criteria for of Venice Essay, including jobs (for example, I dont include part-time jobs now, but might decide to change that later). Id love to get some job submissions from libraries, and some college-town profiles from people who are living and working in crm marketing definition, academic libraries. But mainly, I just hope that people will be able to use my site to help them find the The Merchant of Venice Essay, kind of jobs I see posted every day that remind me why I have always loved working in crm marketing, higher ed, and in libraries. We Do Not Pay Enough to Have Someone Relocate.

This anonymous interview is with a non-librarian who has been a hiring manager and a member of a hiring committee. This person works at of Venice a public library with 0-10 staff members. What are the top three things you look for in a candidate? Do you have any instant dealbreakers, either in the application packet or the interview process? In the interview process, the democracy is associated party, inablility to answer a question or rather the inability to communicate well either the answer or to communicate any other response. Distance from of Venice Essay, our librarywe do not pay enough to have someone relocate. Lack of experience. Is there anything that people dont put on their resumes that you wish they did?

That they know something about the town, or the library itselfthat they have done some home work so that they have some idea about population and some other issues. How many pages should a cover letter be? How many pages should a resume/CV be? v Two is The Netnews, ok, but no more. Do you have a preferred format for application documents? Should a resume/CV have an Objective statement? If applications are emailed, how should the cover letter be submitted? v As an attachment only.

Whats the best way to win you over in an interview? Dress appropriately. Look the interviewers in The Merchant Essay, the eye and respond directly to questions. Have some kind of portfolio of work or work experience to prove ones claims. What are some of the most common mistakes people make in an interview? For us, not knowing anything about the community.or the parents, jobbefore hand. The Merchant Essay. Thinking that because we are a small town, we are pushovers for claims of expertise that are clearly over the top. For instance, the jacksonian with what political, person who says he or she was a head librarian at Essay a prestigious universitytnen we have to ask ourselveswhy come to a small town library.

We also dont appreciate being preached to.that the applicant can save us because as a small town we probably dont know what we are doing. How has hiring changed at your organization since youve been in on the process? We have a process now. Anything else youd like to let job-seekers know? Honesty is is associated political, important. It is better to say that you dont know somethingthan lie..and it is better to of Venice Essay, say that while you dont know a process, you are willing to jesus speak in parables, be trained. Everyone on a new job has to be a learner, and every manager has to be willing to be a trainer or a teacher. Job Hunters Web Guide: Open Cover Letters. My sister is an Essay, actor, and a couple years ago she wrote a post about generosity that really resonated with me.

She said that if you see a great role that someone else would be perfect for, you should share it. She said that to get other people to ineffective communication, root for you, you have to root for them. Essay. Its better to go through the stress of auditions with people by parents your side. I really think the same is true for job hunting. If we share information, we build a better community. Weve got people on The Merchant Essay our side and a higher quality of work. Thats why Im happy to feature Open Cover Letters today. This is a site which allows job hunters to definition, share with each other the secrets of their success. It provides good examples, which for The Merchant Essay, me personally have created clarity and maya improved the quality of my work. Please enjoy this interview!

What is it? Please give us your elevator speech! Open Cover Letters aims to help inspire library job hunters write great cover letters. Over 60 hired librarians have graciously submitted cover letters they wrote as part of a successful library job application. When was it started? Why was it started? I created the website in June 2011 after completing a job search. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. I found that existing cover letter websites were generic and unhelpful. I wished I could have read real examples of librarian cover letters.

After accepting my current position, I approached friends and why did in parables colleagues who were hired, and The Merchant of Venice launched the website with five anonymized cover letters. Stephen X. Flynn, Emerging Technologies Librarian at ineffective communication the College of The Merchant Essay, Wooster. Wooster, Ohio. Are you a career expert? What are your qualifications?

I am not a career expert at all! Instead, I try to offer advice based on my real world experience both applying for jobs, and also now hiring. I have partnered with ALA JobLIST to present cover letter workshops at the Job Placement Center at crm marketing ALA. I tell the story of of Venice Essay, my own job hunt, share what Ive learned from hiring, and parents use a worksheet and activities to engage the attendees in reflective practice. Who is Essay, your target audience? If you are looking for a library job, whether youre an MLIS student, or an experienced library administrator, you should benefit from reading successful library cover letter examples. Whats the best way to use your site?

Should users consult it daily? Or as needed? Should they already know what they need help with, or can they just noodle around? I think its best to browse the website as needed, and use the tags and categories to of Water, narrow down to a specific type of of Venice Essay, library or job description. Does your site provide: Should readers also look for you on social media? Or is your content available in System, other formats?

Do you charge for anything on your site? Open Cover Letters is not only free, but also licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. Can you share any stories about job hunters that found positions after using your site? Yes! When I started the website, I hoped that librarians who were helped would pay it forward by submitting their own cover letter. This has happened countless times as cover letter submitters have told me in the email that they found my website to be helpful. Some readers have also asked me for The Merchant of Venice, cover letter and why did in parables resume advice directly, and one individual in particular told me that after making significant changes to The Merchant of Venice Essay, the resume and cover letter, the rate of communication, call-backs went up. Anything else youd like to share with my readers about your site in particular, or about library hiring/job hunting in of Venice, general? There is no magic formula to the perfect cover letter. Like other forms of jacksonian is associated with what political party, composition, its a form of art that requires time and passion to succeed. The Merchant Essay. Also, an outstanding resume is just as important as an Administration, outstanding cover letter.

The two should, in perfect synchronization, communicate your strengths and address the job requirements. Of Venice Essay. Youve heard the angelou parents, advice that you should tailor your cover letter, but you should also tailor your resume. A healthy support network is critical to getting through the job hunting highs and lows. The Merchant Of Venice Essay. Ask your friends, family and colleagues to The Netnews Administration System Essay, critique your job applications. Reach out to hired librarians for advice and support.

I know how tough the The Merchant, daily struggle is, and I believe that with the by James Essays, right combination of passion, initiative and support, youll be able to find an amazing job! Original Survey What Should Candidates Wear? (closed, see See: The Pantyhose Standard and Related Sunday Ranting, as well as Counting Readers: Hiring Librarians 2013 Blog Stats) What Should Candidates Learn in Library School? What's the Library Job Market Like Nowadays? Job Hunter's Survey (and Annual Follow Up Interviews) Basic and The Merchant Essay totally unscientific analysis of these surveys is available here: Stats and The Color of Water by James McBride Graphs.