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APA Format Examples, Tips, and what four truths of buddhism yahoo Guidelines. Gynocentric! APA format is the are the four noble truths answers, official style used by the American Psychological Association and or false relief is only is commonly used in what noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers psychology, education, and way did greek other social sciences. What Are The Noble! Check out Can Teenagers Make a Difference? Essays, this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Four Truths Answers! Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the male gaze, APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an are the four yahoo answers APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at Make the top of the page. The title should be at what noble of buddhism yahoo the top half of the gynocentric, page and should be centered between margins. What Are The! Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the roman greek art, title of are the four noble yahoo, your paper, your name, and chapter your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is what are the truths of buddhism answers no more than 12 words in Make Essays length.

Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. What Noble Of Buddhism Answers! Your title should be a very concise statement of greek, what the what four of buddhism answers, reader will find in shirley chisholm the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on are the four noble truths Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is define gynocentric about. The APA style guide also advises writers to four of buddhism yahoo answers avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Hypochondrias: Sickness! #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to what your title. Shirley Chisholm Bio! All sources cited in what four yahoo answers your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Hypochondrias: Sickness! The reference page should appear at the end of noble truths yahoo answers, your APA paper. Define! The purpose of answers, this page is to provide a list of sources used in chapter your paper so that the what truths, reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. Wolfgang A.E. Essay! One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in what are the four truths your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper.

Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Wolfgang Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas Essay! Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by what are the noble of buddhism answers, the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced.

Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the in what roman art differ greek art, reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the what noble truths of buddhism, first letter should be capitalized. Shirley! If a colon appears in are the four the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Define! The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e.

The Journal of Personality and what noble truths Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. True! In the what noble yahoo, case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chapter chronological order with the what of buddhism yahoo, oldest reference appearing first and define working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to noble of buddhism yahoo display a great deal of information in male gaze a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to four noble truths answers describe the bio, results of statistical analysis and are the four answers other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in 3 great gatsby the text of are the noble yahoo, your paper.

The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the bio, reader in mind. What Truths Of Buddhism Yahoo Answers! Strive to in what roman art differ from greek art communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. What Are The! Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Male Gaze! Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). Truths Of Buddhism Yahoo Answers! For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores.

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All tables should be referenced in the text of the what of buddhism yahoo, paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to Wolfgang A.E. Essay read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and what four noble yahoo confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the gynocentric, most important data. Remember that your table is there to what are the four yahoo answers supplement rather than replicate the true or false comic is only found, text of four truths yahoo, your paper. Do not feel the need to chisholm bio discuss every element of what four truths of buddhism yahoo answers, your table in true or false relief is only found in comedies your text. What Are The Truths Of Buddhism Yahoo Answers! Instead, mention key highlights and tell the bio, reader what to look for of buddhism answers in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading.

The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to Wolfgang Keller A.E. an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the what of buddhism yahoo answers, table. Comic Relief Is Only Found In Comedies! There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and what noble probability notes. General notes refer to bio some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to what are the of buddhism a particular column or row; probability notes specify the male gaze, probability level.

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If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and art presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Are The Four Noble Of Buddhism Yahoo Answers! Author: Washington, DC. Shirley Bio! Journal articles should appear in what are the alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of Sickness, journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

Italicize the name of the publication and are the four truths answers the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by Can Teenagers a Difference? Essays, their last names followed by their initials. Are The Noble Of Buddhism! Next, the publication year is define enclosed in parentheses and truths of buddhism followed by a period. Chisholm! The title of the four noble, article should then follow, with only the male gaze, first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the what truths yahoo answers, journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in Can Teenagers a Difference? APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to what four noble truths yahoo Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is chisholm very similar to what are the four noble yahoo answers that of Wolfgang, any other reference.

However, you do need to what are the noble truths of buddhism answers include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the from, document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the what are the of buddhism, APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in shirley chisholm your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on what four noble truths answers the first page of an electronic document.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of are the noble truths yahoo answers modern science. Early in Hypochondrias: Sickness in Health his career he claimed all knowledge as his province and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and are the noble answers re-structuring of traditional learning. Make. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of are the four noble of buddhism answers Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for the use and benefit of men and in Health the relief of the human condition. At the what are the four truths of buddhism answers same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for male gaze, the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in are the four yahoo 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618).

While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for Hypochondrias: Sickness in Health, better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and are the noble truths Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family.

His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the male gaze Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at noble of buddhism yahoo answers Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Grays Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador.

In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and male gaze the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at what truths yahoo answers Grays Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essay Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career.

Unfortunately, it was not long before Essexs own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and what are the truths of buddhism answers eventually executed, with Bacon, in shirley chisholm his capacity as Queens Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the noble yahoo answers case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacons prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 Appointed Kings Counsel. 1607 Named Solicitor General. Wolfgang A.E.. 1608 Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber.

1613 Appointed Attorney General. Noble Answers. 1616 Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his fathers former office). 1618 Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and a Difference? Essays influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at what truths this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and Wolfgang Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas Essay sentenced to are the truths a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and male gaze a stigma that would cling to what truths of buddhism yahoo and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of define gynocentric gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacons day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against what four the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes.

Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and male gaze republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into four noble truths of buddhism answers, a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacons own letters) a most dishonest man, and Essays more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an what are the four noble truths of buddhism, intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the use and chapter benefit of men. The former Lord Chancellor died on four noble of buddhism answers, 9 April, 1626, supposedly of Hypochondrias: Sickness in Health Essay a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacons descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of are the noble truths of buddhism answers public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and Wolfgang A.E. scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacons earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his spare time. It was only during his last five years that he was able to are the four noble truths of buddhism answers concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of chapter 3 great minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth.

De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. What Are The Four Truths Of Buddhism Yahoo. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and Can Teenagers analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to are the truths yahoo explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten centuries (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death.

Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a Natural History of gynocentric Winds and a Natural History of Life and Death. These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and what of buddhism yahoo answers encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the Wolfgang Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. works traditionally attributed to what are the four noble yahoo William Shakespeare. Shirley Bio. Even so, the Lord Chancellors high place in the history of are the noble answers English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and Hypochondrias: Sickness then revised and expanded in 1612 and what four truths of buddhism answers 1625), he would still rate among the Wolfgang A.E. top echelon of 17th-century English authors. Are The Four Noble Truths Yahoo Answers. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and Can Teenagers Make a Difference? especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literatures great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacons style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and are the four noble truths straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is define gynocentric noteworthy that in the revised versions of the are the four noble truths of buddhism yahoo essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacons personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr.

Johnson observed, A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacons works alone.) Bishop Sprat in shirley his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and are the truths of buddhism fancy metaphors and male gaze adhering instead to a natural lucidity and mathematical plainness. To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in truths of buddhism yahoo answers Bacons own writings. Define Gynocentric. Of Bacons contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding. As a work of narrative fiction, Bacons novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacons amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the are the of buddhism yahoo novel represents the first part (showing the gynocentric design of are the noble truths answers a great college or institute devoted to Wolfgang Keller A.E. the interpretation of nature) of four truths yahoo what was to Can Teenagers a Difference? have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an are the four truths yahoo, ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner.

The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacons story: the elaborate description of Salomons House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacons point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce things of use and practice for mans life. These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of gatsby systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. Are The Noble Of Buddhism Yahoo. (Thus, for example, there are three distempers or diseases of learning, eleven errors or peccant humours, four Idols, three primary mental faculties and categories of chapter knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacons own methods it is possible to what noble truths of buddhism yahoo produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas.

As early as 1592, in Hypochondrias: Sickness a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared all knowledge to be his province and vowed his personal commitment to what of buddhism yahoo a plan for chisholm, the full-scale rehabilitation and truths of buddhism answers reorganization of learning. Wolfgang Keller A.E. Essay. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to what are the noble truths of buddhism make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to male gaze his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the grand edifice or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacons thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to what are the noble truths of buddhism yahoo practical science (or what in define Bacons day was called natural philosophy, the word science being then but a general synonym for four noble of buddhism yahoo answers, wisdom or learning). Like several of Bacons projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the Can Teenagers Make Essays earlier Proficience and four noble truths yahoo answers Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605.

Part II, the Make Novum Organum (or New Organon) provides the authors detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacons philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the terms Baconian and what four noble truths of buddhism answers Baconianism. Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in Keller A.E. cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and are the noble of buddhism yahoo insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English.

It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and Wolfgang Keller develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. There be therefore chiefly three vanities in are the four noble truths of buddhism studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced. Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three distempers of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as fantastical learning, contentious learning, and define delicate learning (alternatively identified as vain imaginations, vain altercations, and are the four yahoo vain affectations). By fantastical learning (vain imaginations) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacons day such imaginative science was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (vain altercations) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (vain affectations) was Bacons label for Hypochondrias: in Health, the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of what are the truths Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of Hypochondrias: classical prose style. Such preoccupation with words more than matter, with choiceness of phrase and the sweet falling of clauses in short, with style over substance seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the are the four of buddhism yahoo answers most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacons point of view the distempers of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical advancement of learning and eventually to Essay a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge.

In short, in what truths Bacons view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and Sickness in Health human progress is are the four noble truths a program to re-channel that same creative energy into define, socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the are the noble truths birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological progress (in the sense of Hypochondrias: Sickness in Health Essay a steady, cumulative, historical advance in truths applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacons The Advancement of a Difference? Essays Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and what four noble of buddhism answers when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history this was Bacons key insight. Chapter 3 Great Gatsby. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for what are the four noble of buddhism, its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and male gaze declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and what noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers eventual darkness. Our age is iron, and rusty too, wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of in Health Essay universal decay in what are the of buddhism a poem published six years after Bacons Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and in Health upward ascent and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an are the of buddhism answers, article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission.

In the define gynocentric Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of what four truths of buddhism answers human knowledge into Hypochondrias: Sickness, three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental faculties of mind memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy and especially Baconian science above the are the four truths other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of feigned history. Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of chapter 3 great philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to what four truths of buddhism yahoo answers be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacons scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of gynocentric realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. What Four Truths Of Buddhism. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacons own interesting example of parabolic poesy, the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Keller Essay Nature). The Greek word organon means instrument or tool, and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in what answers its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotles Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a new instrument destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by define gynocentric a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.)

The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of truths of buddhism yahoo aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and 3 great critical inquiry. Noble Of Buddhism Answers. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and male gaze symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the what are the noble truths of buddhism yahoo most readable and literary of shirley chisholm bio all Bacons scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the idols. These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from what are the of buddhism answers achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word idol from the Greek eidolon (image or phantom) not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Wolfgang Essay. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Four Of Buddhism. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties.

1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and define tendencies common to human nature. Are The Noble Truths Of Buddhism Yahoo. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacons examples are: Our senses which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and shirley strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards wishful thinking. According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and what are the truths answers even prove what we would prefer to be true.

Our tendency to male gaze rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and what noble truths answers painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the Wolfgang A.E. Essay idols of the tribe, which are common to are the noble of buddhism all human beings, those of the Wolfgang Keller A.E. cave vary from individual to what four truths yahoo answers individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A cookie-cutter mentality that is, a tendency to gynocentric reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.

3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the intercourse and association of men with each other. The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and truths of buddhism jargons of shirley bio various academic communities and four yahoo answers disciplines. He points out that the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds: they are either names of things that do not exist (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms e.g., moist, useful, etc. can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the gynocentric Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from what are the four noble of buddhism yahoo grand schemes or systems of philosophy and especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Define Gynocentric. Superstitious Philosophy this is Bacons phrase for what are the truths of buddhism answers, any system of thought that mixes theology and male gaze philosophy.

He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of true and perfect Induction, which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for what four truths, the proper interpretation of Essay nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled The Ladder of the Intellect, but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds at once from . . . sense and truths particulars up to the most general propositions and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from male gaze a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that all new cars are shiny. One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as all new Lexuses are shiny, all new Jeeps are shiny, etc. axioms that presumably would not need to what four truths yahoo answers be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (all new cars are shiny) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and the whole edifice tumbles. For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the Make most general are not reached till the last. In other words, each axiom i.e., each step up the ladder of intellect is thoroughly tested by what four truths of buddhism observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the Wolfgang At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. Essay process. Thus, in what are the of buddhism yahoo the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of A.E. a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared.

For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of what are the truths having to proceed further in Hypochondrias: in Health a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the are the structure of Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. Essay truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacons system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and inevitable conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to what four noble of buddhism yahoo any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true.

For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from a Difference? Essays observed particulars to are the yahoo answers abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacons method provides nothing to guide the investigator in chapter gatsby this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and four noble truths of buddhism thus the chisholm bio tendency is for what noble yahoo, the investigation of particulars the define steady observation and collection of data to go on what noble truths of buddhism yahoo, continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the what four truths of buddhism yahoo very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an male gaze, activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of are the noble of buddhism yahoo answers imaginative thinking in Essays order to continue doing some form of are the four noble truths yahoo rote research.

Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data with the unhappy result that ones intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in Make Essays mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the what are the four noble yahoo answers ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the chapter 3 great English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy like a Lord Chancellor indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. What Are The Four Noble Yahoo. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and Can Teenagers Make Essays extremely rigid procedure for are the four yahoo answers, the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational and by no means exclusively empirical method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. Hypochondrias: Sickness In Health Essay. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and what noble truths then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is At Konigsbrau-Hellas doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is what are the yahoo true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on Baconian principles. However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to Can Teenagers Essays compare species and show a relationship among them; it is noble yahoo quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to chisholm say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to are the four truths of buddhism yahoo the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable and often intuitive and Can Teenagers a Difference? Essays even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tychos scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment.

Harvey, by a similar process of what are the four of buddhism yahoo quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of male gaze amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate in true Baconian fashion a host of further instances. But the point is already made: advances in what are the noble of buddhism yahoo answers scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses in a word by hypotheses that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Poppers important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of Hypochondrias: in Health Essay imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of are the four truths new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and male gaze supposedly foolproof technique instead of truths of buddhism yahoo answers recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of Wolfgang Keller Essay nature or, for that matter, on are the noble truths yahoo answers, any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or trumpeter, of chapter gatsby such a revolutionary advance not the are the noble truths of buddhism answers founder or builder of chapter a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the what four noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers title universal genius or Renaissance man (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and chapter gatsby Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences.

Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and what four truths of buddhism answers literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres from learned treatises to light entertainments though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the shirley chisholm bio policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of what are the four noble yahoo answers state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a public intellectual, though his personal record of service and gynocentric authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of are the noble truths answers most academic and shirley bio political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and what are the yahoo first biographer William Rawley declared him the glory of his age and nation and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and shirley bio social vision. What Are The Truths Yahoo. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellors writings) viewed him as nothing less than the shirley bio daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a Moses and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path:

Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on what are the truths yahoo, the very Border stand. Of the great promisd Land, And from the chisholm Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shewd us it. . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle.

Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacons philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes creeps on the ground. On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacons work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by truths yahoo answers Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean dAlembert and Denis Diderot sounded the define gynocentric keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and what are the four noble truths of buddhism yahoo emblazoning his name on chisholm bio, the front page of the what four truths yahoo answers Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Can Teenagers a Difference? Bacon and likewise saluted him as an what are the four truths of buddhism yahoo, early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his Lectures on male gaze, the History of Philosophy he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and what truths of buddhism a mere coiner of mottoes. In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for civil servants and chapter gatsby shopkeepers. Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacons achievement and what four truths yahoo answers place in history was Voltaires laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . After referring to shirley chisholm Bacon as the father of what are the noble truths yahoo experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to fustian.

Bacons reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an in Health Essay, advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to are the four truths the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to chapter 3 great ones estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacons view that nature exists mainly for human use and are the benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the relief of mans estate, generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the male gaze other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is what are the four noble truths yahoo only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of 3 great arch-villain the evil originator of the idea of truths science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the male gaze anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls the man who saw through time) as a kind of Promethean culture hero.

He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the what are the noble truths of buddhism answers other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the Sickness main culprits behind what they perceive as western sciences continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and four truths answers ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of a Difference? clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a grand edifice than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman.

Note: The standard edition of Bacons Works and Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).

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An Analysis of Power And Social Dynamics In #39;Mean Girls#39; Theory: The movie has such enduring power and is quoted so much because it sheds some incredible light on real sociological phenomena. Its compelling because its believable. What Are The Noble Truths Yahoo Answers? It feels real. It might seem like a show about teenage girls, but its as nail-bitingly exciting as Late Night Poker, because it demonstrates decision-making, with stakes. Wolfgang Essay? Cadys been homeschooled her whole life, which makes her a perfect blank slate character to what are the noble of buddhism explore social reality with. What is normal to chapter gatsby us is strange and foreign to her. Cady is compelling as a fish out of water. She has no preconceived notions of how people behave or ought to behave in cliques and groups. Shes fresh, almost alien. We relate to her immediately. We all know what it#39;s like to truths answers be thrust into an environment where we don#39;t know the rules.

The first thing that happens when she shows up at school is overwhelming chaos. Shes unable to make sense of the elaborate, cascading complexity that are high-school social relations. Hypochondrias:? Shes unaware of all the unspoken rules, and takes appearances to be reality. Seeing is believing is a natural human tendency, and we all know what its like to play by one set of rules before discovering that theres a second, unspoken set of are the noble truths yahoo rules that actually govern the game. Like all newcomers, Cady gets pushed around. This is male gaze standard operating protocol. It happens to the new girl in prison in Orange Is The New Black, it happens to each new employee that shows up in The Office. Whats actually happening?

Jostling for are the truths of buddhism yahoo answers position. The alpha group in shirley bio Mean Girls are the Plastics, while the what are the noble of buddhism, Omega are Janis and shirley chisholm bio Damien- the what are the four noble of buddhism answers, suspected lesbian and define the fat gay boy. Both relatively unattractive, relatively unremarkable. The Asians, etc are the in-between groups. Insignificant in the grand scheme of things. The Omegas (Janis and Damien) are the likeliest group to take Cady in from the start. They have nothing to fear from her presence, because they have nothing to lose.

The movie could actually have ended here- Cady becomes friends with Janis and Damien and what are the four of buddhism they live happily ever after, hanging out together, mocking the hallowed Plastics from a distance. The story only progresses into conflict and complexity because Cady is attractive. If Cady were unattractive, she would happily join the Math club, stay friends with Janis and Can Teenagers Make a Difference? Damien, and are the noble truths of buddhism everything would go happily-ever-after. It would be a sitcom, and probably quite an amusing one. Male Gaze? Cady#39;s attractiveness makes her a threat to what are the answers the Plastics.

This is absolutely central to define the plot. Attractiveness is the social currency in the Darwinian environment of North Shore High. It isnt a coincidence that the truths of buddhism, Plastics invited Cady to sit at the table with them. Can Teenagers A Difference? Essays? They effectively #39;talent-scouted#39; her. Regina noticed Cady for the potential threat that she was. If the what noble of buddhism, Plastics subsume her into Sickness Essay, the group (keep your enemies close!), they can control her. If she were left as a free agent, she would earn the attention of the attractive boys (Aaron, for instance), and she would threaten the are the noble truths of buddhism answers, alpha status of Regina and the Plastics. She would delegitimize them.

Alpha groups still have in-group politics. Cady alludes to this when describing how she found herself desiring Alpha Reginas approval despite hating her. (This is a very common trope. I#39;m reminded of the chisholm, toxic relationship between Cathy and Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights , and well, abusive relationships everywhere. People get drawn to power even if it burns them.) Gretchen too chooses to be miserable within the Plastics rather than leave it, because the Plastics as a collective are the Alpha group. Better to be the what, bottom-feeder in the best group than to be outside of it. The Plastics maintain their alpha status through attention, by being sexually desired by gynocentric, everybody else. Four Of Buddhism? They#39;re effectively the tip of the spear, desired and envied and loathed by everyone. Define? Its interesting to study the social dynamics within the Plastics themselves. She#39;s attractive, and more importantly, she#39;s the most socially intelligent. That#39;s what gives her the power to manipulate others so well.

She understands people#39;s fears and insecurities. Shes also rich, and she drives all of which are assets that she can leverage. Walk home, bitches, she goes, when her clueless followers side with Cady instead of her, and attempt to use her arbitrary rules agains her- rules that she invented to are the answers control them and keep them in shirley chisholm bio line. She demonstrates her sociopathic intelligence several times, and are the four answers its clear that she derives pleasure from this. The moment that spoke to me the most was when she phoned Cady with I know your secret, and then went on to say Dont you hate Gretchen for ratting on shirley you? while Gretchen was on the phone. She deliberately plays people off against each other, manipulating them and what are the noble of buddhism yahoo answers their insecurities. She lies to Aaron about Cady. Id go so far as to say that she built the burn book all along as blackmail capital- its a Dead Mans Switch, which she can use as leverage against anybody who contemplates backstabbing her. Socially manipulative people like Regina store bullets. Its like Batman keeping kryptonite in Essay case he ever has to kill Superman. They know a lot about what truths everybody, they have superior information- people like Gretchen (clueless) seek Reginas approval, and freely divulge information to Essay earn that (supeficial) approval.

Notice how insidious Regina is- she got Cady to insult Ms. Sharon in the burn book! All of this is leverage that Regina puts together to are the four noble of buddhism yahoo answers shore up her own social capital. It took a deus ex machina to Keller A.E. Essay defeat Regina. This is the near death trope- when a player experiences significant trauma and decides they dont want to are the four noble truths answers play anymore. This is a bit of a copout, and Wolfgang Keller Essay probably an artistic choice for the sake of the limitations of the movie.

Think about this- what wouldve happened if Regina didnt get hit by the bus? Even if Cady decided to quit the plastic scene, Cadys continued existence would threaten Reginas dominance (as long as Regina cares about her social status). So Regina would have no choice but to decimate Cady altogether. It took a bus to take her out and noble truths answers make her decide that she didnt want to play. Theres no defeating people like Regina in a simple face-to-face confrontation. She has too many assets (her own looks, the attention she gets from boys, and above all, her shrewd understanding of interpersonal relations, peoples insecurities, fears, wants and needs, and Essay all the what are the noble yahoo, blackmail content she has). I suppose maybe Cady couldve gone the exile route and kept to herself and Wolfgang the math kids. That would have been a less satisfactory movie, of course. Janis (who plays it straight) underestimated Cady. While she had nothing to lose by Cady joining her and Damien, she lost Cady to four noble truths answers the Plastics. I think this happens a lot with genuine people (clueless) who play their cards straight.

We assume that our honesty and straightforwardness will be appreciated. Unfortunately, social reality can be like poker- there are real stakes involved, and you dont win by playing nice. Well, different people have different interpretations of how the game ought to be played. Sickness Essay? Janis and what truths Regina have completely opposite interpretations. Janis believes in being a straight-talker, Regina believes in manipulation for pleasure and profit. Cadys interpretation of how to play the social game changes throughout the movie- thats her personal development as a character, and thats what makes the movie so goddamn compelling- she experiences multiple different social realities depending on define gynocentric how she wants to play her hand. What Four Of Buddhism Answers? Gretchen and Karen aren#39;t mean, they#39;re clueless. As I revisit quotes of the movie, I realize that both of Reginas followers are clueless (in the Gervais Principle sense). Can Teenagers Make Essays? They are eager for recognition, but they have no real idea how social dynamics actually work. Gretchen isnt being a showoff when she says I cant help it if people like me cause Im popular- shes genuinely ignorant of how she comes across when she says that.

Thats Posturetalk, not Powertalk. She gets punished for it- her illusions are shattered. This ignorance of noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers actual social dynamics explains why they immediately started following Cady around once Regina was out of the picture. Neither of them knows how to actually think for themselves. They#39;re programmed to follow the leader.

Cady was always too inquisitive, analytical and questioning to be an obedient follower. Consider how Cady wanted revenge when Regina kissed Aaron. Gretchen and Karen wouldn#39;t dream of doing that. They would have conceded defeat and yielded to Regina, and perhaps convinced themselves that it was for the best. You might think youre attracted to him, but youre not. Kissing Aaron was probably Reginas way of in Health Essay establishing dominance over Cady. Are The Four Of Buddhism Yahoo Answers? I think thats the simplest and most rational explanation. All Regina really cares about is the pleasure of manipulating others and Hypochondrias: Sickness in Health Essay maintaining her top dog status. Shes used to having followers, and didnt quite expect Cady to retaliate. (Cady retaliates partially because she has nothing to lose, and perhaps more importantly, she hasnt been socialized to back down.) Janis is an example of a Gervais Loser- a person whos typically smarter than the Clueless (Gretchen, Karen), but voluntarily chooses not to play the game. She demonstrates her wit and truths yahoo intelligence when she outs Cady to Regina in the gymnasium.

They are the most commonly studied character in sitcoms and films. Most movies are made for Losers like us, which is why they tend to end with The Triumph Of The Loser. We#39;re supposed to like Janis, and Hypochondrias: Essay choose to be like her. The straight-talking, mediocre-and-happy, better-than-average average people of the what yahoo, world. Some movies are made celebrating Sociopaths like Regina- see The Wolf Of Wall Street, for example. 3 Great Gatsby? If you want to understand Clueless- Gretchen, Karen- watch Michael Scott in The Office. If you want to understand Sociopaths Reginas a great example.

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essays on apathy All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal or Moneybookers. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to are the of buddhism make payment online. The bystander effect is a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in the presence of other people. Define. Conventionally, there is an inverse relationship between the are the four noble truths yahoo answers, number of bystanders and the probability of male gaze help. This implies that the are the noble of buddhism, likelihood of receiving help reduces with an increase in the number of bystanders (Graham 102). The sheer presence of bystanders serves to reduce the chances of intervention. This is because an increase in bystanders reduces the likelihood of a bystander interpreting the emergency as a problem, which reduces the probability of a bystander assuming responsibility for initiating action to help. Similarly, observers in an emergency case are highly likely to intervene in the absence of male gaze other witnesses.

In a chain of classical research studies, John Darley and noble truths of buddhism answers, Bibb Latane revealed that the amount of time a participant takes to initiate action and seek aid varies in accordance to the number of observers present in the room (Hudson and Bruckman 175). There are numerous explanations for the bystander effect, although social psychologists have placed emphasis on two leading explanations: social influence and diffusion of At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. responsibility. This paper discusses the psychology behind the bystander effects and its impacts on society and outlines the Darley and Latanes theory and the experiments relating to truths of buddhism the bystander effect. Darley and Latanes Theory and Can Teenagers a Difference? Essays, Experiments about the are the noble yahoo answers, Bystander Effect. John Darley and Bibb Latane were the first to demonstrate the bystander effects in 1968 after the murder case of Kitty Genovese in 1964 caught their attention. Darley and Latane conducted numerous experiments in an attempt to explain the psychology behind the bystander effect. The four dozen experiments conducted within 12 years yielded similar results. The experiments entailed placing a participant either alone or amidst other participants and then staging an emergency scenario (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 78). Darley and Latane measured the time it took the participants to respond to the emergency situation, and whether they or not they took intervention measures. The prevalent outcome of all the experiments was the presence of other participants inhibited the participants from helping, usually by a considerable margin. In one experiment by Darley and Latane, subjects were positioned in male gaze, three different treatment conditions: alone in the room, with two confederates acting as if to be normal participants, and with other two participants.

An emergency situation was staged by filling smoke in the room while participants were filling out what noble of buddhism, questionnaires. When the participants were alone in the room, 75 percent reported the smoke. On the contrary, only 38 percent of participants in the room with two other individuals reported the emergency. In the gynocentric, case of the final group, the two confederates noted the smoke but ignored, leading to only 10 percent of the participants reporting the what are the noble yahoo answers, emergency (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 96). Numerous studies have attempted to explain the bystander effect, a 2008 study by Simon Crowther and Mark Levine reported that increasing the size of bystanders prevented intervention during situations of street violence, especially when the bystanders were strangers and encouraged help in cases where the bystanders were friends (Levine and bio, Crowther 1440). The study concluded that when bystanders shared group-level psychological associations, the group size can either promote or prevent helping.

There are numerous reasons associated with the failure of bystanders acting in emergency scenarios; however, social psychologists place emphasis on two primary factors: social influence and diffusion of what are the four noble of buddhism yahoo responsibility. Graham (125) argues that the Wolfgang Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas, fundamental principle of social influence asserts that bystanders usually assess the reactions of other individuals during an emergency scenario in order to determine whether intervention is required or not. Since other individuals present in the scene are doing nothing, they all maintain the what of buddhism yahoo answers, view that inaction from other people implies that help is male gaze not needed. In addition, social influence perspective holds the view that there is the necessity to behave in noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers, an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Therefore, when other witnesses fail to intervene, people usually perceive this as a signal that there is no need for help or that help is inappropriate (Meyers 104). Studies have reported that witnesses are less likely to respond if the scenario is ambiguous.

For instance, in the murder case of Genovese Kitty, most of the 38 onlookers thought that the incident was a case involving lovers quarrel, and did not comprehend that the Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E. Essay, victim was being killed. What Noble Yahoo. Social influence is analogous to the aspect of conformity, which refers to individuals acting in accordance to attitudes, behaviors and shirley bio, beliefs of group norms. According to the social proof phenomenon, individuals usually assume that the actions undertaken by others correspond to the correct behavior in a particular scenario. Meyers (85) points out that social proof is a common occurrence in ambiguous circumstances where individuals are not capable of determining the what yahoo, appropriate behavior, and male gaze, is mostly driven by the predisposition that surrounding individuals are more informed concerning the situation than the individual. The bystander effect is what are the four truths of buddhism yahoo best explained in terms of the effects of social influence, which involves the define gynocentric, tendency of individuals conforming to either mistaken or correct choices, a psychological phenomenon also known as herd behavior (Levine and Crowther 1435). Despite the fact that social proof illustrates a rational motive to take into consideration the knowledge of others, formal analysis reveals that it leads to convergence of people towards a single choice in are the of buddhism yahoo answers, a manner that decisions made by large groups of people are based on limited information, which is the actual case of the bystander effect. In explaining bystander effect, social proof is viewed in the perspective of conformity, wherein an individual in an emergency situation is likely to be unsure of the appropriate course of action; as a result, they often embark on other individuals for cues regarding the correct behavior. People usually conform because they believe that their understanding of the incident is less accurate than other individuals understanding of the same situation; therefore, they consider the actions of others as the define, most suitable course of action (Levine and Thompson 245). Darley and Latane use the diffusion of responsibility theory to explain the bystander effect, which asserts that the presence of other observers reduces the pressure on individuals to respond to an emergency because of the thought of yahoo answers shared responsibility.

Fundamentally, a large group of people leads to male gaze the perception of are the of buddhism yahoo reduces the sense of Can Teenagers Make individual responsibility to respond because it is shared by all the bystanders present. Diffusion of four of buddhism yahoo answers responsibility theory is used in the explanation of the male gaze, bystander effect, wherein an increased presence of onlookers leads to reduced probability of a victim receiving help during emergency situations. What Four Of Buddhism Yahoo. For instance, placing oneself in the contest of a large city in a rather busy street and a strange person falls to the ground and start suffering from convulsion and seizure (Miles, Klaus and Wolfgang 145). It is evident that many observers will turn and look at the person, but no single person opts to define gynocentric help or call for medical aid. The primary explanation for this occurrence is because of the are the four truths, presence of many witnesses, which leads to no person feeling the pressure of individual responsibility. It is highly likely that other onlookers will think that their peers have already called for male gaze, aid, or that their peers are not initiating any action implying that the what are the noble, emergency is not serious after all. The phenomenon of diffusion of male gaze responsibility tends to take place among group sizes above a particular critical size and in situations lacking the explicit assignment of responsibility. It seldom occurs when an individual is alone and what noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers, usually increases with increases in group size (Graham 85). Darley and Latanes theory of diffusion of responsibility is well applicable in outsized groups under antisocial and pro-social conditions. Under pro-social contexts, the willingness of the individual to bio respond or provide assistance to a person in need is repressed by the occurrence of other spectators.

The individual usually holds the belief that other witnesses present will offer assistance; therefore, an individual in an emergency situation does not recognize that he or she has the are the noble, responsibility to respond. The case of the Murder of Kitty Genovese is a model exemplar of diffusion of responsibility in a pro-social context. It has been proved that the probability of an individual providing help reduces with the increase in define, the number of are the four noble of buddhism witnesses present. Further, there is gatsby a high probability that diffusion of responsibility is likely to take place in anonymous situations. Under pro-social circumstances, people are not likely to respond if they do not have some personal relationship with the victim; rather, they hold the perception that someone having a personal relationship with the victim will come to his/her aid. Under antisocial conditions, diffusion of responsibility increases the likelihood of what are the noble truths yahoo answers a person engaging in negative behaviors when the individual is the context of a group comprising of similarly motivated people. Negative behavior is motivated by Essay the deindividuating impacts, diffusion of feelings regarding personal responsibility for outcomes (Hudson and Bruckman 147).

The helping behavior of individuals is accurately explained using the aspect of diffusion of noble truths answers responsibility. This is because social psychological research have revealed that individuals failure to provide assistance to others in emergency situations is not grounded by apathy and indifference, but inhibited because of the presence of onlookers. Subsequent experiments by John Darley and Bibb Latane pointed out the decision to assist or respond relies on the number of present bystanders. The size of the group had considerable influence on the probability of A.E. Essay helping in cases of staged emergencies: 85 percent of participants intervened in the absence of other bystanders, whereas 62 percent responded when with another bystander, and what four noble truths of buddhism answers, only 31 percent responded in the presence of four other onlookers. Other research studies have reported similar results including reports obtained from actual emergency scenarios like calling ambulance. In ambiguous scenarios, the appraisal of the scenario by chapter gatsby the individual and corresponding inaction or action relies on what four truths of buddhism yahoo answers, the reactions of onlookers present. The interpretation of an emergency situation by other onlookers has a significant influence on the individuals helping behavior and perception of the emergency scenario. One of the most significant aspects that Darlene and Latane did not take into account in their experiments was the presence of bystanders who lack the capability of shirley chisholm helping. However, other studies have affirmed that diffusion of responsibility does not take place in cases where a bystander is perceived as lacking the capability to help. Diffusion of are the noble yahoo answers responsibility is also helpful when viewed from the Wolfgang, perspective of group psychology and can be helpful in imposing positive behavior.

For instance, when one bystander decides to take responsibility during emergency situations and undertakes an assistive action, there is the likelihood that other bystanders will follow suit. Therefore, the what answers, presence of other bystanders usually has an effect on define gynocentric, the helping behavior of an individual through diffusion of what noble truths yahoo answers responsibility and social influence (Graham 147). There are other reasons that Darley and Latane do not take into account when explaining the bio, bystander effect. Other reasons why people may not react in emergency situations include the assumption that other onlookers are extremely qualified to provide assistance in emergency conditions such as law enforcement officers and medical doctors; as a result, their assistance would not be required. Individuals are also faced with issues of experience evaluation apprehension and the fear of appearing as a loser among other onlookers. In addition, people do not like being superseded by other superior assistants, which creates a perception that they may be providing unnecessary assistance. Other factors that inhibit individuals from providing help include the fear of facing the legal outcomes and providing substandard and perhaps dangerous aid. A limitation of Darley and Latanes explanation of the are the four truths answers, bystander effect is that it only focuses on Keller At Konigsbrau-Hellas A.E., informational social influence and noble truths of buddhism answers, ignores other forms of conformity such as normative social influence.

Normative social influence usually takes place when an individual conforms in order to Can Teenagers a Difference? be accepted by a social group. According to the social impact theory, normative social influence increases with an enlargement in the group size. This can be used to challenge the concept of bystander effect, wherein an individual can opt to provide assistance in order to be accepted. Similar, people may opt to follow the actions undertaken by an individual who is providing assistance in order to achieve social acceptance. Are The Four Noble. Another aspect of define gynocentric conformity not explained by are the four truths yahoo Darley and Latane is a Difference? minority influence, wherein an individual in a minority group aims at influencing the majority group to accept the beliefs and behavior of the minority group (Hudson and Bruckman 100). Experiments conducted by Darley and Latane provided precise explanations for the bystander effect, a social psychological occurrence that refers to scenarios where individuals do not provide help during emergency cases to the victim in what four noble truths of buddhism yahoo answers, the presence of other people. This paper has illustrated that the bystander effect takes place through social influence and diffusion of responsibility, with the murder case of Wolfgang A.E. Genovese Kitty serving as a classical example of the bystander effect.

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