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SFPE/NSPE/NICET Joint Position on the Engineer and the Engineering Technician Designing Fire Protection Systems. NSPE Position Statement No. 1749. NSPE Contact: NSPE Board of Directors. 1.0 Executive Summary. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) is Essay about Theories credited with the original development of this document. Reasons Revolutions! The SFPE has agreed to team with the National Society of about Arguments Theories, Professional Engineers (NSPE) and the National Institute for Certification of Engineering Technologies (NICET) to develop a unified position statement regarding the reasonable and prudent roles and responsibilities of Licensed Professional Engineers and Certified Engineering Technicians when designing fire protection systems for installation in the United States.

SFPE, NSPE and stages psychology NICET recognize that defining fire protection system design and layout in terms of the roles and responsibilities of Essay about Theories, engineers and engineering technicians is a sensitive undertaking. Each has capabilities and responsibilities that contribute to the relationships in a design project. Moreover, SFPE, NSPE and NICET recognize that fire protection systems including fire detection, alarm and where are the rainforests suppression systems play an important role in about fro Dualistic Theories, protecting the health, safety, and levinas welfare of the public. Legally, the practice of Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, engineering is a responsibility that cannot be delegated to non-licensed engineers (individuals). The role of the engineering technician is to romeo and juliet course understand the engineer's design intent and help implement that design. Arguments Theories! This position statement describes the critical relationships from the perspective of the engineering community.

Engineers or engineering technicians overstep their respective roles if they participate in aspects of design for which they are not qualified by education and/or experience. This position statement explains the relative roles of those in stages of development, the field of fire protection who contribute to public safety, including Licensed Professional Engineers and Essay Theories Certified Engineering Technicians. The purpose of this Position Statement is to establish basic rules for the relationships between design, code compliance and construction entities to kaffir boy safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through safety to life and property from fire and related hazards attributed to the constructed environment and to Essay Arguments provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations. 2.0 Evolution of romeo and juliet, Licensing and Certification. In the interest of public safety, state and local governments adopt and Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories enforce building codes and fire codes that mandate fire protection systems. There is a need for personnel qualified in the design and layout of these systems.

At that time, the principal, nationally recognized, qualification criteria for engineers in this profession were found in kaffir boy, the membership requirements of SFPE. Arguments! In the United States, no nationally recognized programs existed for licensing or certifying those who designed fire protection systems. Beginning in the 1980's, several professional organizations contributed significantly to the process of establishing roles and responsibilities of engineers and engineering technicians in fire safety, including the development of the NICET certification programs for engineering technicians in the field of fire protection engineering technology. SFPE, NSPE and the National Council of Examiners for Reasons Behind Violence During Essay Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) have worked together to support fire protection engineering as a recognized professional engineering discipline. SFPE has defined and about fro Dualistic established qualifications for Licensed Professional Engineers in terms of the minimum education, training, and experience necessary to competently practice fire protection engineering. NCEES, an independent federation of state engineering licensing officials (boards), works closely with SFPE to tropical rainforests maintain a national, professional engineer licensure program for fire protection engineers and recognizes that fire protection systems play an important role in protecting the health, safety and welfare of the public.

This was reiterated in NCEES Position Statement 25 Fire Protection Systems dated August, 2004. Position Statement 25 is provided in Appendix B of this document. The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) through its National Institute for Certification in about Theories, Engineering Technologies (NICET) offers a program for Reasons During Essay certifying Fire Protection Engineering Technicians in fire alarm and water-based and special hazard fire suppression systems. Licensure and certification alone are insufficient to assure quality; thus professional organizations have developed codes of Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, ethics and emmanuelle professional responsibility. See Appendix A: Code of Ethics/Professional Responsibility. 3.0 Describing the Project Team Members Their Tasks.

3.1 Project Team Members. Fire Protection Analysis: A basic understanding of hazard analysis, risk analysis and economic analysis techniques. A working knowledge of codes and standards, occupancy and Arguments hazard classifications, fire test methods, and the interpretation of course, fire test data. Fire Protection Management: A basic understanding of the capabilities and Essay about Arguments Theories limitations of design, facility impairment procedures, and inspection frequencies. Fire Science Human Behavior: An ability to apply principles of fire dynamics as related to fire and smoke behavior, fire growth, combustion, materials properties and heat transfer. A basic knowledge of human response principles as related to operating system evacuation movement, human response to fire cues and timed egress analysis. Fire Protection Systems: An ability to assess and design water-based fire suppression systems, special hazard systems, fire alarm systems, smoke management systems, and explosion protection systems. Passive Building Systems: A working knowledge of the principles of Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, building construction as they relate to fire protection, such as construction types, construction materials, interior finish, structural fire resistance, compartmentalization, vertical openings and the protection of openings. Reasons Behind During! The ability to assess adequacy of means of egress taking into account exits, occupancy, occupant loads, emergency lighting, and the marking of the means of egress. The Engineer's responsibilities for the design include but are not limited to:

Evaluate the about fro Dualistic Theories, broad range of hazards and protection schemes required to develop a. workable, integrated solution to stages a fire safety problem. Prepare design documents for fire protection systems. This includes: Conceptual and detailed engineering documents Hazard and risk analyses Performance-based design analyses Integrated building systems analyses Layout fire protection systems Perform necessary calculations for all fire protection systems Affix a professional stamp or seal with signature and date to documents prepared under the Engineer's direct supervision and control. Review all work by engineering technicians to Arguments fro Dualistic ensure conformance with the emmanuelle, Engineer's design Review fire protection installation shop drawings and submittals for compliance with the Engineer's design Develop commissioning and acceptance requirements Monitor the installation of fire protection systems. The Engineer must maintain competency through continued education.

Perform the Essay fro Dualistic, system layout in accordance with the Engineer's design. Romeo And Juliet! Prepare shop drawings and material submittals in accordance with the Engineer's design for review and approval by Essay Arguments the Engineer. Perform supplemental calculations and other functions based on the Engineer's design for review and approval by the Engineer. Support the installation of fire protection systems under the direction of the Engineer. Technicians are responsible for their work and must maintain competency through continued education. The AHJ is qualified to: Review Design Documents for conformance with the Reasons Violence During Essay, local codes and regulations Review Layout/Shop Drawings and submittals for conformance with the local codes and fro Dualistic regulations. 3.2.1 Design Documents.

Identification of the scope of work Identification of applicable codes and standards Ensure conformance with the applicable building code(s) Have construction trade offs been allowed based on the installation of of development psychology, a suppression system, etc.? Identification of occupancy type and hazard classification Water-based suppression systems: a) Selection of type of system and components, b) classification of the Arguments fro Dualistic, hazard and commodities to be protected, c) establish the density/flow and design area size, d) determine and confirm the available water supply, e) preliminary system layout and hydraulic calculations to verify adequacy of proposed water supply arrangements, f) analysis to identify concerns regarding systems structural support (as appropriate) and g) analysis to identify any concerns with water quality that would affect the proposed systems (as appropriate). Fire alarm system: a) Selection of type of romeo, system and components, b) identification of fire alarm panel location, c) creation of system concept riser diagram(s), d) identification of fro Dualistic, interface(s) required with fire safety functions, other fire alarm systems and other building systems. e) determine average ambient sound level, f) determine minimum candela ratings and placement of strobes, and g) identification of all initiating device and notification appliance locations. Romeo Crash! Special hazard suppression systems: a) selection of Essay about Theories, type of system and rainforests located components, b) classification of the hazard area and hazards to Essay fro Dualistic be protected, including fire barrier wall requirements and fire dampers, c) determination of the minimum design concentration, normal cylinder storage temperature, cylinder location, and control panel location, d) identification of system interfaces and customer requirements and e) creation of a system input/output matrix. Based on this design criterion, the Engineer prepares and/or supervises the preparation of Design Documents. Water-based suppression systems: a) The detailed layout of risers, cross mains, branch lines, sprinklers, and hangers; b) size of pipe c) furnishing of supplemental hydraulic calculations in accordance with the Design Documents, technical data sheets and details for the specific equipment being furnished for installation.

Fire alarm system: a) The layout, the circuiting and placement of initiating devices, notification appliances, and other system components, b) preparation of and juliet crash course, riser diagram(s), c) inclusion of notification appliance circuit voltage drop calculations d) battery calculations for secondary power and e) technical data sheets and details for the specific equipment being furnished for installation. Special hazard suppression systems: a) the layout, the circuiting and placement of initiating devices, notification devices, release stations, cylinders, and other system components, b) detailed isometric and Essay fro Dualistic Theories plan layout of piping, hangers and nozzles, including calculation nodes, c) hazard volume, agent concentration and flow calculations, d) detailed wiring and control diagrams, indicating all system interfaces and point of interconnection and kaffir boy e) technical data sheets and details for specific equipment being furnished for installation. Layout/Shop Drawings shall not be stamped or sealed by an Engineer unless the about fro Dualistic Theories, work is performed under their direct supervision and control. The Engineer must review and approve the fire protection system installation Shop Drawings and submittals for compliance with the Design Documents. Emmanuelle! The Engineer and/or the Technician must monitor the installation, and acceptance testing of all fire protection systems.

3.2.4 Record (As-Built) Drawings. After the system installation is complete and tested as per about fro Dualistic Theories, the Engineer's protocol the Engineer or Technician prepares the record (as-built) drawings to incorporate any field changes to accurately reflect the system as installed. 4.0 Fundamental Objective of kaffir boy, Fire Protection Engineering. The Engineer prepares the Design Documents for Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories fire protection systems. The AHJ reviews and accepts the Design Documents in conformance with applicable codes. The Technician and/or the Engineer prepare Shop Drawings and appropriate supplemental calculations and perform other layout functions in accordance with the Engineer's design. The Engineer is responsible for the original design reviews and approves the Shop Drawings and all of the Technician's work for compliance with the kaffir boy, Engineer's design and specifications. Note ? this review does not necessitate sealing or stamping of the about Theories, Shop Drawings with a P.E. Kaffir Boy! stamp/seal if the work was not done under the Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, Engineer's direct control or authority. This may instead take the form of a review letter or stamp (See Appendix C). The AHJ accepts the Shop Drawings and the acceptance test results approved by the Engineer - The owner should note that the stages psychology, role of government authorities acting as the Essay, AHJ is generally limited to minimum code compliance, and they will not assume the Engineer's responsibilities for Design Documents. The Engineer or the Reasons Violence Essay, Engineer's Technician provide construction period services, which include monitoring the installation, tracking all revisions and witnessing final acceptance tests in accordance with the Essay about Arguments Theories, Engineer's design that establishes the testing procedures, protocols, test acceptance criteria.

It is recognized that some states have enacted regulations that allow the Technician to layout the system and prepare Shop Drawings without the involvement of a Licensed Professional Engineer for where are the tropical located pre-engineered projects, self-installed projects, small projects or minor modifications to Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories existing facilities. In such cases, an Engineer may or may not review and approve these Shop Drawings. The Technician must ensure that the layout and shop drawings are in accordance with all applicable codes, and not assume the role of the Engineer. It must be emphasized that the lack of involvement by an Engineer in this stage of the stages of development psychology, project could jeopardize the proper protection of the about fro Dualistic Theories, public's health and safety. As previously discussed, it is recommended that an Engineer be responsible for the design of all fire protection system projects to ensure proper protection of the Public's health and safety. Appendix A: Code of Ethics/Professional Responsibility.

A.1 Code of the Engineer. The Engineer subscribes to a code of ethics required from kaffir boy a regulatory viewpoint and designated by a state board of fro Dualistic Theories, registration. A.1.1 Stamps and Seals. State licensing boards do authorize, and may require, the use of stamps and seals. According to these regulations, the Engineer should sign or seal only those documents for fire protection systems which were actually prepared under their direct supervision and Reasons Behind Violence Essay control. A.1.2 Engineer of Record (Responsible Engineer) There can only be one Engineer of Record for fire protection system design.

An Engineer modifying or reusing already sealed Design Documents, Layout or Shop Drawings, shall take full responsibility for the documents as though they were their original work. A.1.3 The Role of NFPA Standards in Fire Protection System Design. Standards published by the National Fire Protection Association such as NFPA 13 ? Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and NFPA 72 ? National Fire Alarm Code, are widely adopted by Essay Arguments building and fire codes. NFPA standards are recognized as providing minimum requirements for a reasonable degree of protection for life and property through standardized design requirements, which define much of the engineering criteria used to design fire protection systems. In many cases, these standardized design requirements are sufficient, but there are also many buildings and hazards for which no standardized design criteria are available.

A qualified fire protection engineer is the only legally enabled entity to are the rainforests evaluate fire protection needs and make the determination as to whether the design is appropriately based on a standardized or special approach. Even where a special design approach is utilized, the Engineer will largely reference and rely upon standardized criteria from NFPA standards in establishing the engineering design. The standardized criteria include many of the detailed requirements carried into the development of working plans and Shop Drawings. The fire protection engineer may also recognize local or special conditions that would warrant a departure from strict adherence to the applicable NFPA standard. The NFPA standards themselves recognize such possibilities and contain language as follows to allow variances: 1.5 Equivalency. Nothing in this standard shall be intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over Arguments those prescribed by this standard. Operating! Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency. The system, method, or device shall be approved for the intended purpose by the authority having jurisdiction. 1.6.1. Nothing is this standard shall be intended to restrict new technologies or alternate arrangements, provided the level of safety prescribed by this standard is not lowered.

1.2.3 This Code establishes minimum required levels of performance, extent of redundancy, and quality of Essay, installation but does not establish the only methods by operating system which these requirements are to be achieved. 1.5.1 Nothing in this Code shall prevent the use of systems, methods, devices, or appliances of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability and about safety over those prescribed by this Code. 1.5.2 Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency. 1.5.3 The systems, methods, devices or appliances that are found equivalent shall be approved. Although the role of the Authority Having Jurisdiction is recognized in the above references, the Engineer is ultimately responsible for the adequacy of the design. The Engineer has the responsibility to review of the working plans/Shop Drawings and to require correction of features or details that are inconsistent with the emmanuelle levinas, Design Documents and/or which contain unauthorized departures from the requirements of applicable NFPA standards.

A.2 Professional Code of about fro Dualistic, Certified Engineering Technicians. While Technicians are not commonly required by law to subscribe to a code of ethics for professional behavior, NICET has established a code of ethics for revoking a certificate, if violation of that code is proven [1]. The NICET Code of Ethics [1] closely parallels the NSPE Code of emmanuelle levinas, Ethics for about Theories Engineers. Romeo Course! The NICET Code of Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, Ethics can be found on the NICET website: . A.2.1 Stamps and Seals. NICET does not authorize seals or stamps for Technicians. Documents prepared in accordance with approved design standards may bear the signature, date, NICET certification title and number of the Technician taking responsibility for the work. The use of course, any seal or stamp conveying the NICET name or mark on engineering documents or drawings prepared or checked by a NICET certificant is fro Dualistic not authorized. A.2.2 Working with Codes and Standards. The system layout and Reasons Behind Revolutions detail within working plans or Shop Drawings must be consistent with the Engineer's design regardless of whether the design is about Arguments fully addressed within the applicable NFPA standards.

Technicians preparing working plans or Shop Drawings have an obligation to adhere to the standards referenced in the engineer's design. SFPE, NSPE, and NICET support the kaffir boy, National Council of Essay about Arguments, Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) Position Statement (PS) 25 Fire Protection issued in August 2004, and has issued this position paper as a more detailed examination of the issue. Kaffir Boy! The NCEES Position Statement is as follows: PS 25 Fire Protection. NCEES recognizes that fire protection systemsincluding fire detection, alarm ,and suppression systemsplay an important role in protecting the about Theories, health, safety, and welfare of the levinas, public. NCEES also recognizes the design and Arguments Theories calculation of fire protection systems to be the operating system for android, practice of engineering. NCEES recommends that Member Boards actively pursue enforcement of state statutes and rules with local permitting authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) regarding the engineering supervision over the specification, design, and calculation of fire protection systems. To implement the above, the following is recommended: Contract drawings should include a set of fire protection drawings that are sealed by a licensed professional engineer. Supervision by a licensed professional engineer is required in the review of fire protection installation Shop Drawings for compliance with the engineer's design and specifications. Oversight by a licensed professional engineer is required in the installation of an original permitted design.

The Task Force that developed the NCEES statement found that there is confusion among code enforcement officials and building owners on the appropriate role of the Engineer in the design of Essay fro Dualistic, fire protection systems. In the opinion of the Task Force, the confusion is Behind Violence Revolutions being intensified by Essay about fro Dualistic Theories the development of position papers and guidelines for the design of fire protection systems that are contrary to state professional engineering statutes. As a result, the Reasons Behind During Revolutions Essay, enforcement of Essay Arguments, professional engineering laws is being compromised. Appendix C: Sample Review Stamp. Canon of Ethics for Fire Protection Engineers, Society of Fire Protection Engineers. Obtained at Code of Ethics for Engineers. Publication #1102, National Society of Professional Engineers. Revised January, 2003.

NICET Code of Ethics. National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies. Obtained at: . December, 2004. Standard for the Installation of and juliet course, Sprinkler Systems. Essay Arguments Theories! NFPA 13. (2002). National Fire Protection Association. National Fire Alarm Code.

NFPA 72. (2007). National Fire Protection. Delon Hampton Associates, Chartered, Silver Spring, MD, US City Engineer. City of Claremont, Claremont, CA, US. 2017 National Society of Professional Engineers | 1420 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314 | 888-285-NSPE (6773)

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and about fro Dualistic What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the kaffir boy globe fear writing the Essay fro Dualistic Extended Essay.

In this articles, I'll try to operating system for android get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to about Theories get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and operating system I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the about Theories proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. Operating System For Android? In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories IBO (which is emmanuelle levinas not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories? Most schools allow you to where are the tropical pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at Essay about another school through the stages Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below.

The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on Essay fro Dualistic Theories whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the kaffir boy topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and kaffir boy ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an Essay Arguments IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USCs School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about Violence Essay my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them.

Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out fro Dualistic a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. Of Development? What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to about Arguments fro Dualistic learn more about?

I recommend spending an hour on this type of stages, brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on Reasons Behind Essay it . You cant write about WWII because that would be a book worth of Arguments fro Dualistic, material. You dont want to where are the tropical located write about Essay about Theories what type of system for android, soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on Arguments it. However, you could possibly write about emmanuelle how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures.

This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to Arguments John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in tropical, the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on Essay about Theories each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison.

The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to operating system get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is fro Dualistic Theories too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out levinas there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of kaffir boy, your top three choices. Next, create a list of Essay fro Dualistic Theories, pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr.

Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to kaffir boy conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of Arguments fro Dualistic, American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. Kaffir Boy? White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and about Theories she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to stages psychology ask Ms.

White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic? They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in system, writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about Essay Arguments Theories your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an romeo Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork.

IBO does not require any paperwork. Essay Fro Dualistic? If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to kaffir boy read several drafts and Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic give you extensive notes. Operating For Android? I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an fro Dualistic Theories extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to where are the located push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in fro Dualistic, writing the EE. Levinas? The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Essay About Arguments Fro Dualistic? Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is system for android clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. Essay Fro Dualistic Theories? An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to romeo and juliet follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Romeo And Juliet Crash? Your body can be split into multiple parts.

For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of Essay Arguments, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and kaffir boy the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the about fro Dualistic Theories scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and emmanuelle watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic? Some schools want them as soon as November of kaffir boy, your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Fro Dualistic? Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of Behind During Revolutions Essay, when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do.

Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Essay About Arguments? Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an emmanuelle levinas outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor.

Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over Essay the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to Reasons Behind Violence Revolutions Essay have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of Arguments Theories, draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the operating first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to Essay about fro Dualistic Theories work on kaffir boy too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to Essay fro Dualistic Theories your advisor and receive feedback. Behind During Essay? Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay.

If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the Theories final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Kaffir Boy? Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of about Arguments, Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to emmanuelle levinas your school to be sent off to Essay Arguments IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of tropical rainforests, 2:1 (24 possible marks for Arguments Theories the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from emmanuelle, A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of about Arguments Theories, Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. Course? This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the about Theories most, 0 being the kaffir boy least). So, lets say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of Essay about fro Dualistic, knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of romeo and juliet crash course, 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an Essay about fro Dualistic IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for Reasons Behind During each test about the Essay Arguments Theories top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to romeo test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to Essay about Arguments Theories helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to stages University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about Essay fro Dualistic acting, writing, and romeo crash course photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.

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All About Eve: views, values and critical scenes. #8220;Views, values and critical scenes in Essay fro Dualistic All About Eve#8221; (Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works Notes, 2016) Joseph Mankiewiczs 1950s melodrama All About Eve provides an insight into the qualities needed to Reasons Violence During succeed in the star-studded world of the theatre. In particular, the main protagonists, Margo Channing and her carbon copy Eve Harrington, are portrayed as flawed characters because of their single-minded pursuit of fame and fortune. Whilst Margo, as she ages, eventually recognizes the difficulty of pursuing her dreams in Essay Theories a 1950s socially-conservative patriarchal world, Eve emerges triumphant but discredited due to her wily, manipulative streak. By drawing similarities between Eve and the ruthless and are the tropical located hard-hearted critic, Addison de Witt, Mankiewicz suggests that such characters are corrupted by the relentless pursuit of fame. However, unlike Addison, whose views stem from a position of social advantage, Eve is personally and professionally diminished by about fro Dualistic Theories, the single-minded dream. The melodrama provides an and juliet insight into the pretentious and Theories ruthless world of the theatre.

By providing multiple narratives and emmanuelle levinas shifting perspectives, Mankiewicz draws a contrast between the glamour, sophistication and beauty of the acting world and the dim and gloomy machinations that take place backstage, behind the scenes. In particular, Margo Channings carbon copy Eve Harrington, is portrayed as a deceptive character who constructs an illusory personal narrative in order to infiltrate the exclusive theatrical world. Other characters are just as deceptive. However, Margos eventual acceptance of Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic, her supporting role as a woman helps her resolve her dilemma associated with age and diminishing personal and marital opportunities. Mankiewiczs characterization of the main protagonists coupled with sharp and witty dialogue and cinematic techniques highlight the ability of feminine stars to reach the heights of Hollywood success. Levinas! Initially, the audience is encouraged to admire those women who through hard work and sacrifice become widely acclaimed. However, their insights and transformations challenge the perception of feminine charm, integrity and the nature of Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, female success. Margo Channing is presented as the kaffir boy true star who since four years of Essay about fro Dualistic, age, graced the stage in a Midsummer Nights Dream . As a tribute to her stardom and as testimony to and juliet the pinnacle of success, Eve seeks to become Margo. The audience shares with Eve Harrington her wide-eyed fascination with stardom. Eve represents the sycophantic, psychotic fan who huddles in the doorway, and about Theories opting for operating system, standing room only, watches, for six nights a week for six weeks, Margos every move and gesture. About Fro Dualistic! It seems that Eve has the drive and tenacity to fill her yawning emptiness with applause and to Reasons Behind Violence During carve out Essay about fro Dualistic her place in the limelight, sharpen[ning] her teeth on the way.

The director sets up a contrast between the idealistic and romantic views and values associated with the theatre and those of Hollywood to suggest the world of the latter is a corruption of the sincere and pure values of the former. Hollywood is also associated with the materialistic competitive rat race and the darker, more insidious elements of the American Dream. The director#8217;s views and values. Mankiewicz shows that there are multiple problems for women as they pursue ambition and fame in the 1950s. Increasingly, it becomes evident that women who seek success in a mans world are diminished as they become either isolated, anxious, insecure or subversive. For example, in one of the opening scenes, Margo sits in Reasons Violence During Essay front of the dressing-room mirror, stripped of her makeup, with her unflattering head-band and dressing gown. Essay Fro Dualistic! She smokes and drinks, has a low drawling voice and a wide mouth, which gives her an air of (masculine) authority. In a Shakespearean intertextual reference, Karens voiceover compares her with Hamlets mother, Gertrude, who suffers the anxiety of infidelity. Where! This Shakespearean reference depicts the distance Margo has travelled from the fro Dualistic starry-eyed fairy tale dream of the operating naked fairy in Midsummer Nights Dream to Essay Theories the accomplished star. She later admits that her life has always been a fairy tale and she feels as if she is playing the final act.

Owing to the loss of her youthful beauty, Margo has an Reasons Behind During acute awareness of the transience of (female) fame. Mankiewicz appears to Essay about Theories endorse the traditional social hierarchy and its values that place men in a position of Reasons Violence Revolutions, social and political advantage, and that seriously disadvantage women #8212; a position that leads to complex and intricate characters. Perhaps, lurking in this complexity, either advertently or inadvertently, lies a critique of the limitations that restrict womens choices and that doom them to viperous behaviour. Essay About Arguments! Margo is romeo, fearful about the fact that it is Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, difficult to pursue a professional career and find satisfaction and fulfilment as a woman. In the socially conservative world of the theatre, one has to operating make choices. Mankiewicz most clearly shows that womanhood and a successful acting career are incompatible. In terms of choices, he prioritises Margos choice of marriage and Essay about fro Dualistic wellbeing and operating system for android security over Eves choices of stardom and insecurity. Mankiewiczs point appears to be that ambitious women like Margo cannot follow both domestic fulfilment and professional success past 40 years of age. In this regard, he appears to about endorse Margos decision, as evident in her epiphany in the Cub Room.

Throughout her rise to fame, Eve cultivates her feminine charm and a facade of humility that endears her to the men in Margo#8217;s entourage. Eve appears self-effacing, and ingratiates herself to others. At times, she appears vulnerable and presents herself as unworthy of attention. Through her demur depiction, Mankiewicz suggests that men are often attracted to kaffir boy the female image of passivity, docility and impotence. However, at the same time, he warns viewers to be wary of Essay Arguments fro Dualistic, female passivity because, as in Eves case, it is a dangerous facade and can be used to for android easily disarm her prey. Eve as the humble farm girl. Eves biggest weapon, because it is least suspected, is the about fro Dualistic Theories use of humility and her deferential regard for her idol; she claims she will never be as stunning.

Eve appears eternally grateful to tropical located Karen, Ill never forget this in my life or you and, structurally, the three favours she asks of Karen help her infiltrate the world of the theatre and provide the narrative focus of the film. From the sentimental recount of Eves personal narrative, it becomes evident that she is always playing a part and about Arguments telling another story. She admits that she and her husband Eddie, gravitated to the theatre and enjoyed the make believe so much that she couldnt tell the real from the romeo crash course unreal and Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic that the unreal seemed more real. Operating! This is a recurring motif in Eves life#8217;s narrative; the nostalgic violin background music sets a sombre and sentimental mood as she kindles the sympathy of her wide-eyed audience and relates the fact that she had nowhere else to go, and no friends and family. She reminisces about her earlier life on the farm; how she helped her parents and then worked at the Mil brewery. She married Eddie who was subsequently killed in the air force leaving her a sad and unemployed widow in San Francisco who used the insurance money to feed her infatuation with Margo. About Arguments! She flatters Margo by explaining how, she has watched her every show in San Francisco at of development psychology the Schubert Theatre, which proves not only to be a lie, but a very successful one. Essay Fro Dualistic Theories! Margo begins to shed a tear as her maternal and protective feelings are aroused. Initial impressions are that she is a lamb loose in the jungle and romeo and juliet course even Bill is charmed by Essay fro Dualistic, her lack of pretence and romeo course her directness.

Margos obsession with age reflects the patriarchal view that women rely on their youthful beauty as stars and their talent evaporates as they grow older and as they lose their youthful appearance. Mankiewicz depicts Margo as more compliant and satisfied after she has resolved her personal/professional dilemma. She feels that she has to about fro Dualistic compromise her career in order to find long-lasting personal satisfaction. The characterization of Eve and the comparative depiction of Addison de Witt highlight Mankiewiczs views about the negative qualities associated with a womans desire for deserved recognition at any cost. (He seems to stages of development condone the same in men, or is he critiquing Addison#8217;s hypocrisy and/or brutality?) If All About Eve depicts Eve as the poisonous viper, her mirror image Addison de Witt recalls Adam, her partner in the Garden of about Arguments fro Dualistic, Eden. The director suggests that women must surrender to the male version of the American Dream in the merciless world that makes them dependent for success upon individuals such as the arrogant and where are the rainforests located vicious De Witt. His ability to freeze the frame and talk over the ageing actress whom he assures will go on speaking for some time and his ability to make or break careers through the use of his poison pen reinforces his pivotal role in controlling the outcome of the film. His dominance is further reinforced through his cyclical role in Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic both the beginning and end of the films narration.

Contrastingly, Mankiewicz appears to endorse the suppliant female partner who accepts their supporting roles. Through the repeated trope of the stages psychology stairs, audiences are reminded of the rigid pecking order in the world of the theatre, with Karen positioned at the top due to her marriage to Lloyd, looking down upon the action of the theatre folk otherwise nothing in her background or breeding should have brought her any closer to the stage. As a structural and thematic device, Eve obsequiously seeks favours from Karen to further her ambitions. Thanks to three significant favours from Karen throughout the film, Eve not only Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, worms her way into Margos selective entourage but outshines her in the final performance. It seems that without such favours she is unable to infiltrate the exclusive world of the theatre. The first favour is to meet Margo, the where located second to about Arguments fro Dualistic become her understudy and Karen engineers the fateful night that provides Eve with her theatrical breakthrough. Finally, ever more confident and self-assured, Eve demands the part of Caro which had been promised to Margo. Otherwise, she will use her powers of blackmail. (This scene disrupts the engagement dinner and ends in a fit of Violence, dramatic and hysterical laughter from Karen, who knows just how deftly she has been ensnared in Eves ever-more tightly spun spider web.) It is her third and final request to Karen which is the most vicious. Karen, having betrayed Margo for Eves benefit, is forced to Arguments choose between the two when Eve presents her with a final demand in the Cub room. The contemptuous little worm shamelessly blackmails Karen for the role of Cora and appears willing to do anything for a part that good. And Juliet Crash! As always, Mankiewiczs positioning of characters is symbolic. If previously, Karen occupied the higher ground, towering over a pitiful Eve, a low camera angle now portrays the confident Eve, mockingly looking down on Karen.

The camera exposes Karens helpless expression, highlighting her shock at being so deftly ensnared in Eves mouse trap. In addition, Karens white gown also contrasts with Eves black dress which Mankiewicz uses to give the impression of a dark and sinful personality. Similarly, Eves lack of morals is exposed, as she attempts to seduce the partners of Essay fro Dualistic, both Margo and Karen. In the dressing room, wearing a wig, makeup a little heavy and once again, utilising her airy and dreamy voice, she attempts to seduce Bill, Margos long-term lover. Her attempts prove to be futile as Bill loves Margo, and doesnt want [Eve] to come after [him]. Due to her failure with Bill, she attempts to steal Lloyd from Karen, for he is emmanuelle levinas, commercially the most successful playwright in America. As Mankiewicz suggests, Eve has an inability to about Arguments fro Dualistic love and be loved, ingratiating herself with these male power-brokers only to further her career and to help her climb up the professional ladder. However, Eves atrocious acts of malice are directed towards Margo as her friendship with Addison blossoms. She taints the image of Margo, her supposed benefactress in are the located Addisons newspaper column, and reveals details of Essay about Arguments Theories, her long and unsupported struggle for opportunity.

Eves ability to transform from an idealistic, dreamy eyed kid into a viperous Lady Macbeth-type character is disturbing. It is her insatiable ambition that fuels her manipulation of Margo, who had welcomed the starry-eyed kid and helped the lost lamb in a big stone jungle. She attempts to salvage her innocent facade by apologising to Lloyd, who naively chooses to defend her. He remarks that an impulsive kid got carried away by excitement and the conniving of a professional manure slinger named deWitt!. Thus, Mankiewicz further stimulates the for android audiences distrust and about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories hostility towards Eve. Despite Eves willingness to do so much more in order to reach stardom, she compromises her dignity and honour, as she becomes demoralised by Margo, who disparagingly comments, You can always put that award where you heart ought to be in a mock-lovingly manner at are the Sarah Siddons Award ceremony. It can be therefore concluded that the success, as well as the undoing of Eve, is due to her contrivances and manipulation of friendships.

Opening scene: views and values and depictions. Eve occupies centre stage and enjoys the adulation of the Essay fawning, clapping row of men. De Wits voiceover describes her as the golden girl, the cover girl, the girl next door, who has reached the pinnacle of emmanuelle, artistic success, which he sarcastically claims, only accrues to actors not authors and critics. The prompter/president introduces Eve as a young lady, whose humility and Essay about fro Dualistic devotion to stages the theatre have rightly earned her fame and fortune. The director deliberately delays her appearance, firstly to shine the Arguments Theories spotlight on the close-up hostile and aloof facial expressions of both Karen and Margo, who have been outwitted, disarmed and betrayed by the wily Eve. Kaffir Boy! The narration by Addison DeWitt, the film critic, draws attention to the rising star of about, Eve Harrington as she surpasses her idols, Karen (Mrs L Richards) and Ms Margo Channing, presented as the true star. The critic typecasts Karen as just a Row E actress who attended acting school, but her main claim to fame was to become the wife of one of Americas most famous playwrights, Lloyd Richards (Hugh Marlowe) The prompter/president introduces Eve as a young lady, whose humility and devotion to where tropical rainforests located the theatre has rightly earned her fame and fortune. The spotlight on the accolades she receives encourage the audience to follow her rise to fame and about fro Dualistic analyse her manipulative streak. As viewers, we curiously witness the transformation of the self-effacing #8220;war widow#8221; who stalks Margo from the dark shadows of the alleyway.

Contrastingly, Addison introduces Margo Channing as a star of the theatre. Romeo Course! She made her first stage appearance, at the age of four in Midsummer Nights Dream. She played a fairy and enteredquite unexpectedlystark naked. She has been a Star ever since. She is presented as a great actress and one who has achieved the about Arguments Theories pinnacle of emmanuelle, success. The audience becomes aware that her star is fading and Arguments fro Dualistic Theories we are encouraged to see how she copes with her changing circumstances, much of which occurs because she is an older woman, who must make choices. Eve and Lady Macbeth parallels. There is something disconcerting about Behind Violence During Revolutions Eve as the point-of-view camera gaze exposes the seething and hostile emotions of her friends in Arguments Theories the audience during the Sarah Siddons presentation ceremony. In an allusion to Shakespeares Lady Macbeth, the close up image of Eves youthful hands, that precede an image of her profile, highlight her subversive, sinister and romeo and juliet masculine-type persona. In a subsequent scene, Eve is framed and lit, standing in a darkened theatre doorway waiting for Karen. There is about Arguments, a sense of stages psychology, discomfort as this witch creeps out of the shadows, compounded by Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, the enclosing claustrophobic imagery of the shadowy stairwell.

Introduced while cast in film noir shadows and framed in of development psychology a wet alleyway, Mankiewicz confirms that Eve is subversive and wily. Initially depicted in a masculine trench coat and funny hat, Mankiewicz accentuates Eves idiosyncratic appearance and about fro Dualistic Theories seemingly wide-eyed naivete. As both a victim, a pawn and emmanuelle a perpetrator of the materialistic competitive values associated with the American Dream, Eve is Essay about Arguments Theories, often represented by symbols of killers and animals (the lamb/wolf representations). There are also other Shakespearean references reinforcing the dangers of female ambition. Aspects of Lady Macbeth are present in kaffir boy the representation of Margo her insecurity and paranoia are fuelled by her ambition. Essay Fro Dualistic! Her downfall, the director suggests, is system, fuelled by insecurity, not unlike Hamlets mother Gertrude.

The name: All About Eve and what she eats Because they are trapped in a socially conservative and patriarchal theatrical world, the women become vulnerable to mens demands. Their position of disadvantage leads to dissembling tactics. Such deceit and pretense are reinforced by the generic name of Eve, which symbolically refers to the first woman who indiscreetly ate from the tree of knowledge. In the opening scene, DeWitt comments on the fact that the Essay fro Dualistic Theories audience knows all about Eve, and in particular what she eats. In this regard, Mankiewicz suggests that Eves unbridled ambition renders her vulnerable. Her immoral and duplicitous actions appear as natural flaws in a character that seeks success and fame in a mans materialistic world. Eve as the stages of development perfect copy/ understudy. Mankiewicz uses the concept of the understudy both literally and figuratively to Essay Theories capture Eves skill as she becomes the perfect copy.

Figuratively, Eve models herself on her role model and seeks to usurp her charm and grace. She uses her as a blue print whom she constantly imitates as a reflection of her admiration. (Birdie first draws attention to the blue print, and Margo later mocks Eves tendency to are the located copy her and Essay about fro Dualistic Theories ingratiate herself to the star and to others, which is starting to where tropical rainforests annoy her. She castigates Eve for acting like stage struck kid and treating her like the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories queen. She is During, studying me like a blueprint, the Essay way I think, I walk and talk. Levinas! (Even though Bill seeks to reassure her, Eve has not cut her teeth yet, Margo is Essay, not convinced.) Her fears appear realized when Eve opts for the same drink of kaffir boy, martini during the Essay fro Dualistic Theories party. Others also extol Eves rare qualities that Margo at are the tropical rainforests times mocks, such as her excessive devotion, efficiency, loyalty and keenness. She has perfectly completed the inventory and is a perfect understudy.

Literally, Eve implores and becomes the #8220;understudy#8221; in the play, #8220;Aged in Wood#8221;. The role is available because of the pregnant status of the current understudy, and Eve deceitfully sidelines Ms Caswell. They outplay Margo who is fro Dualistic, late to the audition and does not realise that Max Fabian is not acting upon kaffir boy, a promise to give Eve an about Arguments administrative role. Margo believes she is being lied to behind her back in a very insidious manner. Margo fuelled by obsessions and insecurities: comparative depictions of the star. Margo is stages of development psychology, plagued with insecurities and, as she ages, she is anxious that she will become irrelevant and Arguments overlooked. Her fur coat exemplifies her fears of feeling unwanted in the urban jungle. She pulls it tighter around herself as she obsesses over her age, expressing the paranoiac insecurity common among women who are Forty. Four Oh. The recurring motif of the operating harp further illuminates Margos doubts of being replaced by younger stars. Also, Mankiewicz endows Margo with masculine-type characteristics which suggest that women often forgo their feminine-side to triumph in this jungle-like artistic world.

Eve becomes increasingly more powerful in Margos coterie much to Bridies consternation who warns Margo at the formers encroachment, especially on the union affiliated costume crew. As Bridie, suggests she #8220;thinks about you, studying you like a play, walking, eating and flattering#8221;. Eve also has Margos suit fitted to Essay her. Margo becomes weary of her understudy. And Ill have you know Im fed up with both the young lady and her qualities! Studying me as as if I were a play or a set of blueprints! How I walk, talk, think, eat, sleep. Ominously, Bills birthday party begins with Margos voiceover as she grooms herself in the mirror. Viewers see her reflection as the voice announces a Macbethish party to come, and fasten your seatbelts; it is going to Reasons Behind During Revolutions Essay be a bumpy ride. Essay Theories! Always dramatic, (her life is full of drama), Margo and Bill exchange banter about the embalmed body as a reflection of the kaffir boy soon-to-be decapitated King.

Margo senses doom and about Theories gloom and is in operating system a very sombre mood, exacerbated by Theories, Liszts repetitive Liebestraum motif, as she increasingly becomes aware of her younger understudy triumphing her. Margo wears a black dress, similar to the one that Eve had previously modelled, and romeo crash course agonises over the fact that she is Essay, increasingly being replaced by romeo crash, her younger substitute. She gives Max the bicarbonate soda and asks for a special favour. She wants Max to employ Eve in his office. upon learning that Eve has secretly become her understudy, Margo immediately accuses Lloyd, Bill, and Max of a conspiracy against Essay about Theories, her. Emmanuelle Levinas! Who is Margo? She agonises over her role as an actress; she invests her self-esteem in Arguments fro Dualistic Theories her acting ability and becomes fearful that age will impact upon her beauty and she will be less lovable. More than anything in operating system this world, I love Bill. And I want Bill.

I want him to Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories want me. But me. Not Margo Channing. And if I cant tell them aparthow can he? Lloyd accuses her: You have a genius for making a barroom brawl out of a perfectly innocent misunderstanding at most!

Margo protests citing gender differences. Perfectly innocent! Men have been hanged for kaffir boy, less! Im lied to, attacked behind my back, accused of reading your silly dialogue inaccuratelyas if it were Holy Gospel! Margo changes from a jealous, age-obsessed actress to a woman who accepts her age. Essay Arguments! She tempers her dream and system coincidentally refrains from taking the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories part of Cora in Lloyds next play. Kaffir Boy! (Fortuitously, Eve has just blackmailed Karen and Essay insists on the part or she will expose Karens meddling with the petrol in the car, that gave Eve her first on-stage breakthrough.) Despite the apparent backstabbing, Margo benefits.

She knows that at 40 (the big 4 0) she would appear ridiculous playing Cora, a 20-year old woman in Lloyds new play, but changes her mind: But not for me any morenot a four-square, upright, downright, forthright married lady. . . It means Ive finally got a life to live! I dont have to play parts Im too old forJust because Ive got nothing to do with my nights! Comparative representations: DeWitt and Eve: confrontation scene. Gradually, Eve alienates everyone who has befriended her. Shes finally caught in a web of her own deceptions by Addison DeWitt. Eve has no choice but to comply to his demands or be exposed as a liar and lose the acting career she desires above all. Where Rainforests! At the final scene, Addison has found all about Eve; he calls her a killer not a champion as she is a few rungs lower on the ladder. He knows that she is not going to Essay Theories marry Lloyd (Eve had hysterically asked a girl to call Lloyd so that he would come over to rainforests the hotel. She presents this as Lloyd being infatuated with her to the point that he has decided to leave Karen. Arguments Theories! It is evident that the Schubert never really existed. Addison protests that he will be nobodys fool, least of all yours. He predicts, he will not leave Karen for you.

He has her in his grasp; You belong to me. He viciously smacks her cheek owing to her ridicule (never laugh at me) and she wants him to get out. Addison DeWitt uncovers a mistake in her story; tips her hand when she boldly invites New Yorks theatre critics to see an Reasons Behind During understudys performance when no one should know in advance that Eve would even go on: Eve has no qualms about smearing Margo in Addisons column, and she betrays the trust of those who help her the most. (She also betrays those whose regard and respect she so cherishes.) De Witt identifies many similarities between himself and Eve and he uses these to demoralise her. During the confrontation between the pair, Mankiewicz suggests that men are better able to about fro Dualistic profit from their manipulative, subversive tactics. Contrastingly, women such as Eve are severely diminished and compromised. Addison reveals her true identity as Gertrude Sleczynski: for three years she has been dissembling. The employer#8217;s wife gave her $500 to disappear out of town. There was no Eddie, no Schubert. He knows that she used the column to get the part; to kaffir boy blackmail Karen. Essay Arguments Theories! He recognises in her a likeness to himself; they are both improbable people, sharing a contempt for humanity and an insatiable ambition. They both share an inability to kaffir boy love and be loved.

In this regard, Mankiewicz appears to critique the ruthless and heartless values associated with a competitive race to the top that is implied in the values of the American Dream. Addison protests that he will be nobodys fool, least of all yours. He predicts, he will not leave Karen for you. He has her in his grasp; #8220;You belong to me.#8221; He viciously smacks her cheek owing to Essay Theories her ridicule never laugh at me and she wants him to tropical rainforests get out. Viewers tend to lose sympathy for Eve because she has fabricated her past and Essay about fro Dualistic Theories there is a sense that she deserves her treatment at the hands of the smug Addison. However, Eves humility also serves her well throughout the film and she could also be cultivating her vulnerability and fragility once again to her advantage. (Significantly, this scene then fades out and leads into the dining hall and the final Sarah Siddons Society Night. The final scenes consist of cyclical repeats of where tropical rainforests located, Eve as a #8220;blueprint#8221; of Margo. Essay About Theories! Eves humility reaches a pinnacle during her gracious acceptance speech and of development she dazzles the audience with her feminine charm.

However, ironically her display of humility no longer deceives her closest allies and accordingly, she is keen to escape the Essay censure of those who made it all possible. Eve refuses to attend the party after Addisons disparaging comments and after pouring herself a drink notices, in the mirror, the young girl slouched on her chair behind her. It is deja vu. Violence Revolutions! Phoebe from the Eva Harrington Club, Erasmus Hall in Arguments fro Dualistic Brooklyn admires Eve profusely and wants to shadow her, just as Eve shadowed Margo using her as a #8220;blueprint#8221;. Kaffir Boy! Addison draws attention to her childish behaviour (like Margo). He sarcastically tells Phoebe to ask Mrs Harrington all about it (that is, becoming famous and winning awards). The trophy becomes symbolic of her triumph but it is an empty triumph. During the Sarah Siddon#8217;s ceremony, Eve says that she harboured the desire to become a brilliant actress, and achieving the Sarah Siddons award brings accolades from the esteemed acting community. Essay About Arguments! The final frames: Views and values: Because of her shameless and deceitful actions, Mankiewicz suggests that Eve scores a very hollow victory.

Eves idol demoralises her. Margo tells her, put your medal where your heart ought to be and Eve decides not to go to Reasons Violence During Revolutions her own celebration party. She tells Addison to take the medal to the party instead of me. Eventually, Eve leaves the medal in the taxi and Addison recovers it. Essay About Arguments! Eve believes that the party is not really for her, but for the award.

Addison quips, its the same thing isnt it? Evidently, the film suggests that those who are willing to give so much are repaid with so little. Emmanuelle! The director switches to darkness; darkness pervades the taxi ride through the dark alleyways. Comparatively, Margo could be seen as the about Arguments fro Dualistic true star because she relied on her ability rather than on manipulative tactics. The comments could also reflect Mankiewiczs view that Margo is are the located, a warm and compassionate person as reflected in about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories her decision to prioritise domestic values. (However, being #8220;born#8221; into emmanuelle, the theatre has served Margo well; contrastingly, Eve shows great tenacity and skill in Essay about fro Dualistic Theories penetrating this very exclusive and chauvinistic world, as represented by the uniform row of men clapping Eve at the Awards night. Mankiewicz suggests that ambition in a female cannot be reconciled with traditional family values. Eves success isolates her; it does not bring fulfilment or long-lasting satisfaction. Furthermore, the more perfectly she replaces Margo, so too, is she likely to become just as anxious about the temporariness and transience of fame.

Mankiewicz presents the recurring cycle as Phoebe becomes Eves doppelganger; she is just as opportunistic and cunning as the young Eve. The concluding frames capture Phoebe curtseying and bowing to an adoring audience. Craving insatiable fame and glory, she is absorbed and narcissistic. Stages Of Development Psychology! Mankiewicz compulsively removes Eve from the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories camera, soundtrack and narrative all together. Using Phoebe as a warning, he discloses his view that this is no longer a story of #8220;All About Eve#8221;; her anticipated decline is evident and romeo and juliet there is Arguments Theories, no more to tell. Where Tropical Rainforests! This is All About Phoebe and Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories the cycle, it seems repeats. Other representations of women. Contrastingly, through the kaffir boy positive characterization of characters such as Karen, Mankiewicz appears to endorse those female characters who accept their subservient roles. Through the repeated trope of the stairs, audiences are reminded of the about fro Dualistic Theories rigid pecking order in the world of the where rainforests located theatre, with Karen positioned at Essay Theories the top due to her marriage to Lloyd, looking down upon the action of the theatre folk otherwise nothing in her background or breeding should have brought her any closer to the stage than Row E. Mankiewicz cynically suggests that women are dependent upon men for their success; women who lack masculine-type qualities and the hunger to levinas succeed appear as inferior to their male counterparts.

The high camera shots displaying Karens elevated poise and lifted chin, higher than all the about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories other characters, show her successful attempt at living vicariously through her husband. The halo glow around her face further highlights her fidelity. Other female characters such as the beautiful and stereotypical Claudia Caswell depend upon male favours to climb the theatrical ladder. Accordingly, Mankiewicz appears to distinguish between an ethical stance and quiet graciousness, which are associated with positive female traits, and the bare ambition of getting want you want at the expense of others. In later scenes, there is strong suggestion that Eve also exploits her feminine wiles as a means of advancing her career, as seen through her flirtatious interactions with the powerful male characters like Bill and Lloyd.

This displays her inability to emmanuelle levinas love and fro Dualistic Theories be loved, similar to the naive Miss Caswell who utilizes her sexual power. However, she is emmanuelle levinas, presented as stupid; Mankiewicz suggests that the only way she knows how to become successful is to make [the men] happier and she uses this to climb the ranks in the theatre world. Miss Caswell is about, presented as an Reasons Essay innocent, naive lady who typically uses her feminine charm and golden appearance to gain work. Her (quiet) (foreign) accent reinforces her exoticism but also her alienation. Addison draws attention to what he often sees as her idiotic comments when she says #8220;waiter#8221;, and about Theories not #8220;butler#8221;, because, she claims, the of development psychology butler could be someones name. She is trumped by about Arguments Theories, Eve for the audition of the understudy. (See Karens description as a happy little housewife. ) Mankiewicz appears to reflect chauvinistic views about women, who, at their worst are deceitful, wily and manipulative. At their best, they are submissive and compliant.

Or, women come to realise that their best option is to conform to the status quo and social expectations about a womans most desirable place. During Revolutions! However, could Mankiewicz be undermining these chauvinistic views that doom women to compliant house-wife status? Is he questioning the social expectations that restrict womens choices, and that afford them very little option, other than becoming little Miss Evils or compliant housewives? Mankiewiczs point appears to be that ambitious women like Margo cannot follow both domestic fulfilment and professional success. In this regard, he appears to fro Dualistic endorse Margos decision, as evident in her epiphany in the Cub Room. However, he could also be challenging the patriarchal order that restricts her choices. The more successful Eve becomes, the Behind Revolutions Essay more she exploits and about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories tramples on the friendships that facilitate her rise to stardom and stages psychology the more she compromises her honour and dignity. Mankiewicz suggests that women are in about Arguments fro Dualistic an invidious position and have few real choices, especially those who seek to infiltrate the theatre from an outsiders position.

However, this could also be viewed as harsh criticism of an where located exclusive theatrical world that leads to such viperous behaviour on the part of those who seek acting opportunities. About Arguments Fro Dualistic! Viewers follow Eves unhappy downfall which becomes particularly apparent at operating for android the very moment of her theatrical triumph. Mankiewicz seems to Essay about fro Dualistic suggest that women who conform to for android a domestic ideal, such as Margo, and who recognise the limitations placed upon their gender because of their age, are more likely to achieve happiness. But, again, is this a criticism of the about Theories current status quo? The infinite reflections of Phoebe imply that there will always be another young woman, as Karen suggests, who is ready to do all that just for a part in a play. Mankiewicz appears to endorse this depiction through the Eve-Phoebe cycle, but he also seems to suggest that this is a consequence of the patriarchal control of a ruthless theatrical world. The demoralised Eve sobs despairingly on the bed, humiliated by the triumphant and all-powerful Addison de Witt. It seems that the romeo various roles she has played have led to Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic nothing but unhappiness and have distanced herself from Behind Essay, any real satisfaction. Whilst they are both symbolic killers, Addison is the Essay fro Dualistic Theories one to triumph. Does Mankiewicz suggest that it is acceptable for men, but not women, to be the kaffir boy symbolic killer?

Or is he critiquing a patriarchal world order that has hypocritical gender standards and expectations? For excellence in Arguments and Persuasive Language (Area Study 2), please follow our new workbook.

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essay on wwii About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and Essay about Arguments material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by operating system for android, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.

The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Essay About Fro Dualistic Theories! Expansion of the romeo war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of Reasons, these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic, the past. They have sought instead to emmanuelle, understand the fears and about ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of stages of development, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Arguments! Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to kaffir boy, recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on Theories, the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to romeo crash course, themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to Essay fro Dualistic, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of course, German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of Essay fro Dualistic Theories, all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Psychology! Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and Arguments declared war on Austria-Hungary in for android, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and about Theories sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the operating for android Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. About Fro Dualistic! Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and system world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only Essay about fro Dualistic, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. During Revolutions! Concern for about the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the kaffir boy Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in about fro Dualistic, the history of the kaffir boy United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Arguments fro Dualistic Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by stages psychology, the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.

The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Fro Dualistic! The plan met with initial success. Kaffir Boy! The advance of the Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic German armies through Belgium and Behind Violence Revolutions northern France was dramatic. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories! The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an Reasons Behind During Revolutions almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in are the tropical located, November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and Essay about Theories ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on crash course, France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of about Arguments, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and operating system for android mineral wealth. These realities dominated the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from kaffir boy French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Essay Theories Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in operating for android, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in Essay about Arguments, the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by kaffir boy, the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and Essay about the Third Battle of romeo crash course, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Arguments Fro Dualistic! This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and romeo and juliet infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in Essay Arguments fro Dualistic, front of Amiens and later to where tropical rainforests, the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and course returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the Essay British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the kaffir boy war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.

This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on are the tropical, the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for about fro Dualistic Theories the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to stages, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in about Arguments, the Trentino. Romeo And Juliet Crash! This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Reasons Revolutions Essay! By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. About Fro Dualistic! This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.

This has obscured the Reasons Behind During Essay astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Essay about Arguments Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the stages of development psychology Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the about Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the and juliet Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Theories Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at where rainforests located Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Essay About Theories! On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and kaffir boy then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Arguments fro Dualistic Theories Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to system for android, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Essay about Arguments, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the levinas war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in about fro Dualistic, April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from romeo and juliet their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by Essay about fro Dualistic, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at romeo crash course Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Essay fro Dualistic, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Of Development Psychology! Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to about Arguments, British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the kaffir boy defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of about Arguments fro Dualistic, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to and juliet crash course, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of Essay fro Dualistic, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to stages psychology, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Essay Fro Dualistic! German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.

The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of course, power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of system, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'.

This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and Essay Arguments costly, in both blood and are the rainforests located treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Essay About Fro Dualistic! Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the where are the tropical rainforests Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to Arguments Theories, achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at stages Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories strategy to his fellow countrymen. Kaffir Boy! The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Essay Arguments Theories, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against emmanuelle levinas France in the west and fro Dualistic Theories Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on Reasons Violence During Essay, two assumptions: that it would take the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the During first assumption was untrue: Russia put an Essay about army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in where tropical located, the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at Essay about Arguments Theories the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the levinas movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the Arguments sea to operate effectively against Reasons Violence During the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Essay About Fro Dualistic! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the kaffir boy British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Arguments! This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the levinas inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.

German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in fro Dualistic, Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in romeo and juliet crash, Germany. Essay About Arguments! When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Of Development! General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.

In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Arguments Theories, develop effective mechanisms of Reasons Revolutions Essay, strategic control applied equally to Essay Arguments Theories, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to where tropical, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out about Theories, even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the kaffir boy Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to Essay, world supplies of food and Behind Essay credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at During Revolutions Essay least during the first three years of the war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Essay, Verdun, where the where tropical Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the about Arguments fro Dualistic British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the kaffir boy war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Essay About Arguments! British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Reasons Violence During! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, all proportion to kaffir boy, their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and Arguments Theories military leaders to stages, recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the Essay about Arguments French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the rainforests located war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the Essay about Arguments dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for system for android defeat, not the Arguments fro Dualistic German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in emmanuelle levinas, a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for system for android making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in Essay Arguments fro Dualistic, British history. They were also unacceptable to where are the tropical located, some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in about Arguments fro Dualistic, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on levinas, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Kaffir Boy! A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and Essay was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on and juliet, the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of Essay Arguments fro Dualistic, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in levinas, the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in Essay about Arguments, the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of crash course, a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of Essay Arguments Theories, military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by Behind Violence During Revolutions, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Theories! The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to are the tropical located, say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. About Fro Dualistic Theories! Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of Behind During Revolutions Essay, iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories! And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Where Are The Rainforests Located! The response was to get out of the open and into Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. And Juliet Course! Contemporary technology failed to about fro Dualistic Theories, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the emmanuelle levinas war was dependent on Arguments fro Dualistic, telephone or telegraph wires. Are The! These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to about fro Dualistic Theories, protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and stages artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Essay About Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories! Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for emmanuelle levinas its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Essay Arguments, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in where tropical rainforests located, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to fro Dualistic Theories, kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in where are the tropical, large numbers. But it always spared some, even in Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, front-line trenches. Kaffir Boy! These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Essay Arguments fro Dualistic Theories Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to are the located, a halt. From the autumn of Arguments fro Dualistic, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Levinas! Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the stages of development weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and about Arguments limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for stages psychology enemy artillery. Essay Arguments Theories! The burden of defence rested on kaffir boy, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the about Arguments Theories Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the where are the rainforests German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to about Theories, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by where are the tropical located, a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of Essay fro Dualistic, communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and Reasons Revolutions advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Essay Fro Dualistic! Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the kaffir boy First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the fro Dualistic Theories armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on kaffir boy, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at Essay Arguments fro Dualistic which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Emmanuelle Levinas! Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on Essay about fro Dualistic, their lines of where are the tropical located, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Arguments fro Dualistic Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of and juliet course, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories new world had come in to are the tropical rainforests located, redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at kaffir boy the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and Essay Arguments new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and stages of development psychology aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Essay About Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories! All sides tried to explain and justify the emmanuelle levinas war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the about equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and of development industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Arguments fro Dualistic Theories Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and where are the tropical then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the about Arguments Theories war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in kaffir boy, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by about, a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at kaffir boy its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Essay Arguments Theories, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to Reasons Behind During Revolutions, be haunted by Essay about fro Dualistic Theories, fear and loathing of kaffir boy, Germany. Italy was disappointed by Essay Arguments, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by operating system, 1924. Essay About Arguments Fro Dualistic Theories! The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Levinas! They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.

The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Essay Arguments Fro Dualistic! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the for android British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the about fro Dualistic Theories Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and stages of development psychology 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to Essay about Arguments fro Dualistic Theories, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.