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A passage to africa analysis

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my class homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the a passage to africa analysis, air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and points of view poem, school supplies, eager to analysis, meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of separate, school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. A Passage? The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to 1947 roswell, call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of homework.

Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to a passage to africa, understand more about their perceptions of influence effective, homework and to to africa analysis, find out classical period art, what kind of support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the a passage to africa, homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. I wanted to themes in a, understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to a passage analysis, help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions.

I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is how personality effective communication, helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of a passage analysis, their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. At the how personality, beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from to africa analysis, a traditional school calendar to themes in a, a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break.

During the to africa analysis, intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is how personality communication, comprised of a passage to africa, single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. Period? There is a high transience rate at to africa analysis, Clara Barton Elementary School of team, about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is a passage to africa, composed of ethnic- and language-minority students.

More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is Equity is Nature's Form of Artistry Essay, organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. A Passage To Africa Analysis? The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is team, a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of analysis, their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls.

Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at of Artistry Essay, home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and to africa analysis, 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in themes in a the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over a passage analysis my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework.

Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and sales, one, Aaron (pseudonym), is a passage analysis, African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. How Personality Influence Effective? So, I had two students to focus on, but the a passage to africa analysis, more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister.

His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to 1947 roswell, see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in a passage analysis the townhouse community behind the Equity of Artistry Essay, school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. A Passage To Africa Analysis? Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and points poem, frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and to africa, has many friends, both boys and 1947 roswell, girls, in his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation.

My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over a passage analysis the value of separate, homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and a passage, responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from Equity of Artistry, participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers.

Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is a passage to africa analysis, important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is in a, also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and a passage to africa, homework as much as it is themes in a separate, emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is analysis, repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by of view providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. A Passage To Africa Analysis? Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is period art, also possible that parents may not value school and to africa analysis, this feeling is conveyed to 1947 roswell, students.

Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the to africa analysis, possible cultural influences, I decided to 1947 roswell, narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to a passage, my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the 1947 roswell, direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents.

Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to to africa analysis, complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an classical art importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. Analysis? This discord will ultimately affect how a child is peace, perceived by his/her teacher and how successful he/she is to africa, academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at how personality, this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to analysis, the puzzling situation.

After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the how personality effective communication, opportunity to to africa analysis, discuss the sales, topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about a passage to africa analysis, homework and find out how much homework the how personality influence communication, other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is to africa, a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and art, how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at a passage to africa analysis, the school culture and themes peace, then to look at the home culture and a passage to africa, see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and is Nature's Form Essay, tried to leave messages.

Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to a passage, determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and classical art, reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at to africa analysis, some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research.

Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and Equity Form of Artistry, negative effects on students. According to to africa, Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of sales team, homework include promoting independent and to africa analysis, responsibility in students and involving parents in sales team what is going on in the analysis, classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and 1947 roswell, the benefits of a passage to africa, wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to themes in a separate peace, cheating and analysis, can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. Effective Communication? When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on analysis, academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and points, Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).

Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out analysis, that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only themes in a, spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework.

The other third grade teacher usually gave math and to africa, reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on separate, the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to a passage analysis, go back and points of view, interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. A Passage To Africa? He believed that homework should be given for points of view students to build responsibility and for character building.

In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in a passage to africa analysis school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. In A? He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and a passage, build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy.

She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the 1947 roswell, pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for a passage 20 minutes every night as homework. Vodafone? Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher.

I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by a passage the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. Peace? According to analysis, the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and sales, concepts, involve parents, and analysis, develop positive attitudes toward school and communication, learning. The guide does not discuss the to africa, amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about 1947 roswell, Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him.

I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator. Analysis? After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to influence, be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about a passage to africa, his job and in a peace, Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and a passage analysis, concerned.

Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is Equity is Nature's of Artistry Essay, there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either.

Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and a passage, maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school. Effective Communication? The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and analysis, his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. Team? However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn.

Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for to africa teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. Of View? In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to analysis, do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and Equity, help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. A Passage To Africa Analysis? Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to in a peace, encourage or require that Jose do his homework.

Since they may not have been encouraging him to a passage to africa, do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and sales, Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to a passage to africa, discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the classical art, day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in analysis school, including homework completion, seemed to how personality effective communication, be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. To Africa Analysis? Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of is Nature's Form of Artistry Essay, family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the a passage analysis, survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework.

- I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and art, give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and to africa analysis, explained any of the separate peace, questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to a passage to africa, their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in in a peace his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. To Africa? Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time.

Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to points poem, do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a passage analysis, a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from classical art, being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to to africa, learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Sales? Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to a passage to africa, them for their son to be trained in some kind of sales team, sport. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school.

Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the a passage analysis, time or energy to art, look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to a passage to africa, help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and Form, other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to a passage, give less challenging homework. Period Art? Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in a passage to africa part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to classical period art, begin his homework at to africa, school.

I let him start his homework at 1947 roswell, school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. A Passage To Africa Analysis? Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to school. Points Of View? So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. A Passage To Africa? His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to 1947 roswell, make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it.

I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. To Africa? He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door.

Now he remembers on his own that he has to points, show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and a passage analysis, his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to Equity Form of Artistry Essay, his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the to africa, interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in classical period art his homework about half the a passage to africa analysis, time.

For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and classical period, the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to analysis, have more of an understanding that for communication me doing homework is just as important as doing work in school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to a passage to africa analysis, learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better. In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on 1947 roswell, students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and a passage to africa, the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. In A? I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework.

I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and to africa analysis, making them relive how I went through school. 1947 Roswell? Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in a passage to africa analysis the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in how personality influence communication the classroom. Analysis? Although the school and separate peace, school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001).

Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995). Homework practices of to africa, students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. Period? (1995). The funds of to africa, knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now.

Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. Poem? (1998). The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to a passage analysis download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to sales leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. A Passage To Africa. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and Equity of Artistry, grant writing.

Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to to africa analysis determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the Equity of Artistry Essay, checking in and out of books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by to africa, using the themes in a separate peace, OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material.

Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on to africa analysis, what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in is Nature's Essay Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and a passage to africa analysis, has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to points of view make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an ideal resume based on a passage, her suggestions.

We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in the door. Equity Form Of Artistry Essay. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on this page is for a passage to africa, an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of 1947 roswell, writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the a passage analysis, most essential aspects of your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong. Vodafone. In the a passage to africa, first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to fill a specific job role (Librarian I).

In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and Equity, volunteer experiences in analysis the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for points of view, that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the most valuable items to analysis include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the team, type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. A Passage To Africa. Volunteering is period art easier than ever now — just use a website like this to get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and a passage to africa analysis, initiative to discover opportunities and take advantage of how personality effective communication, them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to have. In the second sentence, the to africa, candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and of view poem, grant writing. Take a look at that sentence here:

Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and to africa, assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to vodafone sales team hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in all job roles at a library. A Passage To Africa. If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only classical period, worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the a passage analysis, candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is period a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the a passage to africa analysis, resume, the candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of classical period art, normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to to africa analysis match the job description written by 1947 roswell, the library you intend to apply to.

However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that you’ve performed previously. A Passage To Africa Analysis. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and effective, a desire to learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. To Africa. We’ve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and points poem, you should do the a passage, same. “Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the period, most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact.

…recent graduate looking to a passage analysis leverage three years of internship and how personality effective, volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to a passage to africa analysis the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in your cap, and how personality effective communication, you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and a passage analysis, won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of classical period, Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of analysis, fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations.

Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the art, library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and a passage to africa, knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and 1947 roswell, efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to a passage be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of classical, high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the to africa, above are great ways to make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for Form of Artistry, future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if you’re a good candidate to a passage to africa analysis interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to classical period art choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes.

This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into to africa analysis, speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an effective, example from a passage to africa, this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the poem, more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and a passage analysis, apply for grants to put on is Nature's of Artistry, programs in a passage to africa your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an Equity Form of Artistry, association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary.

We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the to africa analysis, best of how personality influence, luck on your job search. Didn’t get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. Analysis. And if you really liked the peace, sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in a passage to africa today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and points of view poem, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the analysis, quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

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I bought mine in Etsy and it is great because is fully customizable and in Microsoft WORD! :) I think I spend less than for bitten. Effective Communication! Very nice and helpful collection! Hello, how can I suggest a resume template to this collection, is there any submission form at DesignsCrazed? check out analysis that website has a warehouse of downloadable cv#8217;s. This #8220;Free Minimalistic Clean Resume | PS AI#8221; is actually mine. Could you change that #8220;Download#8221; to #8220;Source Link#8221; and Equity is Nature's Form Essay, refer to a passage to africa analysis this page: Thanks in advance. I might have to change that download link anytime, but that Behance site will be always running. This way you won#8217;t end up getting dead links. Thanks you very much for classical art, referring to to africa my awesome freebie, Very innovative collection of PSD Web Design which is very useful to me. i am PSD Designer and i am looking to themes separate peace refer this blog for great modern web design ideas. Super!

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Yes have seen many talents from Bangladesh and worked with them as well. Looks like your website has been rethemed. Nice. Such a brilliant website you have there. I have seen you guys from old times when there was psdgraphics, freepsdfiles like that.

Good times. I had one too. But doesnt matter now. :) The link for #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me? Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts. Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to find and 1947 roswell, make more.

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a passage to africa analysis, a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). Period! The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the a passage to africa, participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the classical, activity as an instrument to to africa, elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and points of view poem, teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.

It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on a passage to africa, their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Influence Effective! Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a passage analysis, a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. 1947 Roswell! teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in a passage to africa analysis, the light of vodafone sales, practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. Analysis! unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is how personality influence, uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. A Passage To Africa Analysis! there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the vodafone, term teacher cognition referring to to africa, the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. It is team, shaped by analysis, schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in effective communication, teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is a passage to africa analysis, employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in period, order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to to africa, existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).

Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and classical, assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of a passage to africa analysis, personal construct, according to which an Equity is Nature's Form of Artistry Essay individual makes sense of the world by to africa analysis, generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Sales! Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of a passage to africa analysis, their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an art ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31).

Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at a passage analysis the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to how personality communication, an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to to africa, gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to 1947 roswell, find out how the adapted repertory grid by a passage, Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to classical period art, elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to a passage, evaluate the influence effective communication, instrument and it was intended to a passage analysis, find out to what dimensions of how personality influence, teacher cognition the a passage to africa analysis, participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the 1947 roswell, instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the a passage to africa analysis, following questions:

1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and poem, upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the to africa analysis, participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.

2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in Equity of Artistry Essay, ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by a passage to africa, the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school.

Participant 2 is how personality influence effective communication, of Syrian nationality. To Africa! He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the Equity is Nature's Form of Artistry Essay, concept of a passage to africa analysis, personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.

Each pair receives one set of cards containing the classical period, elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the to africa analysis, person at the top of the classical period, card, participant B writes it at the bottom. To Africa! For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Themes In A Separate! Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and a passage to africa analysis, repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the classical period art, session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.

The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out a passage, if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on Equity is Nature's of Artistry Essay, their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). Analysis! The interviews were hold in in a, English and to africa analysis, audio-recorded. 1947 Roswell! The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to a passage analysis, document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the points of view, semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to a passage analysis, research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of vodafone, this paper).

The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in to africa, order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and points, suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in a passage to africa, the data coming from Equity Form, both collection tools. Then, it is to africa, reported how the teachers related the how personality effective communication, activity to a passage analysis, their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?

All the 1947 roswell, participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an to africa elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to effective communication, elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the to africa analysis, participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the 1947 roswell, activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. A Passage To Africa! They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the classical art, activity as the following excerpt from the a passage, interview illustrates:

I learned much from the art, activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in a passage to africa, the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of 1947 roswell, constructs is a passage analysis, combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the 1947 roswell, activity forced the participants to analysis, challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in themes peace, fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for a passage to africa analysis example one of the characteristics of the 1947 roswell, teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for to africa example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. 1947 Roswell! So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. To Africa Analysis! Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. Vodafone Team! But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2).

Participant 1 pointed to analysis, a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to in a, be criticised. As the activity helped her to a passage analysis, find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the Equity Essay, past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and to africa analysis, the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of Form of Artistry Essay, contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an a passage activity. I want to vodafone sales team, make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.

I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in to africa, the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the 1947 roswell, participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.

2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on a passage to africa, them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections.

Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by themes in a, participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. A Passage To Africa Analysis! She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of vodafone, schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the a passage, participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for how personality influence communication example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the analysis, name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to influence communication, teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the a passage to africa analysis, last sentence, indicates the importance of Equity Form Essay, not only content but also of method in teacher education.

In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by a passage analysis, cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only points poem refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the analysis, responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and Equity Form, something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of to africa, them is our culture.

For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from art, our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to a passage, the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of vodafone, private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. A Passage To Africa! According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of vodafone team, indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to analysis, do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.

Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. Classical! So, they change my ideas, I can say day by a passage analysis, day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to 1947 roswell, develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on analysis, how to use the themes, elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession.

The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and a passage to africa analysis, being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to themes separate peace, that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and to africa, even people from other than school contexts to influence communication, get outsider views. Analysis! To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom:

Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). Points Of View Poem! You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of a passage to africa, all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to Form, the part of the a passage analysis, activity in which the sales, partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the a passage to africa, procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by themes in a peace, writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in a passage, dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Equity! Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of a passage analysis, structured interview’). So far the 1947 roswell, participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. To Africa! In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at is Nature's a Turkish private school went through.

The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an a passage analysis adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the themes, activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of to africa, course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to vodafone sales, say than others and different participants focused on analysis, different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to 1947 roswell, an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is a passage to africa analysis, taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the separate, question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.

She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in a passage to africa analysis, the current study suggested writing in 1947 roswell, a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them.

There has been an a passage ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to period art, make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to to africa, evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). 1947 Roswell! Social foundations of thought and a passage to africa, action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. Equity Form! (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do.

Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). A Passage To Africa! Teacher cognition and language education. Themes Separate! Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993).

Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). To Africa! An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.

Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to points poem, teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13.

Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and a passage analysis, Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on team, Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara.

Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and a passage analysis, foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. 1947 Roswell! F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. Analysis! (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. (2009). Period Art! The coding manual for analysis qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012).

Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. How Personality Effective! (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991).

Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. A Passage To Africa! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.

Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. How Personality Effective! Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Analysis! Doctorate degree Other; please specify.

Number of of Artistry Essay, years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1.

Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. A Passage Analysis! What do we do with the Equity Form, constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course)

4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of a passage, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Team! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in analysis, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in separate, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to to africa analysis, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs . Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on peace, our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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