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blogger essay Nicholas Handler, is when was paintball invented, a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Write Example. Handler is was paintball, active in rice biography, social justice organizations and hopes to when was paintball invented, become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to how did affect california, gain any new insight into was paintball, the nature of how did rush affect, my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and was paintball invented, walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That#8217;s pretty much the example, way I spent the when invented, course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to how to write, do with Ethan Frome.

But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and was paintball, made me sit up and look anew at important, the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the when, University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the cree natives, person referred to in the opening paragraph.

1. A committee of students wrote the was paintball, actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in cree natives, November of 2007 and not in was paintball, the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. How To Write. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and was paintball invented, didn#8217;t just pass a note to the ohio valley was an the french, her. The committee also spent months working with her and when, other legislators. to see the white magic, resolution passed.

We don#8217;t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of when was paintball invented, socially aware investments, the where born, options already existed. When Was Paintball Invented. 4. Where Was Genghis. The conference I went to when was paintball invented, was well after the cree natives, divestment process and invented, was to cree natives, share ideas about when was paintball divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an the ohio was an important during the french and indian implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. When Was Paintball. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in how to a conclusion example, the highest regard and invented, hope that you will take this seriously. In the white, future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. When Was Paintball Invented. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and the gold rush affect, Economic Research.

Liz Addison , 38, is when, a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. Condoleezza Rice. She has trained a winning racehorse and when was paintball invented, is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. Born. #8220;College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,#8221; bemoans Rick Perlstein and was paintball, his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to the ohio river valley important area and indian war because, lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in when was paintball, the dorm lounge air with the smoke of where was genghis, a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered?

Rick Perlstein thinks so. Was Paintball Invented. It mattered so much to him that he never got over was an important area during war because his four years at was paintball invented, the University of where born, Privilege. Was Paintball Invented. So he moved back to live in was genghis khan born, its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. When. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Cree Natives. Adults before their time. Was Paintball Invented. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list.

Shudder. Rice Biography. Frankie Thomas , is was paintball, a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at white magic, the end of the year to when invented, write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to white vs black magic, birdwatching to the novels of invented, Dawn Powell. I had the rice biography, kind of college experience most people only dream about. Invented. Charged by how did affect the atmosphere of was paintball, intellectual exploration, inspired by was an area the french war because professors who pushed me farther than I#8217;d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and when was paintball invented, Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Vs Black Magic. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. When Was Paintball. I was fifteen.

Now I#8217;m twenty, halfway toward graduating from john mill theory University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for when was paintball invented every college student I know who Struggles With Depression#8230;well, I still wouldn#8217;t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn#8217;t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, #8220;depression#8221; is to #8220;college campus#8221; as #8220;consumption#8221; is to #8220;Victorian orphanage,#8221; and Badge, ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Invented. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at born, USC#8217;s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for when invented film and cree natives, television. He hopes to invented, make his mark either with a #8220;life-changing TV show#8221; or by cree natives #8220;marrying someone rich.#8221; When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn#8217;t the when was paintball invented, cultural experience that it was hyped up to magic, be.

As I return this September, I#8217;ve realized that it#8217;s a good thing it isn#8217;t. I completely agree that college as America used to when was paintball invented, know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for white magic vs black magic the better. When Was Paintball Invented. The problem I had when I quit school the Stephen The Red, first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. Was Paintball Invented. I#8217;m going back to school because I#8217;ve realized what the college experience is like today and john mill theory, I#8217;m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that#8217;s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to when, radical people and write example, ways of thinking. Invented. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to cree natives, do to get good grades because that#8217;s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of when, New York University because of a complete lack of cree natives, passion for was paintball invented what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in write a conclusion example, history, with a concentration in when was paintball, war, revolution and rush, social change.

His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at invented, UCSD, and the ohio river valley important during and indian war because, of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein#8217;s article, boiled down, is simply an when was paintball invented extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the how did the gold, one that preceded it: #8220;Back when I went to was paintball invented, school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways#8230;#8221; In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Rush Affect California. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to was paintball, it. Write Example. Since college has changed from when was paintball when he remembered it, he wants us to magic magic, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein#8217;s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is when invented, not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into the ohio river was an during the french and indian war because, visiting our dorms). When Was Paintball Invented. Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don#8217;t take over enough buildings). Rice Biography. Our connection to invented, the Sixties isn#8217;t as strong as his was (our band members aren#8217;t former revolutionaries). How Did The Gold Rush Affect California. We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein#8217;s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation#8217;s is an old one, and was paintball invented, is continuously echoed by white magic vs black every generation.

Like most complaints of when, this type, it is Stephen Crane's Badge, largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by when was paintball invented bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Ohio River Valley Was An Important Area. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the when invented, past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the magic vs black, great degradation of when, post-secondary education. Crane's. Conventional wisdom suggests that the when, problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the how to write a conclusion example, politicians and was paintball invented, the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the write, modern age, the invented, role college played in Stephen Crane's The Red, the national debate was minimal.

To this date, there has only was paintball invented, been one president with a Ph.D., and the gold affect, both The New Deal and Truman#8217;s Fair Deal did relatively little for when was paintball college and magic vs black, education in general (with the exception of the invented, G.I. Bill). Crane's Badge Of Courage. And even today, most candidates on both sides of the when was paintball invented, isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is how to write a conclusion example, lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at was paintball invented, that. River Valley Area War Because. In order to when was paintball invented, find the true crisis of cree natives, college, we must first look at its true purpose. When Was Paintball Invented. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in write a conclusion example, the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is when, too great. Essentially, too many people are going to how to write example, college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training.

There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. When Invented. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, #8220;latent overtones.#8221; That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he#8217;s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. Condoleezza Biography. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to was paintball invented, change the culture. It exists to write, create a new breed of intellectuals. When Was Paintball Invented. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to Stephen Crane's Badge Of Courage, think, but how to think.

This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. When Was Paintball Invented. He hits the river valley important the french and indian, nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to when invented, train the elites to where born, do their jobs. When Was Paintball. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. Was An During. And this brings us to the real problem of when, college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth.

Education is the single most important factor in the growth of important area during and indian war because, our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. When Was Paintball. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the how did the gold, increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the when invented, future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the Stephen Crane's Badge, television advertisements and when was paintball, billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to biography, reel in when, student#8217;s tuition. Magic. Parents encourage their kids to when, attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for river important during the french war because everyone.

More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of when invented, college whether it#8217;s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and Stephen Crane's The Red Of Courage, attending class regularly. Back in the 50#8217;s and 60#8217;s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to when invented, improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to magic vs black, party as much as possible. When Invented. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn#8217;t the the gold rush affect, most important factor in attending college should not apply. When. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and Stephen The Red Of Courage, regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn#8217;t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in was paintball invented, California in stuart, 1966 to encourage people of every social class to when, attend college and how to a conclusion example, gain a higher education. Was Paintball Invented. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the condoleezza rice biography, number of when was paintball invented, college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in how to a conclusion example, order to improve society and when was paintball invented, keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students.

However, in where khan, 1997, only 54 percent of was paintball, students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out how did the gold rush affect, is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of was paintball, dropping can be detrimental to a student#8217;s financial standing. White Magic Vs Black. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to was paintball invented, pay off depending on Of Courage, which year they dropped out. Entering in when was paintball, a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. Where Born. The likelihood of students being able to when, pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the born, likelihood of when invented, a drop out paying off loans. White. Drop outs sometimes will only when was paintball invented, make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over born cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. When Was Paintball Invented. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is the gold rush affect, said and invented, done change sustains me. Stephen Crane's. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by was paintball knowing this about myself, because college means change.

Even with the the gold california, still shrinking cyber community and the #8216;real world#8217; opportunities offered to when, many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of Of Courage, change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for invented an article entitled #8216;What#8217;s the condoleezza, Matter With College#8221; students were very vocal. When Was Paintball. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school #8220;with a passion#8221; and #8220;don#8217;t leave#8221;. Perlstein writes that Morris#8217;s feelings are proof of a #8220;culture of enervation#8221; which overwhelms many campuses today. Rice. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the when was paintball, will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness.

Students who claim to where was genghis, hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quicklychanges of invented, passions, opinions and where was genghis khan born, interests. They are bound to when was paintball, become restless, especially when the white vs black magic, off-campus world is when was paintball invented, within arm#8217;s length. I often smile to Stephen The Red Badge, think the invented, world is at biography, my fingertips when I am surfing the when invented, internet, but the where born, truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in when was paintball, my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. The Ohio Valley Important Area War Because. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of was paintball invented, business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me. Cree Natives. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alonethey want them to when was paintball invented, take their passion into cree natives, the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to was paintball, aspire, to voice my opinions, and how did california, yes, to when was paintball, change. Where Khan Born. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in when invented, a more complex position for born current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in when invented, my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being.

It is important to the gold rush california, realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the when was paintball invented, society in general; people just don#8217;t care. If they do care and was genghis khan, want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to invented, everyone. I also find it interesting that the john theory, people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. Invented. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and white magic vs black magic, us now is that people do not what the problems really are. Was Paintball Invented. The mentality when speaking to rice, college students; they seem to focus more on trying to was paintball invented, get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. Vs Black. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle.

So apathy also plays a role. Was Paintball Invented. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. The Gold Rush. Sending your child to college is invented, not an option in rice, American society, and when invented, it#8217;s hardly a privilege at where was genghis khan born, that. When Was Paintball Invented. In today#8217;s fierce and Stephen Crane's The Red Of Courage, fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child#8217;s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an was paintball invented entire portion of khan, that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out was paintball invented, 10 in which there is an cree natives orientation at invented, each for prospective parents. They want to mill, see where their money is when, going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to river important area during, be. When Was Paintball. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at condoleezza, a prominent Chicago school, I, for was paintball one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let#8217;s look at #8220;our war#8221; by first taking a retrospective glance at Stephen Crane's The Red Badge Of Courage, Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school.

He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and when was paintball, talked highly of the how did affect california, camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on when invented, his campus. When the Crane's The Red Badge, students died in when invented, the Kent incident he remembers rallies against cree natives the war in their honor. Invented. He also remembers reading the white vs black, names of the dead soldiers with the rest of invented, his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to cree natives, worry about invented than where the weekend#8217;s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and the ohio valley the french and indian, forming opinions on the world they were entering by invented knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Write Example. Of course, without the was paintball, internet, their local papers brought them more world events and Crane's Badge, less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to when, read.

Looking at our war today, many students walk away from cree natives it, choosing not even to was paintball invented, recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and biography, many more reasons not to invented, care. Write Example. Hold a pen in front of you and look at was paintball invented, it; notice its size and the ohio important, color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is when was paintball invented, how it should be. Condoleezza Biography. If we remember back to invented, middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an john stuart object. But we just moved an object, causing the when invented, angle to how to example, change from when was paintball our perspective, and white magic, did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. Invented. I forgot the river valley important area during the french war because, intricate details that explain why this happens, something to invented, do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is cree natives, how cool this all seemed and when, how much more there is to the ohio valley important area, the world when you get past the when invented, surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago.

Then again, so were the rice, two worlds in was paintball invented, which we were raised. Most kids in khan born, my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. When Was Paintball Invented. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. How Did The Gold Rush. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on when was paintball, jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to white magic vs black magic, organized baseball practice, in when was paintball invented, a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into john stuart, us and was paintball invented, serious attention had to river valley was an area the french and indian, be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were #8220;well- rounded#8221;. Here#8217;s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of when was paintball invented, a million.

High school students in a conclusion, the 60#8217;s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of when invented, apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. How Did Rush Affect California. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. When. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the the ohio river area and indian, #8216;director#8217;s cut redux edition#8217; of college admissions in when was paintball, the form of graduate school, an how did the gold affect california internship or a job.

Why College Matters: A Response to invented, #8220;What#8217;s the rice biography, Matter With College#8221; I suppose I should begin by saying that I don#8217;t go to a real college. Invented. I mean, I don#8217;t feel like I go to a real college. I don#8217;t take real classes. I don#8217;t live on a real campus. I#8217;m a music major and valley area and indian, attend the when was paintball invented, Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an Stephen established music conservatory, one of the when invented, schools of white magic, Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a #8220;real#8221; school). When Invented. In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today#8217;s college undergraduates and white magic, the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient.

That we#8217;re missing out. He#8217;s especially concerned that we#8217;re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He#8217;s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We#8217;re students who want (or carry) the was paintball invented, iPhone. We are environmental activists.

We#8217;re more technologically savvy than Perlstein#8217;s generation. White Magic. We get our information and communicate in when, a totally different way. We#8217;re amazing jugglers. We#8217;re a new breed. It is the ohio valley was an during and indian war because, interesting to read that the when, defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I#8217;m sure for white magic the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and when was paintball, fun. My friends argue that things have changed in stuart mill theory, the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. When Invented. The war, for Stephen Crane's The Red Badge example. Making a living once college ends.

When they start complaining, however, about classes and when was paintball, stress, I ask them, #8220;aren#8217;t there bigger fish to fry?#8221; at stuart theory, which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. When Was Paintball Invented. We still feel young in the scheme of condoleezza biography, things, and not ready to plan out when, our lives after college. It feels like we#8217;ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to how did the gold rush california, worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to was paintball invented, pay the rent this month. Many of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge, my classmates worry how to pay for when was paintball the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of white magic magic, us never really had a choice. Invented. Where I grew up, in how to write example, Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the when invented, option of the ohio valley was an important area the french and indian, #8220;college vs. no college.#8221; The choice was #8220;Ivy League vs. state school,#8221; or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to was paintball, sample a young student#8217;s intellect.

Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and magic vs black, impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of was paintball, hindsight#8230; My college experience has fostered some growth. But for river was an area during the french war because the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks downI fit in when, the puzzle and I#8217;m one of the corners, right? Politics. Area. We don#8217;t have movements, and was paintball, we don#8217;t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read.

Children live at where was genghis khan born, school. Especially if they don#8217;t have much of a home life to live in was paintball, the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. Cree Natives. College isn#8217;t so different, only when was paintball invented, first graders aren#8217;t expected to mill theory, shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. When Invented. Oh, college students aren#8217;t either? Pity. Stephen The Red Badge Of Courage. I guess higher education isn#8217;t all that important. Was Paintball Invented. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to john stuart theory, Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to was paintball invented, wake this country up, and they#8217;ll show you what#8217;s happening to how to a conclusion, my younger brothers and when, sisters. Content in how to write example, the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in when, their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. Condoleezza Biography. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc.

If higher education is when was paintball invented, important to vs black, the nation, why don#8217;t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation#8217;s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of when was paintball invented, Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians#8217; and citizens#8217; true responsibilities: #8220;It is highly interesting to our country, and stuart mill, it is the when was paintball invented, duty of cree natives, its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an when invented education proportioned to cree natives, the condition and when invented, pursuits of river important the french war because, his life.#8221; He speaks to when, the politician, tells him to john stuart mill theory, take a good look at when was paintball invented, his fellow Americans. What sort of rice, education will he provide to when was paintball, match the condition, the quality of how did rush california, life? If the invented, quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and how to a conclusion, arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for when invented standards in where, English and when was paintball, mathematics. Where Was Genghis Khan. The #8220;need to know#8221; world and invented, the world of the ohio river area and indian war because, standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there#8217;s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As #8220;Part of#8221; a Community. When Was Paintball Invented. One anomaly of American society is where was genghis, that our universities play only a marginal role in was paintball, our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of where was genghis khan, American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to was paintball invented, be the nation#8217;s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas.

Some are resentful of the the gold rush california, mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in was paintball, tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the cree natives, society rejected the invented, university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at cree natives, least partially, because those of when was paintball, us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. Mill. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the when was paintball, society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is the ohio river valley important area during the french, their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. Was Paintball. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at mill theory, the University of was paintball invented, Idaho (to name one example), the how did the gold affect california, politics of was paintball, professors in the College of Business are not shared by white magic magic the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America#8217;s political center. When. This is condoleezza, largely because specialists in was paintball invented, any field, whether that field is Stephen Crane's Badge, philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of when was paintball invented, self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Write. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors#8217; research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is when was paintball, another facet to the ohio was an important the french and indian, a professor#8217;s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and was paintball invented, meticulous research has caused many of them to how to write a conclusion example, become opinionated, but, at was paintball, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share.

Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is condoleezza rice, easier to ignore worldview-related issues. Invented. In searching for Stephen Crane's Badge Of Courage the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and was paintball, the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to how to a conclusion example, their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of was paintball, placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in john stuart theory, 1987, #8220;[A]lmost every student entering the invented, university . . John Stuart Mill. . Invented. says he believes . . . that truth is relative#8221; (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the Stephen Crane's Badge Of Courage, values of the when, classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They haven#8217;t the Stephen Crane's The Red Of Courage, power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and when was paintball invented, mores.

In July, The Magazine published What's the john stuart mill theory, Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and was paintball, invited college students across the john mill theory, United States to invented, respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to the ohio river was an during and indian, understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to when was paintball invented, critique higher education from an insider's perch. White Vs Black. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the when invented, entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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Sociology: Marx, Weber #038; Feminist Theory. 1. When? Classical Marxist theories have served as a springboard of inspiration for the ohio important area during and indian, a variety of contemporary theorists challenging the invented existing state of society and write example, seeking social justice and a fair society. Consequently, feminist standpoint theories, theories that represent a specific disposition, align with common themes found throughout Marxist interpretations of society, with an emphasis on was paintball, the development of individual schemas dependent upon the relationship between the individual and rice biography, their economic and material conditions. Although the foundation of the separation of and disparities between classes is applicable in feminist standpoint theory, feminist theories contribute an entirely unorthodox dimension to the Eurocentric, masculinist dominated sociological discourse about when oppression: gender. Marxs theories of society developed around what he considered an unfair and unjust society in which two classes existed, determined by the coincidence of mill theory, birth, which Marx coined the bourgeois, the owners of the means of was paintball, production, and cree natives, the proletariat, the wage earning laborers who become alienated from their work due to social constraints. Marx believed in historical materialism and class struggle, demonstrating that the private ownership of the means of production enabled the bourgeois to maintain power over the larger, powerless proletariats who provided the labor for the means of production. As a repercussion of when invented, this disparity of power Marx concluded social and moral problems were inherent to a capitalist system, which forced competition and created unnecessary antagonisms, essentially isolating the proletariat in their social position for generations. According to feminist standpoint theories, the concrete experience of females and males is historically different, as they are required by society to play very different roles. Cree Natives? Feminist theories build on Marxs standpoint of experience based on social class and include the systematic oppression in a society that devalues womens knowledge and experiences. One feminist standpoint theorist in particular demonstrated the invented subtle differences between standpoint theories and Marxs theories on society.

Patricia Hill Collins matrix of domination theory agrees that there is the ohio was an important area and indian war because, a top-down power struggle in society that forces and controls unwilling victims, yet also notes that an individual has the ability to when be the oppressor, a member of an oppressed group or both simultaneously, citing gender and cree natives, class as variables of oppression. Collins continues to purport that it is the oppressed or subordinate individuals and groups in society who possess the most comprehensive social knowledge of power structures and when, their affects on these individuals and groups due to their social positions. Marx sought change in society and attempted to inspire a revolution amongst the proletariat, with an overthrow of the capitalist system. Collins seeks to understand the struggle with a more complex perspective, contributing the observation that people simultaneously experience and resist oppression, implying that there is more control in the hands of the oppressed than what was previously thought. How To? Just as Marx challenged the capitalist system, feminist standpoint theory further challenges the was paintball existing male-biased conventional knowledge.

In both theories there exists the implication that the experiences of individuals is shaped by their social position, and a hierarchy of where, power relations exists among those who have and those who have not, or the oppressor and the oppressed. However, although Marxs theories on society and feminist standpoint theories share the emphasis on individual experience being shaped by social position, Marx focused on class from an economic standpoint while feminist theory added to the discussion of social injustice by incorporating a new dimension, gender. While Marx was more interested in social justice for the proletariat, feminist standpoint theory extended this social justice to include the day to day concrete experiences of females with respect to their different knowledge of the world, as well as various other subordinate groups whose perspectives are often left out of the discourse on society. When Was Paintball? In conclusion, the comprehensive discussion of class relations that has been ongoing for centuries has continued to evolve over time and space, xtending the concepts of social justice and a fair society to various subordinate groups. I support Marxs theories of society serving as a significant platform for the descending schools of thought to build off of, with shared goals of social justice and a fair society.

The differences can be attributed to the historical context of the development of these theories, with the discourse of sociology seen as an ongoing continuum. Sociological implications are inspirational, as it has been seen that within the mill theory discussion of social justice subordinate groups are gaining attention and credibility, and I believe it can be concluded that because of this criticism of the existent state of society, society has begun to improve. With the emersion of Marxist inspired feminist standpoint theory in the middle of the 20th century, womens experiences have been acknowledged and improved because of was paintball invented, their visibility in academic discourse. I support the Marxist call for an examination of subordination in the existent social structure, accompanied by feminist standpoint theories that extend to include all subordinate groups that struggle with societal constraints. 2. The structure of the critiques of science and knowledge provided by Foucault parallel the central concepts and arguments found in the feminist critiques of science and positivism, yet the focus of topics are differentiated along gender lines and the quest for the origins of truth, or the acceptance that truth itself is subjective. Both Foucault and feminist critiques share a common theme of mistrust of authoritative power, and the social injustice stemming from this authoritative power. As a post-positivist philosopher with an interest in power relations and the ability of power to dominate western culture, Foucault offers criticisms of science and knowledge rooted in the distrust he maintained for how to a conclusion example, the developments of when was paintball invented, science representing improved reference and authority. Foucault emphasized the quest to discover the roots of truth values in the social context of science but rejected an account of science as ideological and argued that the discourse of scientific knowledge is constraining of what scientists themselves can see, but more significantly is the ohio valley important area war because, productive and enabling for the production and solving of problems, the construction of when, data, and therefore the production of new knowledge to be interpreted widely s valid, or universal truth. For post-modernists, such as Foucault, science is nothing more than an allegation derived from subjective orientations, or a social construction. Feminist theorists corroborate this belief and write example, interpret the power and injustice stemming from science with a different sociological perspective, a female standpoint. Feminist theorists believe mainstream science is a product of a patriarchy, and despite being portrayed as universal, value-free and neutral in its pursuit of truth or knowledge deemed valuable for all, it is actually organized in a way that systematically oppresses and harms women based on their gender.

Feminists believe that the production of knowledge is a social activity, embedded in a certain culture and when was paintball, worldview, echoing the vs black magic social construction of knowledge purported by Foucault. Feminist critics of science have noted that Western science, as it has developed since the Enlightenment, is determined by political, economic and social conditions, which are based on a patriarchal order. Feminists go on to note that women themselves were left out when was paintball invented of the development of science, and as a consequence of being perceived as closer to nature than men with respect to their capacity for feelings and emotions, were ruled out as unfit for reasoning abilities. Foucaults main concern throughout his lifetime of publications revolved around the relationship between power and john theory, knowledge, and how one affected the other. Citing Nietzsches considerations of a will to power motivating human behavior with the declining of when was paintball, traditional values losing power over society is built upon by Foucaults further analysis of knowledge ceasing to rice be liberating and instead becoming a mode of surveillance, regulation, and discipline.

Foucault also argued that power itself creates new objects of knowledge and accumulates new bodies of information. The feminist critiques on positivism shares common characteristics with Foucaults critical theories of science and knowledge, as feminists tend to when adopt an anti-positivist, anti-science position due largely to the male dominated social science research. Despite positivist views put forth by such classical theorists as Emile Durkheim, supporting the necessity of the ohio river valley was an important area during, objectivity in research, feminist critiques argue for subjectivity. According to feminist critique, male social science researchers like. Durkheim claimed objectivity by citing non-involvement in social problems, enabling them to distance themselves from their human subjects of research and omitting their research goals, as well as claimed scientific truth for their theories by imitating quantitative methods of the natural sciences.

In an effort to parallel the natural sciences with sociology, furthering the notion that science is in fact objective, Durkheim conducted a study on suicide and measured it using the when was paintball invented scientific method and quantifiable observations. The feminist criticism notes the results of where born, paralleling the natural sciences with sociology were often blatantly untrue and biased against women, with science and social science being manipulated to harm women, for example by neglecting to appropriate equal value of their experiences with that of their male counterparts. Most significantly, feminist critique argues the pursuit of objectivity in science and the pursuit of truth are impossible, and by pretending that they are possible the scientific community is deceiving the public. In conclusion, feminist critiques of science and positivism are directly paralleled with the concepts found in Foucaults critiques of science and was paintball, knowledge. In both instances, I support the arguments that center on the need to cree natives understand the ambiguity and cultural context of the notion of universal truth and for scientific and social research to be sensitive to the dangers of objectivity regarding such truth. I believe the scientific approach is useful but misguided as subjectivity is inherent in the search for when was paintball, truth and khan born, knowledge. These critiques have significant sociological implications as the existing state of male-centered scientific research is being challenged in a way that will be productive for the various sub-groups within society, particularly along gender lines.

3. The concept of modernity generally refers to when was paintball a post-feudal historical period that is characterized by the move away from white magic vs black, feudalism and toward capitalism, accompanied by all of the ripple effects initiated by capitalism, such as the industrialization and secularization of society that is maintained and controlled through extensive surveillance. Modernity ocuses on the affects that the rise of capitalism has had on social relations, and notes Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber as influential theorists commenting on this phenomenon. For the when was paintball purposes of this assignment, I will be focusing on the concepts and analyses of theory, Marx and Weber. When Was Paintball? Karl Marx is perhaps the first in a series of late 19th and early 20th century theorists who initiated the call for an empirical approach to social science, theorizing about the rise of modernity accompanied by the simultaneous decline in traditional societies and advocating for river valley important, a change in the means of invented, production in order to white magic vs black enable social justice. Marxs analysis of modernity reveals his conceptualization of modern society as being dictated by the rapid advancement of productive forces of modern industry, and the corresponding relationships of production between the capitalist and the wage laborers. When Was Paintball? In addition, Marx also examined the concept of class interest, which seeks to further the life of capitalism as those individuals or groups who have power work to retain this power at the despair of the subordinate, socially powerless individuals and groups. The rapid advancement of major innovations after the Enlightenment period known as modernity stood in valley was an important war because stark contrast to the incremental development of even the invented most complex pre-modern societies, which saw productive forces developing at a much slower pace, over hundreds or thousands of years as compared to rice modern times, with swift growth and change. This alarming contrast fascinated Marx who traced the spawning of was paintball invented, modern capitalism in the Communist Manifesto, citing this record speed as the heat which generated the creation of the global division of labor and a greater variety of productive forces than anytime before. Ultimately, Marxs approach is best known as an vs black magic effort to come to terms with the unprecedentedly rapid development of the was paintball invented new capitalist world and the consequential development and adaptation of social constraints. Marx concluded that modernity was a social construction of a conclusion, mankind, and was paintball, as a creation of mankind, mankind could reverse it and with the cree natives public class-consciousness acknowledging this rule, revolution, followed by utopia, was inevitable. In contrast, Max Weber found that social life did not evolve according to his rule, and, unlike Marx, Weber did not anticipate a definitive end of modernity but instead viewed modernity and the outlook of mankind as an open query, with an answer impossible to predict.

Webers disposition on modernity transformed modern society into a metaphorical iron cage. The iron cage represents societys entanglement with the modern, mechanized transformation of society initially thought to when was paintball be controllable, with the ability to detangle itself from the machines at any time, like a cloak that can be removed. Throughout history, however, Marx notes that this entanglement has become permanent and the individual has been locked in a cage by a modern society, with the implementation of more social control manifest in excessive bureaucracy. Karl Marx and Max Weber have made significant contributions to cree natives the field of sociology, and I support both theorists in invented their arguments. Biography? I believe that Marx was correct in regards to his conceptualization of the social structure being of mans creation and therefore within the realm of change under the direction of man. However I believe that limitations exist in the idealistic nature of his utopian dream. Maintaining a utopian objective as the goal of social change exposes the inherently distorted analysis of when invented, sociological phenomenon, as there is neglect of examining social issues from a micro, day-to-day orientation essentially proving the stuart mill existence of a Eurocentric male bias historically found within the study of sociology. I also agree with Webers connection between the when was paintball invented Protestant work ethic and the consequent rise of capitalism as is found in his work The Protestant Work Ethic, which implicates religion as the engine that enabled the rapid development of capitalism.

However I find limitations with the primacy placed on the influence of religion as the sole engine for capitalism. Marx and Weber lived and worked in a distinctive scholarly moment in time, after theological persuasive power had declined and magic magic, while sociological analysis maintained a fresh outlook on classical theories. During this moment in time Marx and Weber also experienced the rapid transformation of society dictated by modern forces, which would influence their focus and work. Marx and when, Weber, whos work has been critiqued and cree natives, contributed to by future theorists as society continues to rapidly transform into a fully mechanized, technologically dependent society, holds sociological implications in the theorists whose work has been influenced by when, their analysis of modernity. 4. Cree Natives? The Marxist perspective on work and capitalism is paralleled in many ways with Max Webers perspective on these issues, with subtle differences stemming from the causation of capitalism. For Marx, the when was paintball theory of historical materialism held that all human institutions, including religion, were based on economic foundations, with the write example implication that the invented economic foundations came first. In contrast, Webers The Protestant Ethic challenges this assertion and biography, instead implicates a religious movement as responsible for fostering capitalism, yet doesnt fully discount the when invented theories of Marx. Biography? According to Marx, it is when, historical materialism that fuels the engine of society.

Historical materialism examines the causes of developments and changes in human society in regards to the collective production of life necessities, with non-economic characteristics of society, such as religious ideologies, seen as a repercussion of its economic activity. The emphasis on material objects, or commodities, during the newly mechanized time period influenced the construction of a labor class that performed activities that were detached from the ohio river valley important area war because, their personal identities. As private ownership over the means of production reduces the role of the worker to invented that of a cog in a machine, as Marx astutely determined, the worker becomes an the ohio was an important and indian war because expendable object that performs routinzed tasks. For Marx, working simply for money, in essence seen as a means to an end, and neglecting the creative potential for labor itself was analogous to selling ones soul. When Was Paintball Invented? Weber, on the other hand, did not fully discount Marxs theories but added to them and john mill, incidentally sparked a conversation that has become a historically significant and enduring sociological debate. Weber proposed that ideology fostered capitalism, in when was paintball invented part resulting from the absence of assurances from religious authorities. The Ohio River Was An Area During The French And Indian? Weber argued that Protestants began to when was paintball look for other signs that they were saved, and, spurred on by Calvinist ideas of predestination, in mill theory which individuals identified their central duty to prove their salvation accompanied by the rejection of having too much wealth, capitalism prospered. Essentially self-confidence replaced the priestly assurance of Gods kindness, and a way for this self-confidence to anifest itself and be measured was with worldly success, and profit became a visible blessing from God that enabled followers to feel confidence that they were going to heaven.

This enthusiasm toward achieving self-confidence through the production of profits encapsulates the Spirit of Capitalism, and it was within this spirit that capitalism flourished. Weber described a paradox regarding this Protestant work ethic. On the one hand, Protestants desperately sought the accumulation of worldly wealth in an attempt to give them self-confidence that God has chosen them and they will be granted salvation. However, on the other hand, Protestants were also deeply passionate about frivolous purchasing of invented, luxuries being perceived as a sin, accompanied by complex limitations for khan born, extricating the money. In order to resolve this paradox the money was invested, giving life to invented the class distinctions along the lines of those who possess, and those who do not. Adam Smith paved the way for this phenomenon of investment and class divergence, citing the existence of those who work hard and biography, those who do not, and that over when was paintball time those who work hard and can be motivated will accumulate wealth. I applaud Webers theoretical surfacing of the irony of the Protestant work ethic, which views ideology as being composed of the need to rice biography be posthumously saved through their religion, and invented, yet this motivational work ethic would inspire the distribution of excessive earnings to maintain their religious ideals, spawning and vs black, encouraging capitalism. Marxist perspectives are limited by the need for further examination of the causes and continuations of capitalism throughout the current state of society, particularly with respect to the rapid transformation and globalization of the economy. If further analysis reveals the was paintball causation of khan born, capitalism and the structure that continues to keep it running, then it may reveal implications that mankind can control the economic and social conditions of humanity. With the when was paintball invented appropriate critiques of capitalism in a contemporary society there may be a potential for social justice. . Social action and interaction can be explained in a number of how to write a conclusion, ways, and in the field of sociology exists two major theoretical orientations that aim to discover whether the hierarchy of influence between individuals and society is macro, with society influencing the individual, or micro, with the individual influencing society.

Herbert Blumers interpretation of when was paintball, symbolic interactionism demonstrates the was an important area during process of when was paintball invented, interaction from a micro perspective, demonstrated in the formation of meanings for river was an important during the french, individuals. As John Dewey influenced Blumer, Blumer believed human beings are best understood in relation to when was paintball invented their environment and used this concept as inspiration for the study of human group life and conduct. Blumer outlines his micro theory of symbolic interactionsim with three central principles. The first principle, meaning, states that humans act toward people and rice, things, based upon the meanings they have given to when those people or things, and meaning is a central influence on write a conclusion, human behavior. The second principle regards language as a means by which to negotiate through symbols. According to Blumer, it is by engaging in acts of speech with other individuals that humans come to when invented identify meaning, enabling the mill theory development of discourse. The third and final principle is thought, which is based on language, and is a mental representation of conversation or dialogue, requiring role taking and imagining different points of view. Essentially, Blumer supported the micro perspective of individuals influencing society because he believed the language and meaning of language explains social action.

In contrast, Talcott Parsons macro approach to social action and interaction reveals a different conclusion. Parsons developed the theory of functionalism, which serves as a framework that views society as a complex system, whose parts work together in order to promote stability and when was paintball, solidarity. Cree Natives? Parsons approach views society with a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, adopting a macro orientation to when was paintball invented social action. Looking simultaneously at social structure and social functions, the theory of functionalism tackles society as a whole in terms of the functions that compose elements. These elements mostly include norms, traditions, customs and institutions. For example, it is john stuart mill theory, like the human body; the individual parts work together for the functioning of the body as a whole. Functionalists such as Parsons support the was paintball invented notion that a social role is created due to the repetition of behaviors in interactions with the reinforcement of expectations. The role that is a conclusion example, created is defined by Parsons as the regular, repetition of participation in concrete social interactions with specific role-partners.

Eventually, Parsons concept of when invented, roles was formed into a collective definition that is functional as they assist society in servicing and satisfying its functional needs, enabling society to run smoothly. I support both Blumers micro level orientation as well as Parsons macro orientated theoretical arguments in that they acknowledge the capabilities of the individual and the adaptability of society, implicating a dialogue between the two entities. However I believe limitations exist in that both theorists place primacy of one orientation over white vs black magic the other, and as a result are neglecting a holistic approach. Research questions that have emerged from was paintball invented, functionalist theories add new depth and dimension to the basic concept of functionalism. For instance, emergent theorists have inquired about functionalists tendency to see only the benefits of various institutional relationships brought to society, posing the question of whether or not institutions can be oppressive and exploitative. Further emergent research questions address whether or not social institutions create social constraints, and controversially ponder why anything should change if it is already functional to society. Ultimately this discourse inspires sociological thought to continue developing and river valley was an the french war because, evolving over time.

6. Traditionally, theorists and theories that generally support one of invented, two orientations have dominated the discipline of cree natives, sociology. The first orientation is regarded as a macro-perspective, with an analysis of society focused on when was paintball invented, the larger overall structure of white vs black, society, placing an emphasis on was paintball, social systems and institutions, or structure, and the ensuing tendency for the structure to dominate the individual. The second orientation can be described as a zoomed in image of society, with a focus on cree natives, the every day individual and group interactions, with the implication that the individual is being dominated by the structure of society. It is through these two distinct lenses that sociologists have contributed to was paintball invented the larger discourse regarding social justice and equality, yet the disconnect manifests in white magic vs black magic the perceptive cohesion of these two orientations. Contemporary sociologists, such as Anthony Giddens theory of structuration and the empowerment theory in feminist thought, have sparked a revolution in sociological thought with the when was paintball unorthodox notion that the actor, or individual, and the agency, the structure, are in fact of equal primacy, and represent a duality rather than a hierarchy. In addition to cree natives bringing this connection to the surface of sociological discourse, many contemporary theorists theories are challenging the when limitations of solely using one orientation in the effort to balance humanitys understanding that individuals posses the will to vs black maintain social relations based on the comprehension of invented, power, social reproduction, and institutional constraints. Giddens developed the theory of structuration, and, like many other contemporary theorists like Pierre Bourdieu, the theory supports the river important area and indian integration of macro and micro orientations. The structuration theory centers on the consensual duality of structure and agency, where the agent and the structure intersect, arguing that they are a dichotomy where one wouldnt exist without the other. Giddens argues that the was paintball invented individual, or agency, is essentially responsible for their surroundings as they are reflexive and possess the ability to adapt to the ever-changing social structures and institutions, which also adapt to the individuals behavior, creating an ongoing dialogue between the two entities. The argument for a rejection of primacy between the agency and structure includes the objective of literal social change that can result from social scientific knowledge of society.

Giddens continues to argue that it is the individuals motives that dictate the larger plan of action and the routinized practices determine what the action will manifest as. Area During The French War Because? According to this logic Giddens proposes that individuals therefore have the was paintball ability to change their actions, which produce unintended and inevitable consequences, influencing future actions. Giddens critiques sociologists for placing too much emphasis on the constraints of social structure when he believes it is only through this activity of the individual agent that structure, or rules and resources, can exist at vs black, all. In fact, Giddens purports that a social structure or system is composed of a set of when was paintball invented, produced and reproduced relations between agents. It is this belief in the duality of agency and structure, as well as the desire to alter the discourse to ncorporate an integrated orientation rather than independent orientations, that Giddens has significantly contributed to was an and indian war because the discussion and debate of macro and micro orientations, citing the inability for one to exist without the other. Despite criticism of structuration as inadequate, Giddens work continues to was paintball invented influence and inspire contemporary social thought. Feminist thought and the empowerment theory takes an additional step back from sociological discourse to evaluate the misconception of the ohio river valley was an area the french, objectivity found in Eurocentric, male dominated standpoints and argue for the need to take a subjective perspective in order to achieve any social change. Additionally, feminist thought advocates for the integration of orientations to examine the individuals experience as equivalent, or dualistic, with the social structure in which the individual plays an active role in was paintball invented shaping. It is also deemed necessary that the khan interrelationships between the individual, groups and society are examined from a subjective, integrated orientation in order to make the leap from social theory to social practice.

According to feminist thought, by making the previously personal world of the individual political the barrier between the individual and society is broken down and lays the foundation for individuals to influence and experience social change. The empowerment theory suggests that production and maintenance of society is dependent upon the individuals who are socially considered undesirable, casting these occupations as invisible in society and, accompanied by was paintball invented, a societal ideology that lacks public appreciation for these occupations, the undesirable individuals also believe their work is invisible, revealing the distortion of societal components. It is within feminist thought that the empowerment theory extends not only to condoleezza rice biography women, but any subordinate, oppressed group or individual within the larger society. This emerging connection between the personal and political identity parallels Giddens support of integrating the macro and micro orientations in order to achieve any significant social change, and I support both approaches. I believe that with the integration of the orientations true social change can be achieved, and that further examination of the intersection between agency and structure can enhance the limitations of past sociological thought. By creating and maintaining a boundary between these two worlds and rejecting the notion of a duality, a cognitive dissonance will continue to when was paintball invented remain in the lives of oppressed and cree natives, arginalized individuals without any hope for societal change. Contemporary sociologists must continue to transcend this boundary, accepting the inherent subjectivity found in any social science and focusing on fostering a productive sociological discourse with the goal of invented, social justice. As Marx a stoutly stated in where born the mid-19th century, philosophers have only interpreted the world; the point, however, is to change it. 7. As the grand theory is considered the most abstract level of invented, sociological theory, the initial intentions of such a theory are discussed in an abstract, idealistic way.

Grand Theory, a term created by condoleezza, American sociologist C. Wright Mills, refers to the preference for when, formal organization and the arrangement of the ohio was an important during the french and indian, concepts over understanding the social world. The concept of an overarching, grand sociological theory can be applicable in an idealistic setting, where each diverse aspect of society is equitably dealt with and examined to formulate widely accepted conclusions about the world. However, the emphasis tends to focus on concepts that are generally disconnected from the invented concrete, every day realities of societal life. I believe that an adapted version of a grand theory in sociology is necessary to the extent that it has the ability to provide a structured framework in an otherwise incredibly complex social world. Cree Natives? However, I also believe the grand theory should not be accepted as universal but instead should be considered a continuous work in progress that is added to over time as traditionally invisible issues continue to surface, creating multiple new dimensions of potential thought.

Throughout sociological history the theoretical supporters and when, critics of a grand theory have been numerous. Karl Marxs Historical Materialism, Anthony Giddens The Juggernaut of Modernity, and Talcott Parsons Actions Theory each offer various uses and perspectives of john stuart theory, grand theory concepts. The evolution of the concept of a grand theory can be seen throughout these noteworthy theorists work. For example, Marxs work with the grand theory of historical materialism put forth a streamlined argument that stated economic relations were the when was paintball invented foundation of social structure, regardless of any other variable. Embedded in this theory is the idea of an overarching, universal definition of river area during and indian, social structure contingent solely upon economic and material relations. This revolutionary idea may have been appropriate in the historical context of the theory, yet weaknesses in the universal concept of a grand theory appear in the absence of any other variable which undoubtedly impacted the social structure of Marxs time. Anthony Giddens uses the concept of a grand theory to examine modernity, differentiating from the was paintball streamlined definition of society as purported by cree natives, Marx by including a complex assortment of variables, which contribute to modernity. Giddens relates modernity to an overpowering force that transcends everything in its path with the implication that it is uncontrollable. Giddens also suggests that the overpowering force of modernity is dynamic, with the consequences of actions unforeseeable and uncontrollable, yet it manages to adjust based on reflexive actions, creating new societal problems in the process.

Overall, Giddens interpretation of grand theory offers a more complex framework for analyzing society in modernity, yet it is left open ended as Giddens anticipates the creation of a new slew of issues that will plague society based on the adjustments made from previous issues. Talcott Parsons is credited with the continuing the quest toward the theoretical evolutionary development of structural functionalism and established what can be defined as a grand theory of action systems, despite the when was paintball invented fact that Parsons himself declined to identify it as a grand theory. Parsons contributes to the discussion of grand theories in that he expanded the theory to consist of influence from various disciplines aside from sociology, including psychological, economical, political and religious components. Parsons also connected the concepts of motives as part of was an important area during the french war because, our actions, and determined that social science must take ends, purposes and ideals into consideration when creating a grand theory. Parsons attempted to integrate all of the social sciences within an overarching, grand theoretical framework that aimed to include aspects of both macro and micro orientations. Tracing the evolution of the when was paintball invented concept of a grand theory reveals the irony rooted in the quest for such a grand theory, which is that despite attempts to create universal truths regarding society independent of time and space, such independence is not possible. Marx, Giddens and the ohio valley was an area during the french, Parsons each lived in when invented their own, slightly different time periods and as a result one can observe the variations in their concepts of grand theories. I believe that the evolution of a grand theory is a continuous one with no particular end, because as Giddens suggested, the flexibility of society to adapt to societal issues in turn creates new societal issues, suggesting the permanence of such an analytical cycle. 8. Among Emile Durkheims plethora of cree natives, contributions to sociological theory emerges an unorthodox, evolutionary approach, which considered society to be like an organism, distinguishing two central characteristics as structure and when invented, function. Durkheims contributions also include helping establish and define the field of sociology as an academic order.

Durkheim expanded the limitations of the study of sociology when he argued that sociologists should study particular features of was genghis khan, collective, or group, life. He suggested that society exists independently of the individuals in it, as societies influence individuals through established norms, sentiments, and social facts. Durkheim contributed the inquiry of study regarding modern society and its ability to remain cohesive despite the individualism and self-sufficiency of each person, as well as the study of social facts representing features of the group that cannot be examined independently of when invented, either the collective or the individual. Emile Durkheims writings are recognized for forming the john stuart foundation of functionalist thought, which remains among the oldest and most dominant theoretical perspectives in the study of sociology. Invented? The foundations of functionalism center on two categories: the individual organism and society being seen as analogous, and the examination of the cree natives objective social world with the application of the scientific method. Durkheim was one of the first sociologists to make use of scientific and statistical data to conduct sociological research, such as with his famous work Suicide, using real data to examine the phenomenon of suicide among religious groups. By incorporating the when was paintball invented scientific method as a central method of research, Durkheim implicitly contributed the assertion that the social world can be studied in the same ways as the physical world. Regarding Durkheims relation to structuralism, he was concerned with the question of how particular societies are able to maintain stability internally and are capable of white, survival over when was paintball invented time.

Durkheim discussed structuralism in two variations, with the first referring to the pre-industrial societies that were structured on equivalent parts connected by shared values, and the second referring to more complex post-industrial societies that are connected through specialization and stuart, strong interdependence. The essence of Durkheims relation to structuralism and functionalism is the concept of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts, with society being greater than the individuals. Talcott Parsons offers a contemporary perspective on the concepts of structuralism and builds on Durkheims interpretation by discussing structuralism as a framework to examine society as a complex system whose parts work together in order to promote solidarity and stability. The focus on Parsons work is on the social structures that shape society as a whole, determining that each individual has a set of expectations based on others actions and when was paintball invented, reactions to that individuals own behavior. Parsons also contributes the idea of the role, established through the repetition of behaviors and interactions dictated by social structure and that become recognized as normal. Cree Natives? This concept of roles evolved into the groups of roles that harmonize each other and ultimately fulfill functions for society, in the sense that they assist society in operating and running smoothly. In conclusion, the concepts put forth by the theories of functionalism and structuralism has had a significant impact on was paintball, the study of sociology. Durkheim utilized the scientific method, and for this leap to a parallel with the natural sciences and hence more validity I am in support. However, Durkheims scientific method was perceived from an inherently Eurocentric male standpoint, and consequently produced misleading results. Emile Durkheim is was genghis, ascribed with forming the foundation of thought in the functionalist orientation, and continued to attempt revolutions in sociological thought throughout his lifes work.

Talcott Parsons is was paintball invented, one of many contemporary theorists who have built upon Durkheims original theory y contributing contemporary rationalizations and have enhanced the sociological discussion regarding the macro evaluation of a modern functioning society. I support Parsons concept of social roles that are dictated on social expectations and are controlled by social structure, yet I find limitations in the neglect of an vs black magic analysis of the when was paintball social roles for subordinate individuals and magic vs black, groups, and without this analysis social justice will remain an idealistic theory. 9. The theoretical contributions and approaches of sociological theorists such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins are significant in the conversation of sociological history as they take the unorthodox approach of delving into the perception of historically invisible issues regarding race and gender. Was Paintball Invented? For instance, Du Bois approaches the subject of race that centers on describing and explaining the actual, instead of theoretical, daily life conditions of white magic magic, African Americans, such as the threat of racially motivated violence like lynching, and when was paintball, the psychological damage of condoleezza biography, being separate but equal under Jim Crow laws. This brought a clearness of when, vision of specific phenomenon to the sociological conversation, with a focus on race, and an extension to any colored group that has experienced Eurocentric imperialism.

In regards to racism, Du Bois granted the primary responsibility of the social construction of racism on capitalism, and Du Bois was sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his work. Du Bois utilized deductive analysis, accompanied by empirical observation, to examine the experience of African Americans throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Du Bois was primarily focused on john theory, variables that had been ignored by his sociological predecessors with particular attention paid to the intersection of race and when, class. Area During The French And Indian? He was interested in how the intersection of these variables contributes to broader cultural patterns dictating the stratification of individuals along lines of race and class and the shaping of individuals perceptions and experiences. Du Bois offers his conceptualization of when was paintball, race in comparing the john stuart theory variety of races around the world, with the U. Invented? S. housing two of the most extreme examples of race on the planet. As a result, the concept of the double consciousness exists, as African Americans may ask themselves on daily occasions what identity is truly theirs. Mill? For instance, one might ask, am I American or am I black? Can I be both? Does being black give me more of an obligation to assert my nationality than European immigrants would?

Further, the double consciousness is the sense of otherness that prevents this uniform sense of self in when was paintball invented accordance with the American image and produces a sense of two-ness, both American and black. In addition, Du Bois concept of the veil represents the distance that is felt socially between people of separate races, most significantly keeping the less dominant group, blacks, out of the dominant groups, white, world. Patricia Hill Collins continues to build on the concepts highlighted by rice biography, Du Bois work, and instead of extending his conversation about race and class Collins adopts an when invented unconventional method of examining the intersection of race and gender. Collins emphasizes the specific experiences of black women as intersecting categories of cree natives, oppression, with the goal of extending the discourse into other oppressed individuals and social groups. Collins theorizes that black women stand at the focal point where two historically powerful systems of oppression meet: gender and race, focusing on black women as outsiders within the larger, white male dominated society. According to Collins, by when invented, acknowledging this intersection of oppression, the possibility to see into other social injustices. Collins identifies three aspects of every day life in the ohio river was an important during and indian which black women are affected by and manage their race and definitions of identity in the greater American culture.

These three aspects are known as safe spaces where black women are able to articulate their thoughts and feelings without the social pressure of mainstream society, which creates the double consciousness experienced by racial divide. The creation of the invented safe space is rice biography, essential for when was paintball invented, the survival of oppressed groups, as they provide a unique place away from the ruling ideologies. For instance, one safe space for white magic vs black magic, black women is in their relationships with each other. By empowering themselves in when invented their own relationships, black women are able to help each other learn the knowledge to survive. Other safe spaces include black womens blues traditions, followed by black female literature and poetry. Through these art forms, black women are able to approach the concepts of social injustice in a non-threatening manner. Collins also adds that groups must identify themselves, instead of letting other identify them. In conclusion, W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins have made significant contributions to the sociological discussion of social injustice by forcing the issues of racial, class, and gender inequalities to the surface of magic vs black, social discourse. I find the work of Collins to be an extension of what Du Bois began, and when was paintball invented, I support the shared goal for both theorists in their quest for social justice for all subordinate groups.

In fact, I believe that the combination of work from Du Bois and Collins epitomizes the essence of micro sociology, as they are able to articulate the rice invisible yet powerful social constraints that subordinate individuals and groups experience, and was paintball, represents a transcendence of sociological thought above Eurocentric male standpoints. Stuart Theory? Their work has left deep impressions on current and future sociological theorists and essentially opened the door for the study of other socially oppressed groups. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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A* IGCSE Art Coursework: Trinkets, Treasures and Memories. When Was Paintball? February 8, 2017 by cree natives, Amiria Gale. This A* IGCSE Art Coursework project was completed by invented, Nikau Hindin, while studying at ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Awarded 98%, this Painting and Related Media project (CIE 0400) explores the theme of Trinkets, Treasures and example, Memories. This class-wide theme was split into a number of assignments, which students were able to interpret and invented, respond to individually. The following sketchbook pages (14 x A3 sheets) show Nikaus entire Coursework project, along with her final painting (in 2007 a sketchbook of preparatory work was required for IGCSE Art and where was genghis khan born, Design, rather than the maximum 4 x A2 sheets / 8 sides that is was paintball invented, required today).

This outstanding International GCSE Art sketchbook page includes a beautiful combination of single studies (a pen and the ohio river valley was an important the french, acrylic drawing of was paintball invented, a woven flax / harakeke flower; a shell drawn using chunky oil sticks; a traditional wooden carved Maori comb painted using watercolours) with more complex compositions of personally relevant trinkets and treasures. The two images on the left again show objects inside boxes a great compositional strategy to encourage the depiction of space and depth. The bottom image is a black and the ohio river was an area the french and indian war because, white photograph taken by when invented, Nikau, which has been partially cut away, with the missing pieces redrawn. It is worth noting that Nikau has been particularly sensitive with her colour choices, using only muted, earthy colours that complement her theme well. This IGCSE Art example combines a range of john, textured papers and mediums, such as acrylic modelling compound, allowing Nikau to produce an exciting work depicting a collection of #8216;paper based#8217; memories (maps, awards, letters, postcards, tickets to when was paintball events etc).

Focusing on the representation of creases, shadows and white, surface textures, this exercise encourages students to practise drawing forms that are overlapping / folding / tucking under#8230; As with all of the International GCSE Art sketchbook pages in this Coursework project, images are drawn from first-hand observation and from photographs of still life arrangements composed and taken by the students. This sketchbook page shows a collection of personally relevant clothing items (symbolising important memories) in a range of different black and when was paintball invented, white mediums such as graphite, charcoal, ink pen, Indian ink and the ohio was an area the french war because, water colour. Was Paintball? Artist Analysis: Nikau excels in written subjects as well as Art and the ohio valley important area the french and indian, Design and this International GCSE Art sketchbook page contains a superb analysis of the artwork of Jim Dine. When Was Paintball? Along with photocopies of Jim Dine#8217;s work (printed directly onto the sketchbook page) Nikau completes outstanding imitations of his technique, using Indian ink, charcoal and acrylic paint. Having gained a thorough understanding of the way Jim Dine contrasts tight, controlled drawing methods with gestural, expressive mark-making and john, smudgy backgrounds, these techniques are now confidently applied by Nikau to a selection of the subject matter drawn on her previous pages: a beautiful experimental International GCSE sketchbook page. Although Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art Coursework project is when was paintball, focused upon Painting and Related Media, this page integrates photography and condoleezza, digital manipulation with photographs of her subject matter merged with abstract grounds and when was paintball invented, her Jim Dine inspired drawings.

This exercise involves a steep learning curve for students as they come to grips with digital art making, however, once basis principles are grasped, students are able to quickly produce dramatic compositions, arriving at exciting and original outcomes. International GCSE Artist Study: Here Nikau analyses the where was genghis artwork of was paintball invented, New Zealand painting Jason Hicks. Alongside written analysis of his compositions, techniques and approach to cree natives subject matter, Nikau imitates parts of his paintings and draws diagrams of complete works to when was paintball invented gain a better understanding of rice, his use of composition. This page in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio begins the development of ideas towards her final piece. Working over grounds with sketches of possible compositions (inspired by Jason Hicks and Jim Dine) Nikau integrates scanned images of her earlier drawings and paintings in concepts for a final work. With constant evaluation of her compositions, Nikau continues develop and resolve her ideas as she moves towards her final piece. As is demonstrated in many of the IGCSE Art and Design Coursework examples featured on was paintball this website, development of ideas is essential within a good student art portfolio. Write Example? Here Nikau cleverly rearranges her subject matter so that the folds of cloth take on the appearance of invented, a steep backdrop of hills, with memories symbolising her past etched and valley important area the french and indian, buried in the fabric landscape. Another beautiful IGCSE Art and Design sketchbook page: showing the final stage of invented, development, images begin to be painted with a high level of realism, with continued analysis and refinement of composition. The final piece in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio is a large, stunning mixed media acrylic painting.

With a highly original composition, a glowing subtle earthy colour scheme and highly controlled, skilful application of paint, this work is an excellent conclusion to her project, showing a highly personal response to how to a conclusion example the her theme. Nikau is an exceptionally talented, driven and motivated young artist, whose work is featured extensively on this website. If you enjoyed seeing this project, you may wish to view her A* IGCSE Art exam, 100% AS Coursework project, AS Art Exam or her A2 Coursework project! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of was paintball, Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools.

Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over john theory 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from invented, experienced teachers.

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Free Information Technology essays. Our most personal device yet (Apple, 2015) The first ever smart watch produced by when was paintball invented, Apple, named the how to write a conclusion, Apple Watch, will fundamentally disrupt society. Connected to the iPhone, the Apple watch will serve to not only when was paintball tell time, but to white vs black magic be a virtual personal assistant, it will enable a user to have access to social networks, and it will even enable saving human lives. Based on Apples reputation of being an when was paintball, Innovative Disruptor, the Apple watch will undoubtedly try to reciprocate this trend.

The Apple watch has the potential to be the bench mark for other smart watch makers and it also has the the ohio valley area during and indian war because, possibility to usurp the when invented, wrist watch market by being the innovating disruptor. Apple watch could affect the wrist watch industry the same way Quartz disrupted the cree natives, Swiss watch Industry nearly half a century ago. When Was Paintball! Among the where, numerous societal implications of the Apple watch as a Disruptive Technology, the when invented, major one will be how the rice, latter will affect human lives on a daily basis. While the watch could have positive implications such as to facilitate the tasks of humans, it is also very much probable that the Apple watch will have adverse psychological effect on human behaviour. It can also be argued that the when was paintball, Apple watch will have cultural #038; historical as well as ethical #038; moral implications. Different theories on Disruptive Innovation by Clayton Christensen and Constantinos Markides, namely the Business-Model Innovation and rice biography, the Radical Product Innovation are compared and applied to the Apple watch in later sections of this report. The business models of Apple, and when, its competitors, namely Google, Samsung, Pebble, and where was genghis, Swatch is also discussed. This report will assess the various societal implications of the apple watch as a disruptive technology. The Apple watch the first ever produced by was paintball, Apple Incorporated is the most eagerly anticipated smart watch of this year and is expected to be released on the 24th of cree natives, April 2015. Apple has designed its watch using a three-fold concept;

1) To make notifications simple and when invented, intuitive. 2) To promote health and wellness via its watch. 3) To use the watch for simple day to day activities such as replace the keys to a car or even enable the user to make simple payments online. Like the previous smart watches produced, this model will not only serve the purpose of indicating date and john stuart mill theory, time, but it will also enable the was paintball invented, wearer to carry out numerous activities such as; make or receive phone calls, check and send text messages #038; emails, view notifications on social networks such as Facebook or Twitter as well as monitor the heartbeat of the person. However, unlike previous smart watches of yesteryears, the apple watch appears to be fancier and more desirable. This may be because Apple has released not one version of its smart watch, but three models; the Apple Watch (Standard one), the Apple Watch Sport (Sports version), and even the a conclusion, Apple Watch Edition (a luxury 18 carat gold version!). Invented! Also, Apple has launched its watch with not one but 18 different designs. While the design in elegant yet simple, the Apple watch appears to be very sophisticated. In addition to being a beautiful object, Apple Watch is the most advanced timepiece ever created, its a revolutionary new way to connect with others, and its a comprehensive health and where was genghis, fitness companion. (Tim Cook, 2015) Any innovation, either sustainable or disruptive, will have huge implications.

For a smart watch, one of the major implications is how it affects society. There are numerous subcategories; the smart watch has ethical #038; moral implications, psychological implications, legal #038; security implications and even historical #038; cultural implications. These implications will be discussed further in this report. With Apples huge fan-base and its world-wide popularity, not to when forget its reputation as The Disruptor having constantly shown that it can upend any market; this new-born from the company will definitely affect the life of thousands of users like previous releases from Apple Inc., namely the Ipod and Ipad. But isnt it too soon for the apple watch be classified as a Disruptive Technology given it is yet to magic be released? 2. Background Studies.

a) Theories on Disruptive Technology. The original theory on disruptive technology, or rather disruptive innovation, was created by Clayton M. Was Paintball! Christensen. According to john mill Christensen; Disruptive Innovation describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up a market, eventually displacing established competitors. (Clayton Christensen, 2015) Based on was paintball invented, Christensens theory, it is too early to use the term Disruptive Technology for the Apple watch, namely for the following two reasons: 1. The product is yet to be released in the mass market and mill, no one knows what the response will be. While many surveys carried out suggest that the response will be overwhelmingly positive; this is not the case yet. 2. Was Paintball! Consumer demand towards previous smart watches has been low as the smart watch market has not yet taken off. By considering the history of wrist watches #038; smart watches, it can be found that Christensens theory is john stuart mill theory not completely valid. Was Paintball! The timeline below indicates the history of watches: (i) Year 1880: The mechanical wrist watch was established.

(ii) Year 1940: The smart watch concept appeared in Science-fiction novels/movies. (iii) Year 1970: The Quartz Revolution Quartz watches revolutionized the magic vs black, industry with electrification. (iv) Year 1990: The experimentation with the first smart watch began. (v) Year 2010: Smart watches become commercial success. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) If compared to the wrist watch, the invented, smart watch has not taken over its market yet and condoleezza rice biography, thus cannot be categorized as a Disruptive Technology. A refined theory by Constantinos Markides states: Over time, Christensens theory has been used to invented explain all kinds of disruptive innovations. Different kinds of innovation have different competitive effects and write a conclusion, produce different kinds of markets. (Markides, C. 2006)

Markides eventually divides the term Disruptive Innovations into was paintball invented 2 distinct categories: 1. Business Model Innovations. 2. Radical Product Innovations. As pointed out by rice, Markides, while both share similarities, they are both different since they pose different challenges to establish firms and have radically different implications. When Invented! (Markides, C. Cree Natives! 2006). Business Model Innovations. Business Model Innovation is the discovery of a fundamentally different business model in an existing business. When! To qualify as an innovation, a new business model must enlarge the condoleezza rice biography, existing economic pie, either by attracting new customers into when was paintball invented the market or by encouraging existing consumers to write example consume more. (Markides, C. 2006) Radical Product Innovations.

Radical innovations are disruptive to consumers because they introduce products and value propositions that disturb prevailing consumer habits and behaviours in invented a major way. They are disruptive to producers because the markets they create undermine the competences and valley was an important area during the french and indian war because, complementary assets on which competitors have built their success. (Markides, C. 2006) Apple did not discover the smart watch. Several companies such as Samsung, Pebble, or even Nike have launched their smart watch way back in 2013. As a matter of fact, Samsung and Pebble could be classified into radical product innovation because those two companies invented the when invented, smart watch.

However, what Apple has done is to redefine its smart watch by making it more fashionable and more appealing to valley was an important area war because the market. With its large fan base, Apple is sure to challenge the invented, existing smart watch market. This is why the Apple watch can be termed as a Business Model Innovation. Condoleezza! Apple will directly increase the sales of smart watches with it newly launched watch, and invented, will also indirectly cause other producers to come up with better designs which will in magic magic turn directly increase the appeal of smart watches and thus increase the sales of smart watches in the world. Before going into depth regarding the different business models, it is when was paintball imperative that the leading smart watch companies are listed. The sales of river important area during the french and indian war because, smart watches really took off in 2013 and when was paintball, maintained its ascension in 2014.

According to Smart Watch Group, in 2012, only 0.3 million smart watches were sold, with the rice biography, figure increasing by when was paintball invented, tenfold to over 3 million in 2013, and finally to around 6 million in 2014. This ascending trend indicates that the demand for how to example smart watches is increasing on a yearly basis. Back in 2013/2014, the was paintball invented, major smart watch sellers were Samsung, Nike, and Garmin in 2013, and Samsung, Lenovo, and Motorola in 2014. It can be noted that Lenovo and Motorola were late entrants in the smart watch industry, and river valley important area the french war because, yet they were placed 2nd and 3rd among the top sellers in the smart watch market. When! While it can be argued that Samsung has maintained its position as the leading seller of smart watches, it must be noted that its sales growth increased only by john stuart, 25% (800,000 devices in 2013 to 1,200,000 devices in 2014). When Invented! (Smart Watch Group, 2015) It is widely expected in the smart watch market that the Apple watch will have a definite upheaval of the sales of smart watches. Apples Business Model. Apple launched its smart watch with a different ideology: rather than launching just one version of its device, it has launched three; namely the standard edition, the where born, sports edition, and the luxurious 18 carat gold edition.

The prices of the three editions vary between $ 350 up until $ 17,000. Was Paintball! With this new idea, Apple has targeted more customers. Unlike its competitors, namely Google and Samsung amongst others, Apple plans to have a high profitability margin. Rice Biography! For example, for every Gold Edition watch sold by apple, Samsung will have to sell over 48 Galaxy Gears (price varies between $350 $400 for was paintball invented the Galaxy Gear) to match the cree natives, same income generated from was paintball, sales. Apples business model comprises of where was genghis born, users buying applications on when invented, its App store and buying music from iTunes. By so doing, Apple has planned to generate revenues from its services. When a user buys a smart watch, he/she will have to pay for the companys services when he/she downloads an application or listens to music. Apple is also investing in the Research Kit a service destined to help its smart watch users to get numerous medical benefits and this service will also be at a premium price.

Apple has developed its business model with the possibility of generating income from services provided on its App store, iTunes, and now the Research Kit platform. How To Write A Conclusion Example! Apple also has a very sophisticated personal distribution network which also generates revenues on a constant basis for the company. Apple focuses its business model almost solely on software sales. Googles Business Model. The Android Wear is the biggest competitor for Apples watch. The former packs an attractive operating system and is armed with a huge array of applications on when was paintball invented, Google Play store and how to write, while Apple is now developing the Research Kit platform, Android boasts its established Google Fit platform for health #038; medical services linked to its smart watch. However, unlike Apple, the medical service provided is free of charge and is already being used by its users. When! The Google business model is completely different with Apple in cree natives terms that the latter can only be used by when, iPhones whereas the Android Wear can be used by a vast array of phones such as Samsung, LG, Lenovo, Motorola, Sony, amongst others.

Thus, Google consolidates its business model by generating income through hardware sales. Googles primary business is to sell adverts and to make publicity. By using the rice, Android Wear, this mission is being achieved as it gets to when was paintball know its customers even more and can provide catered solutions which will generate Googles revenues. Samsungs Business Model. Samsung is the leading smart watch maker since its launch back in 2013. The Samsung Galaxy Gear is the name given to the companys smart watch. Literature indicates that Samsung launched its first smart watch back in 1999 but it was met with commercial failure. Similar to Apples watch, the Galaxy Gear has a heartbeat sensor, and it also integrates a camera on the wrist, and it can also be used to make/receive calls, as well as send messages/emails. However, unlike Apples business model, Samsung has launched its smart watch by targeting the broad consumer market.

The watches are mostly sold via Samsungs powerful distribution network around the world telecom operators. Cree Natives! The Gear S Samsungs most expensive smart watch, priced at $ 350 is subsidized by some telecom operators as the product generates recurring revenues. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) Pebbles Business Model. Pebble is when one of the most famous smart watch maker, namely because it has had a tremendous crowd funding campaign in 2013 after which it launched the Pebble Steel, its first smart watch. After meeting with commercial success, Pebble reciprocated with the Pebble Time its second smart watch in 2015. The Kickstarter crowd funding campaign greatly helped Pebble become one of the leading smart watch makers. Pebble has set its business model around creating a software development platform for its smart watches. Pebble is one of the stuart mill theory, smart watch makers with the most hands-on experience in terms of when, software development for smart watches. Condoleezza Biography! (Smart Watch Group, 2015) While the Kickstarter campaign was the invented, main source of was genghis, revenue for the firm, it is expected that Pebble will soon start to generate income by when was paintball invented, offering paid services to its clientele. Nikes Business Model. The Nike Fuelband SE was the smart watch developed by Nike in how to write example 2012.

In 2013, Nike was ranked second in the top smart watch selling companies. However, in 2014, Nike opted to discontinue the production of its watch. The main reason behind which, was the Nike Fuelband SE operated only on iOS iPhones Operating System developed by Apple. Since Apple announced that, it too, will be producing smart watches in when was paintball September 2014, Nike preferred to discontinue the rice biography, manufacture of its Fuelband SE as sales of the latter was being done not only in was paintball invented Nike stores or online, but also in Apples stores. Nikes business model was founded around a different clientele those who wanted to keep track of their activity levels during workouts. Social media was at the heart of the Nike Fuelband SE. (Smart Watch Group) Nike had even built the Nike + Online Community for its smart watch users. Nike aimed to valley war because generate revenues by giving the users Nike Points which could be redeemed while buying sports equipments in the Nike store. Xiaomis Business Model.

Xiaomi is a Chinese company founded in 2010. It is widely popular in mainland China and invented, its smart watch is known as the Xiaomi Mi Band. Xiaomis business model is the complete opposite of Apples. Xiaomi sells its products at the lowest possible price. The majority of sales occurs online, unlike Apples, which are mainly sold in its iShops. Where Was Genghis Khan Born! The margins of distributors or the cost for an own distribution network such as Apples is when was paintball invented largely eliminated. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) Xiaomis business model is to was genghis generate income based on when, its cloud-based services in the near future. Swatchs Business Model. Swatch is a world renowned Swiss wrist watch maker. Swatch group has had a history of innovation. Cree Natives! It has based its business model by selling watches as fashion accessories rather than family jewels or pragmatic time keeping devices. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) By redefining the watch when the watch industry was stagnant and even failing, Swatch has managed to when was paintball persuade consumers to john stuart mill choose its products. Swatch has managed to challenge the Quartz revolution and when was paintball invented, pave its way to the top of the pyramid of the cree natives, wrist watch industry. Nowadays, Swatch is also a smart watch seller.

The Swatch Touch Zero One is the name branded to its smart watch. In fact, it has been one of the pioneers, developing watches with integrated pager functionality (in the early nineties), integrated GSM (in the late nineties), the Swatch Paparazzi (launched with Microsoft in 2004), and various other products with advanced functionalities. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) c) Empirical Studies. The Quartz crisis refers to the end of the 1970s and early 1980s where the Swiss watch makers were seriously affected by the emergence of cheaper and yet more efficient Quartz watches. When Invented! The Quartz crisis is a true disruptive innovation by definition since it very nearly caused the Swiss watch industry to become extinct. John Stuart Theory! It is only by accepting and by was paintball invented, changing their watches that the Swiss managed to stay in business. Swatch is the Swiss watch maker which probably saved the whole Swiss watch market from total collapse.

Some analysts are predicting the smart watch to theory be a second innovative disruption as they believe that the smart watch will have a larger impact as compared to the Quartz Revolution. However, smart watches have been created and released to the mass market way back as in 2000s. When! They were not really accepted back then. Khan Born! The second but successful commercialization of the smart watch was done in when 2013 with Pebble. John Stuart Mill Theory! However, adoption to this new technology has been expectedly slow. Now, with the launch of the Apple watch, many people believe that finally the smart watch could cause an upheaval of the watch market. 3. Was Paintball! Discussions on the societal implications of the ohio river valley was an area during, Apple Watch as a Disruptive Technology. Given though Apple watch does so many things, there are cultural, historical implications, and expectations. (Jony Ive, 2015) As mentioned previously, any innovation will have both positive and negative impacts. Considering the Apple watch, it will have the following main societal implications: i) Historical #038; Cultural Implications.

ii) Ethical #038; Moral Implications. iii) Psychological Implications. Historical #038; Cultural Implications. The Apple watch, like previous smart watches, is when was paintball still new to the wrist watch market. The latter has been sustained so far by the sales of conventional watches. Many of the leading brands, such as Swatch, Rolex, and Patek Philippe prevail in the wrist watch market for several reasons. One of john stuart mill theory, them is when invented because those brands form part of an Elite group. The wearer of a Rolex or Swatch watch is perceived differently just because of the history behind those companies. Those Swiss watch makers have a long, rich heritage, dating back to the 1800s.

Based on the fore-mentioned reason, it would be disadvantageous to the Apple watch to be compared with the write a conclusion example, centuries old conventional watches. Was Paintball Invented! Even the luxurious 18 carat gold edition of the Apple watch may seem inferior to a Swatch or Rolex due to the latters heritage. For the longest time, technology limited communication to one on one; just think of the how to a conclusion example, telephone. Was Paintball Invented! But now worlds are complicated networks that overlap. Write Example! The implications have yet to was paintball invented be fully realized. (Danah Boyd, 2015)

Through the use of social networks on theory, the smart watch, the latter will enable users to connect to the broad world. Similar to Facebook #038; Skype, the Apple Watch will have huge sociological ramifications on the way humans communicate nowadays. It is becoming very rare to see people dialling up an old childhood friend or relative just for the sake of keeping in invented touch. Was Genghis Khan! They would much rather use social networks or do video calls as it is much less mainstream as compared to a conventional phone call. Thus, the Apple watch, together with the help of social networking, will have a transformative effect on the way humans communicate. Apple watch can also have a positive impact on peoples life by helping them become emphatic. Was Paintball! Other societal implications of the Apple watch are that it will prevent the user from delving in his/her pocket to check for white magic any notification. These little actions will undoubtedly help save a lot of when, time.

Ethical #038; Moral Implications. The Apple watch has many moral #038; ethical implications. The watch can be classified as both intrusive and non-intrusive wearable technology depending on the ohio valley important area during the french war because, how it is was paintball invented used. If the watch is used as a complementary device one which does not affect our interactions it can be termed as non-intrusive. However, if the watch is used as a supplementary device whereby we use data generated by the watch to interact with society it can be classified as intrusive. For example, for the apple watch, by biography, constantly using the when invented, heart rate sensor and sharing the data on social media, the white magic, wearer is using the phone as an when invented, intrusive technology. Many people tend to become self-obsessed rather than just health conscious. As a result, their behaviour may become unethical.

It can also be argued that the Apple watch will have unethical implications as it will enable sharing of a persons private data, for example, the Research Kit will collect health information for a user and many users will tend to share that data on social networks, rendering this unethical. There is the risk of privacy leaks when people share too much of their personal data. By sharing intimate details about themselves, they may also be at risk of identity thefts. Another potential societal implication of the smart watch is that it will encourage people to rely too much on cree natives, it. From planning of was paintball, schedules for meetings to saving information such as credit card pin code and where was genghis, personal login information, the user will tend to save everything on the watch. While it may be possible that Apples smart watch will have the same adverse effect as smart phones, namely making people become anti-social; on the opposite side, the Apple Watch could be used for life saving or to when was paintball send SOS distress signals. For example, if the heart beat (pulse) of a person is low, the smart watch could send a distress signal to the emergency services. However, while the Apple watch may be a blessing in disguise for a stricken user, it might be the completely opposite for emergency services. Due to the uncertainty with technology, it is highly probable that the heartbeat sensor might send out wrong or false distress signals to the Emergency Services. Example! Imagine thousands of false distress signals being sent daily if millions of users wear smart watches. This might prove to be a hindrance to the Emergency services.

Widespread use of smart watch would mean that instead of relieving boredom by answering emails or using social networks, people will spend time sifting through their bio data stream, planning ways to maximize their personal wellness ratings. (Social Implication of a smart watch, 2015) It can also be argued that by using a smart watch, the moral #038; ethical implications will become more widespread and prevailing. Was Paintball Invented! If people are already using their phones while holding face-to-face conversations, then they will undoubtedly use their smart watch in the similar way. This is unethical behaviour. However, by making small noticeable adjustments, the smart watch can actually lead to a better ethical behaviour. By pairing the Apple watch with the iPhone, a user will not have the was genghis, tendency to keep delving in his/her pocket and check for any unread notification. Was Paintball! Instead, he/she will only need to check the phone when the rice biography, watch rings or vibrates. By so doing, they would not rudely delve for their phones during conversation. Another profound impact of the watch on society would be the psychological implications on invented, human beings. As mentioned previously, people will tend to become self-obsessed with some functions of their smart watch, namely the heartbeat sensor. John Mill! People will be addicted to the bio data and was paintball invented, this could have an adverse effect to the psychology of the user.

Rather than being relaxed, people will have the magic, tendency to be excited on a constant basis as they will be able to read any variation in the heartbeats; for example, in a persons life, there are moments when the heart rate is slow and at times it may be high. Was Paintball Invented! Many people might resort to different alternatives to try lower the heart beat and it may cause an adverse psychological effect on them. 4. Recommendations #038; Conclusion. Apple has shown, on countless occasions, that it is willing to not only cree natives challenge, but to be different from others. The Apple watch, based on Apples reputation, will have as its mission to be an innovative technology. The watch has been crafted and designed with such finesse, that it will probably disrupt the wrist watch market. However, the first generation of the when invented, Apple watch will probably be only the first step on the ladder to achieve this mission. It will probably require some much more Research and Development from the ohio was an area the french, Apple to present to the world with its disruptor smart watch. While the price range of the watch seems shocking, it is when was paintball invented even more so when considering the how to write a conclusion, fact that the smart watch is was paintball just a technology device. It is bound to be updated every few years, if not on a yearly basis, with new models, to keep up with the technological advancements. Paying $17,000 for a smart watch one which will probably be so outdated within the magic vs black, next decade, seems to be beyond the wildest ideas for countless people.

There is so much potential behind the use of a smart watch. It is said that, in the future, it will replace keys for vehicles, it will become a virtual personal assistant, it will be a health companion, and it will even help in saving lives. Yet, the smart watch is when invented literally useless to do any of those activities without being connected to the ohio river was an during a smart phone. Until companies manage to make the was paintball, smart watch a stand-alone product, and magic magic, the latter is able to when was paintball do all those things listed above by itself, the cree natives, watch will not be called a disruptive technology. True disruptive technologies like the iPhone or Ipod are very rare and are not predictable. However, similar to was paintball the smart phone, using a smart watch will have drastic changes in white magic magic our day to day activities. As technology keeps on evolving, more societal implications would prevail. When! Used correctly, the smart watch would be a powerful tool, one which helps us in magic magic our daily activities, helps us save time, and enriches our wellness.

However, over-use of the smart watch can lead to obsession and eventually have adverse effects on our lives. Will Apple be able to reinvent the wrist watch industry in the same way it has redefined others like computing and music? (BBC News, 2015) It might achieve its mission in the future, but not with its first generation smart watch. Was Paintball! While the condoleezza biography, Apple watch will fundamentally change the lives of its users, possibly to enhance and when was paintball, even to disrupt the latter, it is however too soon to biography call the Apple watch a Disruptive Technology. 1. Markides, C. (2006), Disruptive Innovation: In Need of when, Better Theory. Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol:23, pp. 1925. Vs Black! [Online] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpim.2006.23.issue-1/issuetoc [Accessed: 14th April 2015]

2. When Was Paintball! Christensen, C. M. (2006), The Ongoing Process of Building a Theory of Disruption. Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol:23, pp. 3955 [Online] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpim.2006.23.issue-1/issuetoc [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 3. Clayton Christensen Website (2015), Disruptive Innovations. [Online] Available from: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 4. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Apple. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/apple/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 5. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Top 10 Smart Watch Companies 2014 (Sales). [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/top-10-smart-watch-companies-sales-2014/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 6. Cree Natives! Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Top 10 Smart Watch Companies 2013 (Sales). [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/top-10-smart-watch-companies-sales/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 7. Apple Website (2015), Apple Watch. [Online] Available from: http://www.apple.com/watch/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015]

8. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Swatch. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/swatch/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 9. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Samsung. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/samsung/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 10. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Nike. When Was Paintball Invented! [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/nike/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015] 11. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Pebble. Stuart Mill! [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/pebble/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015] 12. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Xiaomi. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/xiaomi/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015]

13. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Google. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/google/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 14. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), History of when, Smart Watch. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/history-smartwatches/ [Accessed: 17th April 2015] 16. Techcrunch Website (2015), Everything you need to know about the Apple Watch. [Online] Available from: http://techcrunch.com/2015/03/09/apple-watch-will-ship-on-april-24-cost-349-to-10000-depending-on-style/ [Accessed: 18th April 2015] 17. BBC News Website (2015), Apple watch prices and apps revealed. [Online] Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-31794823 [Accessed: 19th April 2015]

18. The Guardian Website (2014), Apple watch to miss Christmas and will launch in how to a conclusion example spring. Was Paintball! [Online] Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/03/apple-watch-christmas-google-android-smartwatch [Accessed: 19th April 2015] 19. The Ohio River During War Because! Computers #038; Society Website (2015), The social implications of the smartwatch. [Online] Available from: http://stevenscomputersandsociety.blogspot.com/2014/08/the-social-implications-of-smartwatch.html [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 20. Danah Boyd Website (2015) Its Complicated, [Online] Available from: http://www.danah.org/books/ItsComplicated.pdf [Accessed: 15th April 2015] Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to was paintball invented help you. How To Write Example! Each of us is qualified to when was paintball a high level in cree natives our area of invented, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to cree natives your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and when, you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay: An Assessment of the Societal Implications of Apple Watch as a Disruptive Technology. . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/essay-an-assessment-of-the-societal-implications-of-apple-watch-as-a-disruptive-technology/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in cree natives hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is when a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

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Flaws of the was paintball invented, Hawthorne Effect Essay. Lets begin with an example. A golfer attempts to hit a ball into a hole in as few strokes as possible. After each stroke, the golfer hopes, the ball will be nearer the hole, until (at last) on the final shot, the valley area the french, ball disappears with a satisfying rattle into when was paintball invented the plastic cup liner. Magic Vs Black. The goal has been met. But what does that mean? How well was the goal met? Was it met in exemplary fashion or merely in a satisfactory manner? One measure is the number of strokes required. Assuming another player is was paintball invented, competing, scores can be compared in order to evaluate relative performance.

Without a norming score, however, goal attainment remains somewhat undefined in terms of level of achievement. How To Write A Conclusion Example. Fortunately, golf has a norming scorepar-so even a single golfer can be evaluated versus expected results. Was Paintball. Golf can be taught and played in river valley was an important area the french and indian war because several ways. Which is the best method? How can one evaluate these methods? Perhaps comparing the performance of those who adhere to each method will provide a relative measure of which is most productive. Evaluation of when was paintball invented these results can help golfers and instructors make informed decisions about which method to cree natives, employ. A direct relationship exists between this example and safety program evaluation.

A safety program is individually measured using a variety of tools. These measures, such as injury frequency rates, can be used in comparison with normalized (or group) measures to evaluate how a program is progressing toward a prescribed level of when was paintball invented performance. How To Write. Furthermore, program activities used to improve performance can be evaluated by comparing various measures of those activities. Hence, the evaluation process can be used to make informed decisions about safety program effectiveness. Without such a process, however, attainment of numerical safety goals may lack meaningful context. Hopkins and when Antes describe traditional uses of the results of educational measurement and evaluation. Educational evaluation takes the output of measurement and john mill theory other pertinent information to form judgments based on when was paintball, the information collected.

These judgments are the basis for white magic decisions about students as individuals, and decisions about the effectiveness of school programs (Hopkins and Antes 34). They conclude, Improvement of the teachers teaching and the students learning through judgments using available information is the when, ultimate function of the evaluation process (Hopkins and Antes 31). John Mill. Similar things can be said about evaluating safety program effectiveness. Invented. That is, information collected about the various activities associated with a safety program should form the basis for decisions made to improve safety performance. Evaluation is based on condoleezza biography, information collected. Data collection can be achieved via many methods. Observation is one. Was Paintball. Observations may be recorded or unrecorded. Stuart Theory. Unrecorded observations are usually taken and interpreted quickly, may be acted on immediately or mentally noted for future use. Invented. However, mental notation can cause loss or improper reconstruction of evaluation information (Hopkins and mill theory Antes 71).

Procedures for direct observation include checklists, unobtrusive observations, scorecards, anecdotal records, rating scales and mechanical instruments. Via checklists, observations of specific behaviors can be quickly tallied. Unobtrusive observations are conducted so that the worker does not know she is being observed, which can eliminate any impact the observation process itself may have on was paintball, behavior. How To A Conclusion. Scorecards are similar to checklists, but apply a weighting scheme to the behaviors being observed. Anecdotal records are informal reports of observed behavior; they may lend themselves to unwanted judgment and evaluation instead of when invented simple recording of fact, however. Rating scales can be used to collect information about intensity or degree in was genghis born relation to the observation (Hopkins and Antes 78-96). Traditionally accepted, quantitative safety program metrics, such as accident and injury frequency rates, are designed to measure specific achievement and gather data needed for evaluation. Was Paintball Invented. Results from all program activities are used to evaluate safety program performance. Bottom line: Information-collection techniques must be designed to prevent an evaluators personal biases from influencing how results are recorded or considered.

FLAWS IN THE The following discussion examines potential pitfalls for white magic the safety program evaluator. Although described in terms of evaluating individual performance, these problems apply to safety program evaluation as well. The evaluator should not allow preconceived impressions of personnel or events (associated with a particular program, past performance or attainment of specific performance measures) to cloud objective judgment. Safety program evaluation takes time and resources. Thus, this process should be performed so that the end result is accurate, useful information. The Halo Effect The Halo Effect is one potential evaluation pitfall. According to Kirkpatrick, who describes the effect as it relates to the workplace and when invented employee performance evaluation, the Halo Effect is a tendency to overrate the person being observed. This concept can be applied to safety program evaluation as well. Kirkpatrick lists seven reasons why this effect occurs. 1. A persons past good performance leads one to expect continued good performance, and the assumption of good performance carries over to cree natives, future evaluations (Effect of Past Record). 2. An evaluator tends to rate a person who is pleasing in personality and character, agreeable and when was paintball invented otherwise compatible higher than performance may justify. . Recent outstanding behavior can overshadow much longer periods of lesser-quality performance (Effect of Recency).

4. A person with an asset deemed important by the observer, although it may be irrelevant, may receive a higherthan-justifiable rating. 5. A rater may overlook a bad or undesirable trait if she also possesses that trait (Blind-Spot Effect). Cree Natives. 6. Invented. A person may be judged by his/her potential instead of magic vs black actual measured performance (High Potential Effect). 7. A person who never complains tends to be evaluated in a positive light (Kirkpatrick 46). The Hams Effect. The Horns Effect is the reverse of the Halo Effect in was paintball that evaluations tend to be lower than deserved. John Stuart Mill. Kirkpatrick offers eight causes for this effect. 1. The evaluator may have high expectations that are not easily met.

2. An evaluator tends to give someone who frequently disagrees or appears to when invented, be overly argumentative a lower rating. Born. 3. A nonconformist is when was paintball, usually rated lower than deserved simply because she is different (Oddball Effect). 4. Poor group performance often leads to lower evaluation of cree natives all group members, even if one member has outstanding individual performance. . When Invented. People are evaluated the same way as those whose company they keep (Guilt-By-Association Effect). 6. A recent mistake can overshadow months of good performance (DramaticIncident Effect). 7. An evaluator may associate some character trait (i. Was Genghis Khan. e. Was Paintball. , aggressiveness, arrogance, passivity) with poor performance and give a lower-than-justified rate to biography, someone who has that trait (PersonalityTrait Effect). 8. When Was Paintball Invented. An evaluator may give a lower-thanjustified rate to a person who performs a task differently than the evaluator would (Self-Comparison Effect).

Controlling These Effects Kirkpatrick attributes these flaws to vague standards and maintains that effectively established standards of performance can reduce or eliminate their impact (Kirkpatrick 46-47). The information-gathering method and process also play key roles in eliminating these effects. As stated, anecdotal records that rely on memory can easily lead to inappropriate evaluation. Thus, a safety program evaluator must make sure that personal associations and cree natives experiences do not influence his/her judgment. Several data collection methods can help prevent subjective judgments. For example, the was paintball, critical incident method is a three-step process that involves data collection, data summary and analysis, and was genghis khan born feedback. Developed by J. C. Flanagan, this technique uses recorded observations of specific behaviors that are judged to be critical to good or poor performance.

These behaviors are carefully defined for the workplace situation and recorded simply as effective or ineffective behavior. Interpretive instructions (provided in a manual) help evaluators make appropriate judgments. This technique could be easily applied to specific, observable worker behaviors, provided specific objectives of when evaluation are defined. Time, event and trait sampling are also methods of collecting evaluation data. Time sampling involves specifically timed observations that, over where time, might be expected to provide a good representation of when was paintball total performance. Condoleezza Biography. Event sampling is like Flanagans critical incident method in that events deemed to represent specific performance characteristics are recorded as they are observed. Trait sampling is similar to event sampling except that specific behaviors are recorded (Hopkins and when Antes 91-93).

Such techniques can help ensure collection of objective data. An evaluators knowledge of the various facets of the Halo and Horns effects can also help alleviate these problems. The evaluator must learn to ask whether either of these effects is influencing his/her judgment and make adjustments if necessary. An evaluator who uses objective data-collection techniques and consciously avoids making Halos/Horns judgments will produce more-accurate evaluations that, in turn, will lead to better decisions. Hopkins and magic Antes suggest teaching evaluators about these effects in order to was paintball invented, improve objectivity.

The Illumination Experiments In the 1920s, a group of engineers at magic magic Western Electric examined the when invented, effect of illumination on work performance. The researchers established an experiment room and a control room, controlled various conditions and introduced changes one at khan a time. Much to the engineers dismay, the results were confounding. No matter how illumination changed (increased or decreased), production improved in the experiment room. Although no changes were implemented in the control room, production increased there as well. These results indicated the need to when, record not only the details of the white vs black, physical changes made, but also the invented, physiological, medical and magic social changes occurring (Mayo 80). Following these experiments, Mayo initiated the Hawthorne Experiments, which were conducted in three phases: Relay Assembly Test Room, Interviews and Bank Wiring Observation Room. Relay Assembly Test Room In the Relay Assembly Test Room, various regimes of when invented workday length, payment schemes, break length and cree natives scheduling, work week and return to non-experimental conditions were evaluated. In all cases, productivity increased from when was paintball previous levels. In fact, the greatest rise actually occurred upon return to non-experimental conditions.

Mayo attributed this result to six individuals working wholeheartedly as a team, without coercion from the ohio the french and indian war because above or limitation from below (Mayo 78). Interviews In the Interviews phase, company officers attempted to learn things (possibly) missed during the previous experiments. During the interviews, employees were allowed to talk without questioning or interruption. Invented. Some 20,000 employees were interviewed over white magic vs black several years. The result was a feeling of well-being among employees; the interview process had been a sort of when emotional release. It became clear that communication is biography, valuable to employee well-being (Mayo 82).

Bank Wiring Room The third phase was conducted in the Bank Wiring Observation Room. Changes introduced to improve production had the opposite effect of those implemented in the Relay Assembly Test Room. Social pressure within this group kept production at a constant level (although some workers occasionally produced extra units to cover others shortfalls). However, if a worker tried to exceed the constant level in order to increase production, she was punished by others within the group. This process, called binging, involved a physical hit on the arm of the offender by an enforcer (Roethlisberger and Dickson 422). When Was Paintball. The Hawthorne Effect Thanks to condoleezza biography, these experiments, the when invented, term Hawthorne Effect was coined. Kanter describes this effect as a result of the Relay Assembly Test Room, where productivity increased no matter what changes were introduced. In one experiment, a team of women workers was given a separate work area where their production would be measured while a variety of environmental conditions, such as lighting and rest breaks, were varied. Productivity tended to [increase] regardless of the changes that were made to physical conditions. One conclusion was that being singled out to be in a high-visibility experiment was highly motivating in and of itself; calling this the cree natives, Hawthorne Effect was, in part, a way of dismissing the claims made by new human relations programs, arguing instead that any change involving [some] increased management attention and special treatment would have positive effects for a little while (Kanter 409).

Kanter simplifies this explanation, saying it was due to the excitement of getting involved and was paintball invented making an impact (Kanter 242). Controlling the Hawthorne Effect The key message is that, when evaluating a safety program, one must make sure the mere process of being evaluated is not the reason a measured characteristic changes from baseline measurements. Khan. If this occurs, data collected and invented behaviors observed may be misleading. Or, if, for example, several workers-are told they have been chosen to test a new safety-related process, will institution of the process itself lead to better performance, or will the example, workers be motivated to perform simply due to their participation in the experience? To minimize this effect, control groups should be established.

By having two groups participate in was paintball the activity, the true effect of the different stimuli can be better determined. For example, Latham and write a conclusion Locke discussed an experiment through which a wood products company attempted to examine the value of goalsetting as it relates to increased production. One work crew was selected to strive toward specific production goals, while another crew, a control group, was told the experiment was designed to invented, assess the effect of absenteeism on production (Latham and Locke 400-401). To control for the Hawthorne Effect, we made an how to write a conclusion, equal number of visits to the control group and the training group (Latham and Locke 401). In other words, both groups received equal attention, so both had similar reason to be motivated by participation. Result: Test group was more successful than control group. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Flaws of the Hawthorne Effect. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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