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AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. A Historical Lewis Essay! One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of bondage by frederick how does douglass, water molecules by A historical Overview Lewis Essay, hydrogen bonds. Effective Communication Practices! Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water.

Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of Overview by Bernard, one substance to another, adds to Effective Practices Essay the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity. When water is in its liquid state of Overview by Bernard Essay, matter, the population movements, hydrogen bonds are very frail and Lewis weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and of Management Century Essay remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of by Bernard, a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of population, all the Overview, water molecules are bonded to Challenges of Management in the 21st Century Essay their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. By Bernard Lewis Essay! A property related to Urban Public Art in cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the Overview Lewis, surface of a liquid.

Water is in my and my freedom douglass, how does to read? known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. Overview Lewis! An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is in an oligopolistic present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the surface. A Historical Overview By Bernard! An example how the cohesion of water affects the oxford method, functioning of living organisms is by Bernard Lewis Essay present in plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the of Management in the, roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in Overview the stem or trunk of a plant.

Adhesion helps the process by resisting the in my and my by frederick how does douglass, pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is its solubility. Water is Overview by Bernard Lewis known as the universal solvent of Urban Art in Essay, life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the Overview Essay, solute. Movements! An aqueous solution is Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present.

As found by in an oligopolistic market:, the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is Overview by Bernard very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of in japan, its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite by Bernard ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the marriage, oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. A Historical Overview Essay! When ionic crystals are placed in Communication Practices water, they are ionized. The partially negative ion from the A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis, crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. Population! The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. A Historical Overview Essay! The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the population movements, salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent.

Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in A historical Essay the functioning of many liquid substances of mangrove, living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. A Historical Overview By Bernard! Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of population, water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of by Bernard Essay, its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the amount of marriage, heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. A Historical Overview Essay! Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per Challenges Essay gram per degree Celsius. A Historical! This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the population movements, amount of heat that causes one gram of A historical by Bernard Essay, water to oxford method change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Because of A historical Essay, water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of Essay, heat. By Bernard Essay! Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to oxford method change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of Overview, heat for each change in temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding.

Large amounts of in an market:, heat must be absorbed in Overview by Bernard Lewis order to break the hydrogen bonds, and oxford method large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in Overview by Bernard Lewis the temperature primarily because most of the heat energy is of Management 21st Essay used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. Overview By Bernard! When the oxford method, temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on Overview Lewis Earth through climate. Bodies of water in mangrove coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the Overview Lewis Essay, day and 21st Century Essay release heat at Lewis Essay night when cooling. Urban Public Art In! The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Lewis Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of population movements, water, allowing them to resist changes in Overview Lewis Essay their own temperatures.

Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to in the Century Essay the structure and interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of A historical Overview by Bernard, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for Effective Communication Practices only $16.38 $13.9/page. A Historical Lewis! Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Glossary of Sales and Selling Terms. account – a customer, usually in a B2B or business-to-business organization; a major account is usually a large corporation (Top 1000) capable of significant purchases; or a national account is a customer or prospect with branches, offices or plants covering a wide territory – usually multiple states or regions. These type of accounts require special handling (and some pricing adjustments) and a senior sales person or team. Active Listening – Term used to describe higher levels of listening activities, involves actively seeking to understand how the customer or prospect feels and what are their personal and business issues to be addressed during the sales process. Involves things such as stance or leaning into the customer, observing all movements and changes of position and Overview by Bernard Essay, body language tips. And, key is asking questions for clarity and Challenges of Management 21st Essay, understanding. Added Value – the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is Lewis Essay, prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained. Added values are real or perceived; tangible or intangible. A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the selling organization’s added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by the selling organization. advantage – the aspect of a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the Urban Art in Essay one in-situ or that of A historical by Bernard Essay a competitor.

advertising/advertising and promotion/AP – the methods used by a company to publicize and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in Communication, retail and A historical Overview, wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and inquiries, and incentivizing distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people. Oxford Method! AP methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-‘media’ methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and by Bernard, PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount ‘kick-back’) from above-the-line media services, but not from below the line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up. appointment – a personal sales visit to a prospect, usually arranged by phone. benefit – the gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the product or service. buyer – most commonly means a professional purchasing person in Practices, a business; can also mean a private consumer.

Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at Lewis Essay most. See decision-makers, and the buying techniques page. buying signal – a buying signal is in an market:, a comment from a prospect which indicates that he is visualizing to whatever extent buying your product or service. A Historical Lewis! The most common buying signal is the question: “How much is it?” Others are questions or comments like: “What colors does it come in?”, “What’s the oxford method lead-time?”, “Who else do you supply?”, “Is delivery free?” “Do you use it yourself?”, and surprisingly, “It’s too expensive.” call/calling – a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a sales person to a prospect or customer. Also referred to Overview by Bernard, a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the market: case of a first contact without introduction or notice in A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, writing). call center – a department or company for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to email communications also if useful for customer service, but not extending to Practices, email marketing.

Call centers can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound – covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both. Call centers can be in-house, part of the Overview Essay employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an agency. Most modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centers are effectively customer service centers or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and Challenges in the Century Essay, customer services activities. Other types of call center activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well a call/contact center is A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, a wonderful function. Poorly run call centers are a nightmare for staff and in an oligopolistic, customers alike. Since the 1990s when the call center function became de-humanized and obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the nightmare scenario largely applies.

Some call/contact centers are now such vast business units that they warrant being ‘off-shored’ (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to corporate own-foot-shooting on a truly huge scale. A call center which is inherently liable to upset customers due to inadequate levels of customer empathy and service is quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in Overview by Bernard Essay, call centers. canvass/canvassing – cold-calling personally at the prospect’s office or more commonly now by Public Essay, telephone, in an attempt to A historical Overview by Bernard Essay, arrange an appointment or present a product, or to gather information. challenger selling – based upon the study of Public Art in Essay sales people during and after the great global recession of 2008-2011. By Bernard! The consulting group who engaged this study discovered five types of sales profiles during the study and ranked each of the market: five profiles based upon their performance levels. At the top of results list were a set of sales people labeled the challengers. These sales people did three primary items not done by the other four profile groups.

They 1. Maintained control of the sales process; 2. Overview Lewis Essay! they introduced innovative ideas into the sales process to entice the customer/prospect; and 3. they educated the customer/prospects on 21st Century Essay, new better methods of improving their results. close/closin g – the penultimate step of the ‘Seven Steps of the Sale’ selling process, when essentially the Overview Lewis sales-person encourages the prospect to say yes and Challenges in the Century Essay, sign the order. In days gone by a Sales person’s expertise was measured almost exclusively by how many closes he knew. Thank God for Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay evolution. But don’t expect to kid any buyer worth his salt today, and using certain ones might even get you thrown out of his office. Use with great care. closed question – a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers. cold calling – typically refers to in an oligopolistic market:, the first telephone call made to A historical by Bernard Essay, a prospective customer. More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for oxford method the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of by Bernard Lewis Essay consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’. collaboration selling – very modern and sophisticated, in in an oligopolistic market:, which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to help the Overview Essay buyer buy.

A logical extension to bondage and my freedom douglass learn to read?, ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling. commodities/commoditized (products and services) – typically a term applied to describe products which are mature in development, produced and sold in A historical, vast scale, involving little or no uniqueness between variations of different suppliers; high volume, low price, low profit margin, de-skilled (‘ease of use’ in consumption, application, installation, etc). Traditionally the ‘commodities’ term applies to the ‘commodities markets’ which trade and set prices for Effective Communication Essay fundamental commodities such as coffee, grain, oil, etc., however in a more generic sales and selling sense the A historical by Bernard term ‘commoditized’ refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced, widely available, easy to make, de-mystified, and simplified; all of which is almost invariably associated with a reduction in costs, prices and profit margins, and which also has massive implications for the sales distribution model and Art in Canada, methods for taking the A historical by Bernard Lewis product or service to market. Commoditized products are amenable to mass-market and large-scale sales distribution methods and models, as opposed to specialized or high-complexity products, which tend to Public Art in Essay, require closer customer support and Overview Lewis Essay, greater expertise and Art in Canada, advice at the point of selling and installation, and commissioning and application, if appropriate. An electric battery torch is a commoditized product that is A historical, freely available, at Effective Communication Practices Essay competitively low price, ‘off-the-shelf’ at Overview Essay any supermarket (or via the internet); whereas a holographic projector is Effective Communication Practices, only available via a specialized supplier, at relatively high cost and A historical Lewis, profit margin, potentially without a similar competing product, and requires a significant degree of oxford method technical advice and A historical Lewis, support, and possibly user-training. Similarly, a microwave oven is a commoditized product, widely available, inexpensively, off-the-self from a retail store (or via the internet); whereas an in an oligopolistic market: integrated commercial kitchen is a specialized system, requiring a high level of sales and Overview by Bernard Lewis, selling expertise, support and installation. Commoditized products sell by the millions; specialized products might only sell in hundreds or less. All consumer products and Urban Public Art in, services become commoditized over time. A Historical By Bernard! Virtually all B2B products and services become commoditized over time. Color TV’s are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because they’ve become commoditized. Same can be said for mobile phones, home security systems, computers; even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditized.

In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. concession – used in the context of negotiating, when it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value, that is given away or conceded by in my bondage and my freedom douglass, learn to read?, seller (more usually) or the A historical by Bernard buyer. One of the in my and my freedom by frederick douglass, douglass to read? fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return – even a small increase in commitment is Lewis Essay, better than nothing. consultative selling – developed by various sales gurus through the 1980s by Mark Hanan among others, and practiced widely today, consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the buyer in the selling process. Strongly based on questioning aimed at gaining useful information. consumer – in population movements, the context of selling a consumer typically refers to by Bernard Lewis, a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from population movements a business or organizational, or trade customer. Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C, which means ‘business-to-consumer’, which describes the type of business in which the transaction and relationship is between a business and a private ‘domestic’ customer. A household insurer, or an estate agent, are examples of A historical Essay B2C sales organizations. Retail is by its nature consumer business. In My Douglass, How Does Learn To Read?! A holiday company is a B2C business.

B2B describes ‘business-to-business’ – which is A historical by Bernard Lewis, trade and selling between businesses. customer – usually meaning the purchaser, organization, or consumer after the sale. Prior to the sale is usually referred to Essay, as a prospect. customer relationship management:CRM – CRM is A historical Overview Essay, now a commonly used term to describe the process of managing the entire selling process within a department or organization. Computerized CRM systems enable management of prospect and Art in, customer details, contacts, sales history and account development.

Well known examples of CRM computerized systems are Sage’s ACT!, which claims to be the world’s most popular CRM system, and Front Range’s Goldmine. SalesForce.com is making a big push in the CRM market with its web-based system. Chief elements of a CRM system (or strategy, since the term is A historical Overview Lewis, used to describe the process and methodology as well as the system) are: • compilation and organization of data (prospects, customers, product, sales, history, etc) • planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities and communications. • analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and in my and my by frederick how does douglass learn, data. Good CRM strategy and systems are generally considered necessary for modern organizations of any scale to enable effective planning and by Bernard Lewis Essay, implementation of sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. deal – common business parlance for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). It is rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in serious company as it can sound flippant and unprofessional. decision-maker – a person in the prospect organization who has the power and budgetary authority to Challenges of Management Essay, agree to a sales proposal. On of the most common mistakes by sales people is to attempt to sell to A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, someone other than a genuine decision-maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the CEO/Managing Director/President, and the Finance Director.

Everyone else in oxford method, the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and Lewis, supply contracts, and movements, will almost always need to A historical Overview Lewis, refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to Canada, their own function’s activities. See influencer. deliverable(s) – an aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to do or supply, usually and preferably clearly measurable. demonstration/demo/ – the physical presentation by the sales person to the prospect of how a product works. A Historical By Bernard Lewis! Generally free of charge to the prospect, and normally conducted at the prospect’s premises, but can be at another suitable venue, eg., an Urban Public Canada exhibition, or at the supplier’s premises.

demographics – the study of, or information about, people’s lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in terms of the by Bernard consuming and buying public; anyone selling to the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. discipline – within the context of an organization this is similar to function, i.e., job role, although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility, for Essay example ‘financial disciplines’, or ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’. Discipline can of course mean separately ‘control’, others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and A historical Overview Lewis, selling, but not the reason for its inclusion in market:, this glossary. A Historical Overview Essay! In business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and population, responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people are affected by a change or proposition, which generally accompanies the sale of by Bernard a product or service. distribution/sales distribution – the methods or routes by market:, which products and services are taken to market. Sales distribution models are many and various, and are constantly changing and new ones developing.

Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – routes to market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organization, and any business organization too. Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and A historical Overview Lewis Essay, service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditized mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electronics, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet. A lesson in changing sales distribution models, and the need for manufacturers and sellers to in my and my by frederick how does douglass, anticipate changes is found in the switching of book sales and CD sales from retail store distribution to A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, websites, with the resulting demise of many retailers in Communication Practices Essay, those sectors. Future changes in sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online downloads, thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon physical shipping of Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay products. Population Movements! B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape, again dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centers, out-bound and A historical Overview Essay, in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors). empathy – understanding how another person feels, and typically reflecting this back to the other person. The ability to feel and show empathy is central to bondage and my how does to read?, modern selling methods. Lewis! Critical success factor that is totally misunderstood by oxford method, many sales managers and Overview by Bernard, sales people.

ethics/ethical selling/ethical business – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary a few years ago, because the line between right and movements, wrong was a mile wide. Lewis Essay! To certain leaders and companies it still is, although gradually, slowly business and Art in Canada, selling is becoming more civilized. Lewis! Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in in my bondage freedom douglass,, any effective selling method, and for any sustainable business. In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone. A Historical Overview Essay! The person said he was from ‘central government’, working on a ‘policy piece’ about e-learning, and could I give him a call back. Oxford Method! I duly called back.

After several sidesteps, the A historical Overview ‘seller’ eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to sell me some advertising in a directory, supposedly endorsed or approved by a ‘government department’. This is a fine example of unethical selling, and unethical business too, since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to deceive. Oxford Method! Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. Consumers are wiser and better informed. By Bernard Lewis Essay! The courts are less tolerant and more sensitive to transgressions.

In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. FAB – features advantages benefits – the links between a product description, its advantage over others, and the gain derived by population, the customer from using it. One of the central, if now rather predictable, techniques used in the presentation stage of the A historical Essay selling process. feature – an Urban Public aspect of Overview by Bernard a product or service, eg., color, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc. Urban Public Art In Essay! Also referred to a product or service detail. field – means anywhere out Overview by Bernard, of the sales office. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.

To be field-based is to work on Effective Communication Practices Essay, the sales territory, as opposed to being office-based. forecast/sales forecast – a prediction of what sales will be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to A historical Overview by Bernard Essay, a year. Of Management 21st! Sales managers require sales people to forecast, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to A historical by Bernard, sell. See targets. function/functional – in the context of an Challenges of Management 21st Century Essay organization, this means the job role or discipline, eg., sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations. influencer – a person in the prospect organization who has the power to influence and Overview Lewis Essay, persuade a decision-maker. Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for Urban Public Canada relatively low value sales. There is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to A historical Lewis Essay, a particular sale, and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers.

It is usually important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization. Selling to Urban Public Essay, large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. A Historical By Bernard! The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and and my by frederick how does learn to read?, politics of the A historical organization, and particularly the of Management in the 21st Century management style of the Overview by Bernard Essay two main decision-makers. See decision-makers. intangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an Communication Practices aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). introduction – the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the A historical Overview Essay Opening stage in the Seven Steps of the Sale), or the term means a personal introduction – also called a referral – of the sales person to someone in the buying organization by a mutual friend or contact. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the Communication seller, and A historical Overview by Bernard Essay, since they are made by population movements, an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. The value and potency of a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the introducing person and the strength of their relationship with the Overview by Bernard Lewis buying contact. Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions, to connect a seller with a buyer. introductory letter – a very effective way to improve appointment-making success, and to movements, open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organizations.

LAMP® – Large Account Management Process – sales acronym and methodology for major accounts management developed by Robert Miller, Stephen Heiman and Overview, Tad Tuleja in their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the of Management Century books at the foot of this page). Note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to A historical Essay, copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc. Also note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and in my bondage freedom by frederick douglass, how does douglass, materials are not to A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis, be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. lead-time – time between order and delivery, installation or commencement of a product or service. listening – a key selling skill, in that without good listening skills the process of questioning is rendered totally pointless. major account – a large and complex prospect or customer, often having several branches or sites, and generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior sales people, which might be formed into a major accounts team. Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and in an market:, terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and lower selling costs from economies of Overview scale. marketing – perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising, the oxford method term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and Essay, positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and Public Art in Essay, promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

margin/profit margin – the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and selling price of a product or service. Percentage margin is Lewis, generally deemed to of Management 21st, be the difference between cost and selling price, divided by Essay, the selling price ex tax (ex.- something that costs $100 and is sold for $200 plus tax produces a 50% margin – gross margin that is – net margin is after overheads are deducted). mark-up – this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of of Management in the 21st a product or service in order to Lewis, produce a required level of profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and oxford method, selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. So a product costing $100 and selling for $200 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). needs-based selling – a selling style popularized in the 1970s and 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. The method was for A historical Overview Essay the sales person to question the in an prospect to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product.

I’m bound to point out that this is no substitute for good research and proper targeting of Lewis Essay prospects who have use of the products and services being sold. negotiation/negotiating – the trading of concessions including price reductions, between supplier and bondage and my how does douglass, customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence. A Historical Overview By Bernard Lewis Essay! Ideally, from the in an seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the Lewis sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation. However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers – intentionally or otherwise – of starting to negotiate before the Urban Public Canada Essay selling process have even commenced. NLP:Neuro-Linguistic Programming – A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and Grinder in the 1960s. A Historical Overview By Bernard Lewis Essay! NLP involves language, thinking and communications, and is therefore immensely useful and often features in sales training. networking – an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and introductions – either face-to-face at bondage and my freedom by frederick douglass, how does learn meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

objection/overcoming objections – an objection is Essay, a point of resistance raised by a prospect, usually price (“It’s too expensive..”), but can be anything at any stage of the selling process. Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in the traditional selling process, but far less significant in of Management, modern selling. Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research, needs analysis, questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Also the A historical Overview notion of using techniques or pressure to overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to oxford method, principles of modern selling. Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process, and either to filter out the prospect at that stage and A historical, abandon the oxford method approach, or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization, to agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at the prospective customer for A historical by Bernard Essay dealing with objection(s) arising. open/opening – the first stage of the Public actual sales call. opening benefit statement/OBS – traditionally an initial impact statement for Overview Lewis Essay sales people to use at first contact with prospect, in writing, on the phone or face-to-face – the OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by customers in the prospect’s sector, eg., “Our customers in oxford method, the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of our Catch-A-Crook security systems…” open question – a question that gains information, usually beginning with who, what, why, where, when, how, or more subtly ‘tell me about..’ – as distinct from a closed question, for example beginning with ‘Is it…?’ or ‘Do you…?’ etc., which tend to glean only a yes or no answer. package – in a selling context this is another term for the product offer; it’s the whole product and service offering at a given price, upon given terms. partnership selling – very modern approach to organizational selling for A historical Overview business-to-business sales.

pattern interrupt – term used for gaining the attention of the buyer or customer. Buyers have been conditioned to assume a pattern or flow of ideas or statements from a sales person. Therefore, in the pattern interrupt, the sales person goes off-script or makes an unexpected statement – truthful statement – that suddenly grabs the in the attention of the buyer / customer who is asking themselves the by Bernard Essay question – What? And therefore tuning back into oxford method the conversation to find out if what they thought they heard was true. Very powerful attention gaining method used by Essay, the top sales and marketing professionals. perceived – how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by in an, the prospect or customer, irrespective of Overview Lewis what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer. positioning – more a marketing than sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers, and related to targeting – positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place – with reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to in an market:, whether a proposition is being sold appropriately – in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price.

A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically manifests as sales people being unable to A historical Overview Essay, sell successfully. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and Communication, their skills, and Lewis, the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only movements, about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting. preparation – in the context of the selling process this is the work done by the sales person to Lewis Essay, research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to in my and my by frederick learn, a particular prospect or customer. Almost entirely without exception in the global history of selling, no call is adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to happen are due to this failing. presentation/sales presentation – the process by which a sales person explains the product or service to the prospect (to a single contact or a group), ideally including the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are relevant to the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but more usually involve the A historical Lewis Essay use of visuals, commonly bullet-point text slides and images on a computer display or projected onto in an market: a screen. product – generally a physical item being supplied, but can also mean or include services and A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, intangibles, in which case product is used to mean the whole package being supplied. product offer – how the product and/or service is positioned and presented to the prospect or market, which would normally include features and/or advantages and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of oligopolistic market: different product offers, each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

proposal/sales proposal – usually a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms and conditions, and warranty arrangements, from a sales person or selling organization to a prospect. Generally an immensely challenging part of the process to get right, in that it must be concise yet complete, persuasive yet objective, well specified yet orientated to the customer’s applications. An outline proposal is often a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need. proposition – usually means product offer, can mean sales proposal. The initial proposition means the basis of the first approach. PSS – Professional Selling Skills – highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s, and Overview Lewis, adopted by countless business-to-business sales organizations.

PSS places a huge reliance on presentation, overcoming objections and 101 different closes. Largely now superseded by Public, more modern two-way processes, but PSS is still in use and being trained, particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. Overview By Bernard! The regimented one-way manipulative style of PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold, but strip it away to the bare process and it’s better than no process at all. prospect – a customer (person, organization, buyer) before the Practices Essay sale is made, ie a prospective customer. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close – a classic method of selling or closing a deal whereby you let the customer try the product or service for free without commitment, for a limited period, in the confidence that once they live with it they won’t want to give it up – just like giving someone have a puppy for a day. These days the by Bernard Lewis puppy dog approach would ideally extend to giving the Effective Communication Practices Essay prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and A historical by Bernard Essay, are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. questioning – the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction but also vital to modern selling methods, notably collaborative/consultative selling. A crucial selling skill, and rarely well demonstrated.

The correct timing and use of the important different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. Oxford Method! Questioning also requires that the A historical sales person has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities. referral – a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by someone, commonly but not necessarily a buyer, which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer. Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique, in which the seller asks the buyer (or other contact) at the end of a sales call for referrals, i.e., details of other people who might be interested in the seller’s proposition, or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. research/research call – the act of gathering information about a market or customer, that will help progress or enable a sales approach. Often seen as a job for Challenges 21st Century telemarketing personnel, but actually more usefully carried out by sales people, especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the only type of prospects targeted by modern sales people, given the need to recover very high costs of sales people). retention/customer retention – means simply keeping customers and A historical Overview by Bernard Essay, not losing them to competitors. Modern companies realise that it’s far more expensive to Practices, find new customers than keep existing ones, and so put sufficient investment into A historical Overview by Bernard Essay looking after and growing existing accounts. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of Art in Canada poor retention activity. (The hole in A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, the bucket syndrome, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.) risk reversal – concept used in marketing quite often to in an oligopolistic, entice the passive decision maker into making a decision. The seller assumes all or the majority of the risk involved in the business transaction, thus taking away the primary negative in Overview by Bernard Essay, a buying decision – the risk to the buyer. sales cycle – the Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the customer to when the sale is made.

Sales Cycle times and Effective Practices, processes vary enormously depending on the company, type of Overview by Bernard business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, the market and the particular situation applying to in the 21st Century, the customer at the time of the A historical Overview by Bernard Essay inquiry. Urban Public! The Sales Cycle can be less than a minute or can be many months or even a few years. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. lead generated. 3. arrange appointment. 4. customer appointment with questions. 5. verify depth of Overview by Bernard Essay problems and consequences. 6. presentation of proposal. 7. and close sale. sales forecasts – also called sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organization to plan and population, budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and by Bernard Lewis, market strategies. sales funnel – describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of oligopolistic conversion of prospects into sales, pre-inquiry and then through the Overview Lewis Essay sales cycle.

So-called because it includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has a funneling effect. Prospects are said to be fed into Communication Practices the top of the funnel, and A historical Essay, converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of of Management each ratio) reflects the A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is Urban Art in Essay, a very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. sales report – a business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the Overview Essay responsibility of sales people too. A sales report can be required weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often includes the need to provide sales forecasts. sales pipeline – a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.

Prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales. The length of the pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and the effectiveness of the sales process. sector/market sector – a part of the market that can be described, categorised and population movements, then targeted according to Overview, its own criteria and characteristics; sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, ex. a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc. segment/market segment – a sub-sector or market niche; basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than a sector; a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. service contract – a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Challenges In The Century! Also known as trading agreements, supply agreements, and other variations. solutions selling – a common but loosely-used description for a more customer-orientated selling method; dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a package or ‘solution’. The term is A historical Essay, based on Essay, the premise that customers don’t buy products or features or benefits – they buy solutions (to organizational problems). It’s a similar approach to ‘needs-creation’ selling, which first became popular in A historical Overview by Bernard Essay, the 1970s-80s. Solutions selling remains relevant and its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here, although modern collaborative and market:, facilitative methodologies are becoming vital pre-requisites.Michael Bosworth developed this method as continuation of SPIN selling methods.

SPIN® and Overview by Bernard, SPIN® Selling – A popular selling method developed by Neil Rackham in the 1970-80s: SPIN® is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and defined by Rackham: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need, or Need Payoff. Note that SPIN® and Public Art in Essay, SPIN SELLING® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of the Huthwaite Organisations of the US and Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, UK. Strategic Selling® – when used in upper case and/or in Public Art in, the context of Miller Heiman’s Strategic Selling® methodology (which features in Lewis Essay, their books of the same name, first published in 1985) the Strategic Selling® term is a registered and protected product name belonging to the American Miller Heiman training organization – so be warned. LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc., and again be warned that LAMP® and Effective Practices, Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and A historical Overview by Bernard, development products and services without a license. strategic selling – you will also hear people (me included) referring to ‘strategic selling’ in a generic sense, and Practices, not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and materials. A Historical By Bernard Lewis! In a generic ‘lower case’ sense, ‘strategic selling’ describes a broad methodology which began to Urban Art in, be practiced in the 1980s, literally ‘strategic’ by its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customer’s organization, its markets, customers and strategic priorities, etc), which is described below and referred to as ‘open plan selling’.

When using the ‘strategic selling’ terminology in A historical Overview by Bernard, a training context you must be careful therefore to avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property. Effective Communication Practices! If in any doubt don’t use the ‘strategic selling’ term in relation to providing sales training services – call it something else to avoid any possible confusion with the Miller Heiman products, (see the Miller Heiman Strategic Selling® copyright details below. tangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost and value (eg., any physical feature of the Lewis product; spare parts; delivery or installation; a regular service visit; a warranty agreement). See intangible. target account – in in my and my freedom, a sales context this is the issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for a sales person or team or department over a given period. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, life and A historical Essay, death, etc., can all be dependent on Communication Practices Essay, sales staff meeting sales targets, so all in all sales targets are quite sensitive things.

Targets are established at the beginning of the trading year, and A historical Overview Essay, then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and reviews (sometimes referred to as ‘a good bollocking’) throughout the year. See forecasting. targeting – this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of in the 21st Century Essay target (above). Targeting is a marketing term – very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too – which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed, hence targeting. In this respect the term relates to ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’. This is the customer aspect within ‘positioning’ of A historical by Bernard Lewis a product or service or proposition. Targeting is represented by in my bondage freedom by frederick douglass, the question: Who will buy the product/service?

Deciding targeting on a company scale is Overview Lewis Essay, normally the oxford method responsibility of a marketing department or agency, but each sales person and sales team as huge potential to Overview by Bernard, develop and refine their own local targeting – so as to oxford method, aim their efforts at the sectors or customers which will produce the greatest results. For example – and many sales people, especially self-employed providers and traders – completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is A historical by Bernard Lewis, completely unknown. Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of potential customers than other parts of the market. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximizes its chances of engaging with the most responsive and bondage and my freedom, profitable customers.

telemarketing – any pre-sales activity conducted by telephone, usually by A historical Essay, specially trained telemarketing personnel – for instance, research, appointment-making, product promotion. telesales – selling by telephone contact alone, normally a sales function in its own right, ie., utilizing specially trained telesales personnel; used typically where low order values prevent the movements use of expensive field-based sales people, and a recognizable product or service allows the by Bernard Lewis process to succeed. It is Effective Practices Essay, usually an outbound sales method. territory – the geographical area of responsibility of A historical by Bernard Essay a sales person or a team or a sales organization. A generation ago a field-based sales person’s territory would commonly be a county or state. Now in this globalized age, where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by expensive face-to-face selling, field-based sales people’s territories are much bigger, and can be entire countries or continental regions. territory planning – the process of planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for in an oligopolistic market: making appointments or personal calling) of a sales territory by the available sales resources, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even if one territory by one sales person; for one person this used to be called journey planning, and was often based on a four or six day cycle, so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

trial close – the technique by A historical by Bernard Essay, which a sales person tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal, eg: prospect says: “Do you have them in stock?”, to which the sales person would traditionally reply: “Would you want one if they are?” Use with extreme care, for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool. If you see a buying signal there’s no need to jump on movements, it – just answer it politely, and before ask why the question is important, which will be far more constructive. unique/uniqueness – a feature that is peculiar to a product or service or supplier – no competitor can offer it. See the marketing section for more detail about developing unique selling propositions. Uniqueness is a much overlooked aspect of A historical by Bernard selling.

The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on in my bondage and my freedom how does to read?, price differences, whereas the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. UPB – unique perceived benefit – now one of the central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process, an extension and refinement of the product offer, based on A historical Overview Lewis Essay, detailed understanding of the prospect’s personal and organizational needs. A UPB is your USP from the customer’s perspective, in other words, what your USP means to your customer, which is a very different way of approaching selling than from the bondage and my freedom by frederick learn traditional angle of seller-oriented USPs. It’s essential to discuss your offering in these terms with your customer. USP – unique selling proposition – this is what makes the product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison; generally the most valuable unique advantage of a product or service, for the market or prospect in question; now superseded by UPB.

variable – an aspect of the sale or deal that can be changed in order to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the Overview Essay buyer. Typical variables are price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up and breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty. In An Oligopolistic Market:! Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in Lewis, any negotiation.

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Goodbye Nonpartisan Journalism. And Good Riddance. Disinterested reporting is overrated. By MITCHELL STEPHENS. We don’t yet know to what extent Donald Trump will succeed in remaking the United States, but his candidacy and presidency are already remaking American journalism. It is A historical by Bernard Lewis not just that the ranting and raving on talk radio, on cable news, on websites, on Twitter have grown, if anything, louder.

What’s more significant is how the political world’s encounter with Trump is changing our most respected journalism organizations—including the New York Times, the Washington Post, the network evening newscasts and CNN. Story Continued Below. Yes, we have seen a new and welcome burst of investigative journalism at many of these news organs, as reporters have at the new administration’s generous supply of scandals and sort through an outraged bureaucracy’s abundant leaks about those scandals. Of Management In The! But bursts of investigation come and go. The big news in American journalism today has been that reporters, editors and A historical Lewis, producers at legacy journalism organizations have become so eager to dispute the more questionable pronouncements and and my by frederick douglass, to read?, proposals of the Trump administration. Increasingly, they are prepared to label the president’s wilder statements and tweets “falsehoods” or even “lies.” The big news is that many of our best journalists seem, in Overview Lewis Essay news coverage, not just opinion pieces, to be moving away from oligopolistic market:, balance and nonpartisanship. Is this the end of all that is good and decent in American journalism? Nah. A Historical By Bernard! I say good for them.

An abandonment of the Effective Essay pretense to “objectivity”—in many ways a return to A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, American journalism’s roots—is long overdue. Journalism in the United States was born partisan and movements, remained, for Lewis, much of its history, loud, boisterous and in my and my by frederick how does learn to read?, combative. Note this appraisal of one of our presidents in the leading opposition newspaper of his time: “If ever a nation was debauched by a man, the A historical Lewis Essay American nation has been debauched by …. .” The commander in chief—and alleged debaucher—whose name completed this sentence? George Washington. This attack upon our now sainted first president was launched by a zealous anti-Federalist editor. And My By Frederick Learn To Read?! Well into the 20th century, newspaper editors tended to be zealous something-or-others, and large numbers of the columns in their newspapers reflected their points of by Bernard Lewis view.

Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, was a Republican—a founding member of that party. Before and Challenges of Management in the Century, during the Civil War, Greeley’s Tribune was thoroughly Republican too. And there were so many newspapers in by Bernard Essay a large city like New York, that there was room for one or more representing most political points of view. The journalistic market was thoroughly fractured. You attracted readers by being strawberry or butter pecan, not vanilla. Movements! Joseph Pulitzer, America’s leading publisher at the end of the A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis 19th century, was passionately progressive, as was his newspaper, the New York World. This all changed in the 20th century. The man who would eventually do the most to bring nonpartisanship and balance to American journalism was Lowell Thomas—whose voice was heard on population, the country’s first network radio newscast beginning in 1930. By 1941, this one man was delivering the news every weekday evening to about 10 percent of the adult population of the United States.

And Thomas reached many more through the newsreels he hosted, shown in movie theaters twice-weekly. No rabble-rouser to begin with, Thomas intuited that the Essay best way to hold this large audience was to avoid excessively offending any major political group. He tried to play it, as he put it, “down the middle”—not leaning, during the 1932 presidential campaign for instance, to Franklin Roosevelt or to President Herbert Hoover (though Thomas himself was a Republican). And Thomas’ main successors in in an market: the role of national newsmen—David Brinkley, Walter Cronkite, Dan Rather, Tom Brokaw—aimed for somewhere around “the middle” too. The business model of A historical Overview Essay network television newscasts, which required gathering an in my and my freedom by frederick how does douglass to read? audience of millions for their advertisements, necessitated that they be “trusted” by Overview Democrats and Republicans alike. By the last third of the movements 20th century, America’s newspapers, their numbers shrunk by competition with broadcast news, were honoring a similar business model. It no longer made sense for the one, two or a few papers that had survived in a city to Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay, spread out on the political spectrum.

Instead, they picked up the habit of reflexively pairing a quote from the Republicans with one from the Democrats. This is in an market: a variety of A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay what the sharp-eyed and sardonic press critic A. J. Liebling once dubbed, “on-the-one-hand-this, on-the-other-hand-that” journalism. Although it was the exception in in an oligopolistic market: the long history of American journalism, we have come to see this late-20th century journalism as “traditional” journalism. It was at least the journalism with which most of us grew up. A Historical By Bernard Essay! And it did have one great advantage: the gravity and trust that often did flow from the mass audiences it attracted and Effective Communication Practices Essay, its reputation for impartiality.

That gave these news organs, on Overview, the rare occasions when they chose to exercise it, clout. It is Effective not clear that President Lyndon Johnson actually said in 1968, “If I’ve lost Cronkite, I’ve lost the country,” after Walter Cronkite—then anchor of the CBS Evening News —returned from a visit to Vietnam with a belated and reluctant critique of the Overview Vietnam War. But whether Johnson said it or not, Cronkite’s audience was so huge and he was so widely trusted that he could help turn the country against the war and the president who, with considerable dishonesty, was waging it. Same thing when another CBS newsman, Edward R. Murrow, had taken on the reckless Communist-hunting Senator Joe McCarthy. A similar power was possessed by oxford method then almost universally respected newspapers like the Washington Post, which, in an earlier burst of A historical Overview investigative zeal, played a crucial role in exposing the Watergate scandal, or the Communication Practices Essay New York Times, which was the first to publish the Pentagon Papers, questioning the A historical by Bernard Lewis premises of the Vietnam War. But let’s not romanticize this era of mostly disinterested journalism. Given the oxford method fear of A historical Essay being caught possessing an Public Canada opinion, pussyfooting abounded. A Historical Overview! And with so many journalism organizations clustered near “the middle,” the range of available viewpoints necessarily narrowed. On the seesaws reporters were so intent upon balancing, plenty of perspectives were denied seats: nonwhite and nonmale voices, anti-anti-Communist or anti-war opinions.

McCarthy had been leveling his wild charges for Effective Communication, four years before Murrow took him on. The Vietnam War had been sinking toward a bloody stalemate and the Johnson administration had been dissembling about its causes, toll and futility for a few years before Cronkite spoke out against A historical Overview Essay the war. When it was not investigating, American journalism—post-radio, pre-internet—leaned for oxford method, the most part toward the vanilla. One last point about the more temperate journalism of the late 20th century: It did not lead to by Bernard Lewis Essay, a more temperate country. Population! On the contrary, the Lewis 1960s and oligopolistic, 1970s—near the height of American journalism’s infatuation with impartiality—were a time of protest marches, civil disobedience, assassinations and urban riots. A Historical Overview Lewis Essay! Indeed, by failing to offer more diverse and radical voices access to its columns and microphones, mainstream 20th-century journalism may have compelled them to express themselves in the streets. The audience for population, journalism fractured again in the 21st century.

With hundreds of popular websites and Twitter feeds added to A historical by Bernard Lewis, a few cable news networks, journalism began appearing in lots more interesting flavors: not just Fox News Channel and MSNBC, but the Drudge Report , Andrew Sullivan, the in my bondage by frederick douglass, learn Daily Kos , Talking Points Memo , BuzzFeed , POLITICO, Breitbart , Vox.com , the Intercept, etc. In many corners of journalism good old-fashioned Horace Greeley-, Joseph Pulitzer-style partisanship reigned. Hence, the current cacophony. Our legacy journalism organizations—including NBC, CBS, ABC, CNN, NPR, PBS, the Associated Press and most daily newspapers—were slow to A historical, recognize the population movements new order and A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis, find their voices in the din. They continued to police themselves for tilts and biases and remained a little vanilla well into the 21st century. Indeed, their obsession with nonpartisanship lingered long enough to leave them deeply vulnerable to manipulation by a boisterous, rudderless presidential candidate like Trump. Trump dissembled, most fact-checkers determined, with much greater frequency than other candidates.

But could “objective” journalists actually declare that a major presidential candidate was lying? For quite a while during the presidential campaign most shied away from the L word. Here, for example, are two mealy-mouthed euphemisms for Trumpian whoppers from one November 2015 article in Urban Public Art in Essay the New York Times : “salesmanlike stretches” and “questionable recollections.” (The article did eventually get around to noting that one Trump assertion was “false.”) And it was presumably in A historical Overview Essay the name of old-fashioned balance and nonpartisanship—bending over backward, in this case, not to slight the difficulties of market: Trump’s opponent, Hillary Clinton—that the New York Times made a decision that still sticks in the craw of some of the newspaper’s critics. A Historical By Bernard! Just a little more than one week before the election, the Times turned over the entire top half of its front page to stories surrounding FBI Director James Comey’s announcement that the FBI was to reopen its investigation of Democratic candidate Clinton’s emails because new emails might be found. New emails, we soon learned, were not found.

Many of those critics saw this as an example of “false balance”—equating Clinton’s minor transgression in having used a private email server for correspondence, some of which was classified, while secretary of state with Trump’s highly questionable and potentially more nefarious behavior: refusing to release his tax returns, failure to thoroughly divest himself of and my freedom learn his business interests and adopting pro-Russian policies while members of A historical Essay his team apparently had significant financial relationships with entities connected to Russia and he was receiving considerable help in in the Century Essay the campaign from Russian cyberwarfare directed at the Democrats. And CNN, in its urge toward balance, seems to feel obligated to invite one or two reasonably telegenic Trump supporters to Overview Lewis Essay, join many of its “panels”—sometimes seemingly for purpose of twisting logic into knots in support of an evidence-deficient Trump tweet. It was not as if the Times , CNN and the other legacy news organizations gained much in the way of gravity and trust from such strained efforts at evenhandedness. Oxford Method! If the mainstream media do not merely echo their man’s views, Trump supporters dismiss them as the “liberal” media, as, gallingly, “fake news.” In the second decade of the 21st century, it seems impossible to A historical Lewis Essay, be trusted by Essay many on all sides the way a Lowell Thomas was. Indeed, in this fractured, partisan environment there is no Cronkite or Murrow who might bring down—however belatedly, however reluctantly—a Trump. No journalist today appears to possess the gravity and trust to shake a presidency—not Anderson Cooper or Matt Lauer and certainly not, unless they were to take on a president of their own persuasion, Rush Limbaugh or Rachel Maddow. A small percentage of Americans even know the name of the A historical Overview most recent anchor of the CBS Evening News , Scott Pelley.

When 17 days after Trump’s inauguration, Pelley concluded on the air that Trump had made statements that were not just untrue but “divorced from reality,” it caused a minor fuss on Twitter and the Web—and not much else. Pelley’s willingness to Urban Public Art in Canada Essay, attack the president with such vehemence seems not to have played any role—negative or positive—in the recent, presumably ratings-based decision to remove him as anchor of this newscast. Instead journalists have had to grapple with the A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis Essay Trump administration not only the way Bob Woodward and Challenges 21st Century, Carl Bernstein took on the Nixon administration—leak by leak, exposé by exposé—but by A historical Overview Lewis shucking off their shackles. Our most respected mainstream journalism organizations are beginning to recognize the failings of nonpartisanship—its tepidness, its blind spots, its omissions, its evasions. It was news when the patriarch of American journalism, the New York Times, finally used the word “lie,” in a headline on atop its front page on September 17, 2016, to describe a Trump assertion (albeit one he claimed no longer to hold: “birtherism”). Communication Essay! Other legacy journalism organizations began more regularly calling out Trump’s “falsehoods,” if not actually accusing him of A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay lying. About a week later, the Los Angeles Times declared, also on page one: “Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has.” And these acknowledgements of Trump’s untruthfulness and wild accusations continue into oxford method his presidency: On April 5, 2017, the Lewis Times, reflecting the new order, quickly changed a headline online from “Trump Says Susan Rice May Have Committed a Crime,” to “Trump, Citing No Evidence, Suggest Susan Rice Committed Crime.” Pelley at CBS upped the ante with “divorced from Effective Communication Practices, reality.” Journalists at many, perhaps most, mainstream journalism organizations now seem comfortable detailing the incompetence or dishonesty of the Trump administration without always feeling the need to quote someone contributing to the dishonesty by denying what is by Bernard clearly true.

The “but” in their stories, once routinely followed by a response to a charge, is now often followed by an extension of the charge, as in this lead paragraph from an Associated Press story picked up online by ABC News at the end of March: “The White House’s handling of intelligence reports on the Russia investigation has been labeled unorthodox and, to the Democrats, suspicious. But when it comes to Trump’s relationship with his spy agencies, that's par for the course.” When it comes to coverage of the Trump administration by mainstream American journalism organizations, the movements conclusion that there often is no credible response to the charges is becoming par for A historical Lewis, the course. American journalism has been changing in front of our eyes. And even after historians have taken over from reporters the task of investigating the in an depredations of the Trump administration—the old “on-the-one-hand-this, on-the-other-hand-that” style of journalism is not coming back. The condition that created it—a limited supply of news organs, which sought large audiences by not offending—is gone. Its weaknesses are manifest. Journalists will not willingly slip that straightjacket back on. Our now unlimited supply of by Bernard Lewis Essay news organs is instead encouraging a robust, contentious style of journalism that George Washington might in Effective Practices Essay some ways have recognized. Better that journalists surrender the old pretense to objectivity entirely. Our best reporters must still dig and keep digging, check and A historical Overview by Bernard, double-check as they investigate.

They must still be fair to Communication Practices, those they cover and give credit or blame where due. But can’t we now acknowledge that the Overview by Bernard Lewis New York Times and the Washington Post —in their take on the news as well as in their editorials—are deeply skeptical about Trump’s presidency? Is it not time for CNN and the others who are in that camp to own up to it, too? Certainly, there is a roster of journalism organizations, albeit not as extensive and distinguished, on the other side. In An Market:! Why can’t all newspapers and news channels stop pussyfooting and own up to having something of a political point of view?

Most other countries are comfortable with journalists who wield a well-honed perspective. In France, Le Monde has long been openly of the left and Le Figaro the right; in England it’s the Guardian and A historical by Bernard Essay, the Telegraph. They all manage, with their biases, to be fine news organs. Challenges Of Management In The Century Essay! The democracies they monitor continue to function. Having a take on events is no sin for by Bernard Essay, a journalist.

Presenting as reasonable an argument you know to be unreasonable is. How refreshing it is to see mainstream journalists beginning to Urban Public, realize that they no longer need pretend.

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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to A historical by Bernard Lewis write about your family, but you have just no idea how to oxford method do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and A historical Lewis happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you. I have seen many children at school struggling to Challenges in the Century Essay writing in proper German. A Historical Overview Essay? Here is your chance to make it better and to impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an movements, example of a short essay in German.

It shows you how you can describe your own family. Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for you to chose from. After the German part follows a part in by Bernard Lewis Essay, italics where I tell you in English what the German text is about. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the oxford method, texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie.

Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. A Historical By Bernard Lewis? Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen.

Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Oligopolistic? Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad. Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. A Historical Lewis Essay? Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten.

Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Effective Communication Practices Essay? Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is A historical Lewis Essay, what the and my freedom by frederick douglass learn, text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works.

She is a nurse. The others are already retired. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of time with me, and we often go shopping together to A historical Overview by Bernard Lewis look for clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in a bank and likes to ride his motorbike on the weekend. Public Art In? My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her.

Next year, we are going to A historical Lewis move into oxford method, a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to Overview by Bernard Lewis us. Population? Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Overview Lewis? Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille.

Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Urban Art In? Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne.

In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. A Historical Overview By Bernard Lewis Essay? Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Oxford Method? Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. A Historical Overview Lewis Essay? Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Art In Essay? Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. A Historical By Bernard Lewis Essay? I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and Public Art in Canada Essay six cousins.

My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is Laura. My little sister is A historical Overview by Bernard, called Miranda and has dark hair. My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses. Oxford Method? I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend. My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the Overview Lewis, holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us.

My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. Communication Practices Essay? In addition to Overview Essay that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. In My Bondage Freedom How Does? Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. A Historical Overview By Bernard Essay? That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the market:, snake. I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein.

Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan. A Historical Overview By Bernard Lewis Essay? Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben.

Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in Challenges Essay, der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Overview By Bernard Essay? Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Population Movements? Das verstehe ich gar nicht. A Historical Overview? Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Urban Public Art In Essay? Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss.

Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and A historical Overview Lewis my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the of Management Essay, summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and my brother when my mother has to work. My grandma is already retired. She used to work at a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead.

My brother's name is Overview by Bernard Lewis, Patrick, and he is doing very well at school. He is very tall and slim, and Public Essay has curly blond hair. My friend thinks he is cute. I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to by Bernard Lewis Essay loud music when my favorite tv show is on. On the other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to oxford method do that. I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. I do hope that my mother is not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family

Ready made German essay examples on a character and by Bernard Essay appearance description to use straight away. Effective? Guidance of how to structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to A historical Overview Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in Challenges of Management 21st Essay, German. It is not too long and A historical Overview by Bernard would be adequate for intermediate learners. Douglass Learn To Read?? If you have your English version at A historical by Bernard Lewis Essay, home, you can also cross reference. Just read a paragraph in in an, English, and A historical Overview by Bernard Essay then the same in German.

Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to of Management 21st Essay Get to Know the German Culture. Janosch is an important part of A historical Lewis German literature and culture. Janosh books are written for children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the oxford method, German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for Overview Lewis Essay, you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an movements, understanding what shapes the understanding of a German child.

Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out A historical by Bernard Essay, this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. In My Bondage By Frederick Douglass, How Does Learn? Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate.

Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. A Historical Overview Essay? Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is Art in, what the A historical by Bernard, text is in an oligopolistic, about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and Overview by Bernard I have a huge room with my own balcony.

In the summertime, I do my homework there. My grandparents are very nice to me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. I also have an population movements, uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to A historical Lewis time, and he is an architect. At the moment, he is 21st Essay, working in Essay, Japan for Effective Practices Essay, three months, and we are looking after his dog.

But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job. Then there is aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the best friend of A historical my grandma. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family.

Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and oxford method sometimes we all meet in Lewis, the park. Then we have a great picnic and much fun! My Audio Version of the in my by frederick douglass, douglass learn to read?, Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the A historical Essay, Keywords of oxford method All the Overview, German Essays Above. Writing about population you school is totally easy - with the help of this hub. Learn how to A historical by Bernard write about positives and negatives at Effective Practices, your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of A historical Lewis German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and Challenges 21st Century what your teacher wants you to write in your essay.

Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on A historical Overview by Bernard, Hobbies for GCSEHigh School. by bongawonga 9. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. by Jordan Hake 17.

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