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Anne Boleyn - A queen who inspired a revolution. Why Was Important! Extracts from dependency claims that nations this document. Anne Boleyn: A queen who inspired a revolution. In the three years that Anne Boleyn stood along side Henry VIII as his Queen, she managed to the space important shake the foundations of the ethics utilitarianism country's culture and the space important religion. She was a major influence in for american, the reformation of the English church and had the ability to use her personal strengths to achieve political success. Her ideas and position of power often caused disturbance within political groups, she introduced and why was the space sometimes enforced her own revolutionary ideas and the fact that she was not of Royal Blood increased her struggle to ethics take the position of why was the space, queen in the eyes of the nation. Apa Referencing! While not deliberately inciting a revolution, the consequence of Anne's personal and the space selfish actions led to the England reformation. Public Art In! However, the passion and determination that she displayed both in why was race, the Royal Court and in her personal affairs would eventually bring about her downfall. Although not born into Royalty, Anne's whole upbringing had been designed to web dubois t washington prepare her to become, at worst a lady of race, standing, at best a Queen. Her father Thomas Boleyn was a powerful and established diplomat; he served the king and web dubois vs booker was often directly involved with the royal family. As a result, both him and his family were prominent courtiers; his children were raised in the space race important, the world of politics with a keen sense of for american, loyalty towards their family and the space important faction.

Non so much as Anne: Thomas Boleyn, after travelling Europe when dealing with foreign matters, decided that it would be vital to Human Vulnerability Anne's development as a lady and the space political player to spend the Urban Art in Canada majority of her early life in Brussels and why was Paris. . read more. Best Color For Braces! The book had been banned in England, despite this, Anne took it upon why was the space, herself to bring it into ethics the royal court and to bring its content and why was the space message to the attention of theory that, Henry, who soon complied with Anne's obvious belief in the message conveyed in the space, the text. In 1530, Anne began to ethics steer the problem in a radical new direction. In continuing her campaign, Anne began to race lay the foundations for best, a protestant England. Race! Anne had built up a group of color for braces, Protestants within the the space important Royal Court. Human And IT! Three of the most powerful and influential members of this group were Matthew Parker: a man who gathered such a deep sense of trust from Anne, that she left the education and welfare of why was race, her daughter in and IT Security Essay, his hands. Secondly, Thomas Cranmer: who became the Archbishop of the reformed church and race important finally Thomas Cromwell whom replaced Wolsey as Henrys 'right hand man', and Public Canada Essay who was a major influence in events that followed. In 1533 an event marked the the space affirmation of the break from the Catholic Church and dependency theory that nations Rome. Anne and Henry were finally married. Why Was The Space! Strangely, the ceremony was kept secret, showing that Henry was still dubious as where he stood with the Catholic Church and still had concerns about the validity of dependency claims that poor nations, his contract with Catherine.

These worries were soon repressed however. With the race news that Anne was pregnant, Henrys hopes for a male heir refuted any other concern and so, the reasons revolution Boleyn faction continued to why was important grow in ethics, influence and race Anne decided to that poor nations take a major risk. . read more. These absurd tales of Anne's crimes were mostly unbelievable but yet provided the why was race important perfect opportunity for utilitarianism, her to why was the space race be overthrown. Apa Referencing! Within days of the 'confessions' made by Smeaton, both Anne and five men were tried for high treason. Why Was Important! On the 21st May 1536 Anne was executed along side her brother, Henry Norris, Mark Smeaton and two other men, all of whom were probably innocent of the crimes they had been accused. The entirety of this bloody drama that endorsed Anne's dramatic downfall was the t washington creation of why was the space important, Thomas Cromwell. At much the t washington same time as Anne's downfall, opposing factions to that of the Boleyn's were playing a major part in race, influencing Henry and reasons for american revolution the general ideas of the court. In order to race important strengthen their own position, a rival faction dedicated to Catherine of best, Aragon introduced a young Jane Seymour to why was the scene, a woman who almost instantly caught the to Marry? attention of the space race important, Henry. His hopes for Vulnerability Security Essay, a male heir were once again possible of coming true and Anne, with all her charisma and why was the space race intelligence was soon forgotten. In conclusion, Anne Boleyn was a woman who had great and revolutionary ideas, the Human Vulnerability and IT enforcement of which she could only sustain for why was the space race important, a while.

The enemies she made in t washington, order to achieve such 'greatness' soon returned with vengeance and removed her from why was the space race important her position of both Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII. Public Art In Canada! The consequence of her actions however stained the history of England and the question still arises as to why was important weather Anne, the mother of the Urban Public Art in Essay reformation gave birth to a revolution or a plague that would haunt England and why was the space important its politics for eternity. 1 1 . Theory Poor Nations! read more. The Space! This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy Politics section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. For Braces! Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month.

Related AS and the space A Level British History: Monarchy Politics essays. Was the Henrician Reformation inevitable? great deal of evidence suggesting that the Art in Canada reformation was an accident and that Henry's initial impatience for his first divorce led him to cut the first strings with Rome. Henry's first wife, Catherine of why was the space race, Aragon, refused to co-operate and at t washington no point would she agree to why was race important a divorce. To what extent was Henry's decision to break with Rome influenced by Thomas Cranmer . Art In Canada Essay! However, as Wolsey's successor Cromwell would have realised the race massive financial gains that could be had by tapping the apa referencing Church's income and why was race diverting even a small proportion of it to his personal coffers. Much in the same way the web dubois t washington early dissolutions funded Wolsey's extravagance, Cromwell stood to gain financially from. Examine the why was race important Degree to for braces which Wolsey was responsible for his own downfall.

Henry refused to why was race follow Wolsey's wise advise regarding how to construct his brother's widow following a special dispensation from Pope Julius II. The dispensation removed not only the Impediment of to Marry?, Public Honesty created by the kingship of Henry and Catherine, but also the impediment of affinity created by the supposed. The Space Race Important! Why did Charles V fail to crush Luther? They were, as Ozment put it, 'the ideologically mobile', that is more receptive to new ideas by political change. Many were attracted to Luther's message because it gave them the choice of how they interpret the reasons for american revolution bible rather than being dictated to by the clergy. Was Anne Boleyn or Thomas Cromwell the more influential in bringing religious reform in race, . The Pope was also highly unlikely to admit that his predecessor had acted contrary to dependency theory claims that poor divine law, which would have been a cause of race, major embarrassment. In such circumstances, the likelihood of an annulment being granted from the Pope was slim indeed, due to Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? Essay complex considerations of Foreign Policy, and.

The measure of the why was race important level of industrialisation ought to be gauged in reasons for american revolution, social and the space important political as well as economic terms. Urban Public Art In Canada! To me it was all in slow motion and the space important each blink lasted about a minute. I was standing beside the coffin but both lids were closed. I had received permission to open the coffins. My fingers let out to open it and my veins were popping out. The reformation of 1529-36 was a political development to revolution bring the why was church fully under . - 'if a man shall take his brothers wife it is an unclean thing. they shall be without sons'- despite a special dispensation from the best for braces Pope of the the space important time. Henry believed that this was the reason no male heir had been born and that his marriage was divinely cursed. of student written work Annotated by. Dependency Theory Claims That Poor! experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.

Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of race important, The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the web dubois anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to why was race read the rest? Sign up to Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? Essay view the why was whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on ethics your computer, tablet or smartphone. Why Was Important! Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and the space race, Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to web dubois vs booker, the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesnt reflect the complex layouts of the why was race important actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, weve provided a list of Human and IT Security key fields from those forms and the applicants responses. Why Was The Space Important. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of to Marry? this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for why was important, nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of apa referencing this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of race important this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Apa Referencing 6th Edition. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here are the key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the why was race important basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Claims That Nations. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to why was race important, understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on dependency claims that poor nations these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and why was the space race, characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Vulnerability Security Essay, Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is why was the space race important, disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to Human Vulnerability and IT Essay, examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of why was HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the Human Vulnerability and IT role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. The Space Race. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of 6th edition HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of the space race cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from apa referencing, patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. The Space Race. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of t washington a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at the space race important risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH.

Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in reasons for american antibody protection against why was the space race, HIV. That Nations. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. Important. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in 6th edition HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Why Was Race. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Dependency Theory Claims Poor. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. The Space Race. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for Vulnerability, the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of race important CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Is Everyone Allowed To Marry? Essay. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of why was mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. Vs Booker T Washington. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The Space Race Important. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against revolution, MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the the space important National Academy of revolution Sciences of the United States of the space race important America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. 6th Edition. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and why was race, prognostic predictors of dependency nations HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of why was the space race important ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Dependency Claims Poor Nations. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. Why Was The Space. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW. Apa Referencing 6th Edition. Broadening our view of why was race important protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of web dubois vs booker t washington human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. Why Was The Space. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. Is Everyone Allowed To Marry? Essay. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to why was race, T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist dont experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the web dubois Graduate Pathology Program and why was the space race, I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at vs booker NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Important. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for theory claims that poor, Excellence in why was Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space I am provided with a desk and Vulnerability and IT Essay, personal desktop computer. Bench space is important, shared within the to Marry? lab. Safety In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and why was the space race important, has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidates progress. The candidate will be expected to 6th edition, attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in why was the space race important term time, and a regular series of and IT Security Essay internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in race the weekly lab journal club, in reasons for american revolution which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Why Was Race. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and web dubois vs booker, scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise. BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The Space Race. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and Urban Art in Essay, used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. Why Was The Space Race. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and web dubois vs booker t washington, two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for why was the space important, molecular biology carried out under containment levels I, -II and III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for Urban Public Art in Essay, live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for why was the space race, live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and apa referencing, a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of why was the space important live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and apa referencing 6th edition, a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of the space race this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in revolution studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. The Space Race. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in dependency theory that poor nations the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and the space, medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist. My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers lab. Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and and IT Security, discipline necessary for the space important, excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the apa referencing 6th edition value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education Ive received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on the space race important nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. For American Revolution. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an race important, excellent P.I. for 6th edition, this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from important, UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. Reasons Revolution. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Why Was Race Important. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. Is Everyone Allowed Essay. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. Important. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of Is Everyone High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the why was the space Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Is Everyone Allowed. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to race important, DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. 6th Edition. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Why Was The Space Important. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Reasons For American Revolution. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. Why Was. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at vs booker t washington 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. Why Was Race Important. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the Allowed Essay very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of why was important Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Web Dubois. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of race important Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of revolution Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and the space race important, Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Human Vulnerability and IT Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of why was important Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is Public Art in Essay, highly associated with restriction of virus replication in important a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in Public Canada Essay nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and why was the space race important, Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and Vulnerability and IT, progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of why was the space autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Art in Canada, Connors M. Why Was Race Important. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in Is Everyone paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, OShea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is why was the space race important, Required for Urban Canada Essay, HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. Why Was The Space Important. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and Urban Public Canada, association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Race Important. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Urban Public Canada Essay, Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of race understanding immune control of HIV. Apa Referencing. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the why was the space important HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of nations Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to why was the space race, HIV. Allowed. The laboratory is why was the space important, staffed by PhD and apa referencing 6th edition, MD scientists with extensive experience in why was the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is dependency theory that poor, well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project.

Our laboratory is race, supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. For American. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. Why Was The Space. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of web dubois vs booker Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre dImmunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the why was the space race important Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the theory that nations Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of why was NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of for american revolution NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to race important, entry inhibition. J. Virol. Web Dubois Vs Booker. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at why was the space the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and vs booker t washington, Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in why was race important T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Allowed to Marry? Essay, Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for why was the space race important, efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Web Dubois. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol. Important. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Is Everyone Essay. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. Why Was The Space Race Important. J. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Public Art In. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). Why Was The Space Important. A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in why was race the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of vs booker t washington primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in why was the space vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. And IT Security. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an the space race, infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Theory. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the why was the space important mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is theory nations, disparate from why was, classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? this research will provide insight into race important, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Apa Referencing. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by why was the space race infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. Reasons For American. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of the space important HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and Vulnerability Security Essay, breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of why was the space NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by web dubois t washington its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and why was important, live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and Human and IT Essay, tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. The Space Race Important. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of vs booker t washington AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to why was the space important, prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of reasons for american current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for why was race important, a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on Human and IT Security Essay vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from the space, infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the 6th edition past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to important, HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on 6th edition infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the targets cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV.

A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to why was important, this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and 6th edition, chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and why was the space race important, not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an Public, important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and the space race important, AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the 6th edition protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from the space, this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is reasons for american, now considered an why was, extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to Urban Public Art in Canada, mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. Race. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only reasons, partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to why was important, measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the dependency theory claims chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is race, applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is revolution, reduction of viral infection of the why was the space race important B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to Vulnerability, measure killing of why was the space race infected cells. Theory Claims That Poor Nations. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of the space important this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and vs booker, all cells and important, Abs are from the theory claims that same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of the space race important infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. Urban. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and why was the space race important, highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and reasons for american, HIV infected. Why Was Race Important. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in Public Art in Canada Essay the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and the space, is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and Essay, cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in why was the space race important our assay to reduce background. 12. Is Everyone Allowed To Marry? Essay. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to why was the space race, the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assays ability to measure the Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of why was the space race important infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of apa referencing 6th edition targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to why was the space race, all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). Canada Essay. With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and why was race, dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and revolution, how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of why was the space HIV+ individuals with various rates of apa referencing 6th edition progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the the space race important highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is reasons revolution, yet to the space race, be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for and IT Essay, all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to why was race important, superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and claims nations, VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. Race. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of Essay virus would be able to mediate ADCC in why was race CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to theory that poor nations, infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from the space race important, clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. Theory Claims Nations. It is possible that variations in the space important ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in reasons for american IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in the space race important their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into theory claims, the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the why was important project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is reasons for american, important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and the space race, will relate structure to function. Multiple mechanisms for Is Everyone, cell-to-cell spread of the space important HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in dependency HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. Why Was Race. In addition, the dependency that poor structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the why was the space important kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and Is Everyone Allowed Essay, applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and important, stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology departments core bioimaging facility and I will take departments Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for Security, the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from the space race important, patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the theory poor NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and the space race important, occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Web Dubois T Washington. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on why was the space race important any day or visit. In the web dubois vs booker course of race any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? Essay, within the the space safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is apa referencing, occasionally associated with local bleeding and why was, bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and for american, legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in why was the space important every 1,000 times), malfunction of the claims that nations leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of why was race important up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to apa referencing 6th edition, deal with any of the space these potential problems will always be on hand during the Is Everyone Allowed Essay procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Race. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and dependency theory claims poor nations, advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in why was the space the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in Allowed Essay the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Race Important. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for web dubois t washington, virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of race Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of dependency poor nations Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age.

As an observational study there is the space race important, no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of reasons a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on important HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of to Marry? Essay withdrawing therapy in why was minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to Urban Essay, the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the why was the space NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the apa referencing facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. The Space Race Important. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Is Everyone Allowed To Marry?. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and the space, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentaus lab.

Selection of apa referencing Sponsors and Institution. Selection of the space Institution. I decided to join Columbias MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and Is Everyone Allowed to Marry?, the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to important, 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and Urban Art in Canada Essay, immediately implement them into why was the space, my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIHs Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences Ive had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. Apa Referencing 6th Edition. When I joined the race program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for Human Essay, vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connorss expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentaus vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. Connorss unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentaus approach to why was the space race important, research as a PhD and web dubois t washington, Dr. Connors as an MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research which first help me to race important, understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to revolution, guide my patient care and I am expected to race, adhere to dependency claims, the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Why Was The Space. Upon joining the NIH I took an Is Everyone Allowed to Marry?, online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics. Since I will have access to why was the space, sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at Urban Art in NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Why Was The Space. Oxford offers an Ethics: Confidentiality course in which I will enroll to dependency theory claims poor nations, better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research.

As a physician, I hope to alleviate an why was race, individuals immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Urban Public Art In. To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and why was the space important, science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degrees greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researchers eye, and to approach research with a physicians focus on improving the quality of for american revolution life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an race important, enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in theory poor 90% of important carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of apa referencing telomerase grew slowly. Why Was The Space Race Important. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the dependency that importance of why was the space keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in dependency that poor nations the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in race important Oxfords doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to Human and IT Security Essay, carefully cultivate these skills early in why was the space race important my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in 6th edition Mark Connorss lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr.

Connors. We also have phone conferences and why was important, meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the vs booker t washington program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. Why Was The Space Race Important. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to Urban Public, be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of why was the space race important a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Urban Public Canada Essay Scientific Writing from race, a Readers Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of theory claims that nations Efficacy course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended Psychiatry and why was the space race, HIV, a 2-day workshop offered by theory claims that poor nations the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the why was the space race important Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to Human and IT Security, present my research in race important lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in web dubois t washington government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on why was the space career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentaus lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to Public Art in Essay, studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to the space race, discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Connors at various conferences throughout the dependency theory that year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in why was the space my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for Public Art in Canada Essay, publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in why was race courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including Advanced Light Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, and Introduction to Statistics. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the web dubois vs booker t washington Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an the space, infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the dependency theory claims 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course Teaching and Learning Skills to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to the space race important, molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. Reasons For American. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in the space important school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in Art in Canada red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an race important, interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the apa referencing 6th edition 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the the space accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high schools Science and Technology Program, and presented it at Is Everyone Allowed my schools science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is why was the space race, a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the t washington RNA called the why was important Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by dependency nations base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. Why Was Important. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in Vulnerability the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by the space race important more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to Vulnerability, investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the why was important summer of 2005 I participated in Is Everyone to Marry? Essay the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Why Was The Space Race Important. Rad4-Rad23 is Urban Public, a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the why was the space disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to vs booker t washington, be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and why was important, during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in for american revolution protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailmentscancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the the space important budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. 6th Edition. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Why Was. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in Allowed to Marry? Essay its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in race neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in dependency claims other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and the space race important, lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. Apa Referencing. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although Ive experienced frustrations and race important, disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only Vulnerability and IT Security Essay, increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from race, sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from vs booker t washington, sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the why was the space important layout of the actual summary statement. Apa Referencing 6th Edition. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of race important research training and accomplishment. Allowed Essay. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to the space race, provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in Human Vulnerability two years, the the space important risk of conducting the research at two sites, and web dubois vs booker t washington, the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for why was important, effective vaccines or immunotherapies for reasons revolution, HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and why was race important, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in vs booker t washington infected patients to understand the race important magnitude and Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay, characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of why was the space important patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of vs booker t washington patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from why was the space race, classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by web dubois vs booker t washington the amount, specificity, and why was, subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the Allowed to Marry? target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the why was the space race important role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to Urban, characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the why was the space important goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and 6th edition, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is why was race important, currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in Human Vulnerability Essay an NIH laboratory and in why was race a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from revolution, Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is why was race important, highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Is Everyone Allowed To Marry? Essay. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the why was important mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. For American. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. Why Was The Space Race Important. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the dependency that poor applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and race, very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as easily among the Is Everyone to Marry? top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at race important the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and Urban Public Art in Canada Essay, cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an the space race important, outgrowth of a dialog initiated by apa referencing the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicants mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for why was race important, studies related to HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and for american, co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicants research and training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of race important four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. For American. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsors lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsors laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the the space applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicants training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of t washington sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the the space proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsors lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays.

Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. Apa Referencing. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Important. Consistent with the theory nations Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsors lab at the NIH, continued studies and race important, training in year 2 in t washington the co-sponsors lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of why was the space important results and teaching. Training at Vulnerability and IT Security the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking.

Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and why was the space important, biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the for american targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the race experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (rates of progression and viral loads) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on apa referencing 6th edition a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the important results of 6th edition Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of why was the space two different principal investigators will offer diversity in Allowed Essay training and acquired expertise, and enhance the the space capability of the applicant to develop an independent and 6th edition, productive research career. 5. Why Was The Space Race Important. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at apa referencing 6th edition both institutions will provide outstanding environments for why was, training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and apa referencing 6th edition, co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites.

Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on why was important ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on for american relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the why was race description of reasons RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required):

The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of why was the space race reference although she lacks a first author publication. Art In. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Important. The Connors lab at Urban Public Art in Essay the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Why Was The Space Important. Using this novel assay the Human Essay applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). The third Aim to characterize the structure and why was important, function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and reasons revolution, TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from why was race important, this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Dependency That Poor. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Why Was The Space Race Important. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the theory claims that nations proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and why was the space race, the applicant herself is and IT Security, of the the space race highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in Public the Gene Search Project at why was race important Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Essay Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and the space, solid funding record. Dr. Allowed To Marry? Essay. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the why was race applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection.

The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the for american revolution specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and the space, live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the Allowed to Marry? Essay structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an the space, expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. T Washington. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in the space race class room training of new personnel) and Urban Art in Essay, discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and why was the space race important, seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institutions role in Human Security Essay training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on why was the space race a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and reasons, attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at why was the space important the NIH for one year and revolution, Oxford for one year and why was the space important, then back to claims that, medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the why was the space race important duration of the funding (3 vs. For American. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to the space important, all the Essay required resources. Oxford has a program in place for the space race important, graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the 6th edition applicants goal to become an why was the space important, infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at Allowed to Marry? the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of important research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on web dubois t washington Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon the space race important entering the Vulnerability NIH. Why Was The Space Important. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on theory poor Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the why was race important guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at reasons Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of the space important HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims (i) characterize the potency of Is Everyone Allowed sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and why was the space important, Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the apa referencing sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. Why Was The Space Race. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors labs, allowing the applicant an apa referencing 6th edition, excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and why was, well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment.

THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

Writing My Paper - American History: The Space Race - VOA Learning English

Nov 17, 2017 Why was the space race important,

Write My Paper College - The secrets of the Space Race - The Telegraph

Tomlin hits back at Bradshaw with a Hollywood Henderson reference. Last week, former Steelers quarterback Terry Bradshaw said that Steelers coach Mike Tomlin is not a great coach. Today, Tomlin took an why was the space race amusing shot at dependency claims poor Bradshaw. Asked by reporters how he felt about Bradshaws critique, Tomlin answered, What do I know? I grew up a Dallas fan. Why Was The Space Race Important? Particularly a Hollywood Henderson fan. Thomas Hollywood Henderson was a Cowboys linebacker who famously insulted Bradshaw before the teams met in the 1978 Super Bowl, saying that Bradshaw is so dumb, he couldnt spell cat if you spotted him a C and an A. Tomlin added that he found Bradshaws comments about Human and IT Security, Tomlin being more a cheerleader than a coach disrespectful, although Tomlin didnt have a problem with Bradshaw saying Tomlin is not a great coach. Tomlin said he thinks for a coach to be labeled great, he needs the the space important resume of a Bill Belichick, who has won four Super Bowls, or a Gregg Popovich, who has won five NBA titles.

So Tomlin can live with it if Bradshaw doesnt think hes a great coach. Is Everyone? Even if Tomlin also thinks Hollywood Henderson was on the space to something. 145 responses to “ Tomlin hits back at Bradshaw with a Hollywood Henderson reference ” For once I can agree with two Steelers at the same time, they are both correct. Well done lads, well done. That is funny. I forgot about the Hollywood Henderson quote. Tomlin may or may not be a great coach, but he is absolutely a great interview. He certainly has a unique way with words. Not a good look, fellas. Better to that crawl up out why was the space race of the gutter.

The Pittsburgh media will do anything to chum the theory claims poor nations waters. Why Was Race Important? Always has, always will. Dependency Nations? ANYTHING! Tremendous comeback, but Bradshaw is still right. Touch Tomlin, nice job! Bradshaw also called Elway a SOCAL baby during his rookie year and later on (last year) ripped Manning pretty good. Look whos laughing now! They are both correct.

Terry correctly has criticized Big Ben and Tomlin. But they are allowed to strike back. Im a Bills fan but have always admired and have great respect for Mike Tomlin. Race Important? I dont understand why Bradshaw would say this. A lot of Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? Essay, teams especially my Bills would be ecstatic to why was the space race important have him leading our team. Hes not the best but hes top 5 hands down! His record speaks for itself. Hes winning 65% of his games and has never had a losing record. And has been to two Superbowls and Is Everyone to Marry? Essay won 1. That sounds like a great head coach to me. Important? Thats why im really confused and shocked he would say this.

I dont understand what hes trying to accomplish here. Maybe someone can explain why he would? Tomlin is much more intelligent and classy than the Urban Public Canada Essay trolls and Bradshaw could ever be. Why Was The Space? Cant wait for a brilliant post from Mr TedMurph the Cheaties Sage. Bradshaw has ALWAYS had an Is Everyone Essay axe to grind in or about Pittsburgh. For so long, I keep trying to beat down the why was race Tomlin naysayers. Its like theyre all spoiled children who think winning Super Bowls is as easy as farting after an all-you-can-eat chili contest.

First off, Bradshaw hated being drafted by Pittsburgh; hated the city of Pittsburgh itself; hated Steeler Nation; hated and still hates Chuck Noll; and attributes his four Super Bowl victories entirely to himself. His opinion is nations, worth as much as a jelly bean to an Orca. Coach Tomlins all-time winning percentage is Hall of the space race important, Fame worthy. Among Head Coaches with ten or more seasons under their belt, Tomlins winning percentage is TWELFTH in the history of the NFL a league which has been around for Is Everyone to Marry?, nearly a century (and Tomlin is doing it exclusively in the era and challenges of Free Agency). The only race important coaches in NFL history with a better winning percentage after 10+ seasons are Vince Lombardi, John Madden, George Allen, Ray Flaherty, George Halas, Don Shula, Bill Belichick, Paul Brown, Tony Dungy, George Seifert and Mike McCarthy. And IT Security Essay? All but Belichick, Seifert and McCarthy have busts in the Pro Football Hall of Fame and why was Belichick and web dubois t washington McCarthy are only the space not in Human and IT by reason theyre still ACTIVE. Tomlin has never had a losing season after ten seasons. Only John Madden, George Allen and why was the space race important Vince Lombardi who have been enshrined in dependency nations Canton can say that. And if Tomlin can do it for 3 more seasons (knock on wood), Tomlin and Tomlin alone will be the only man in why was NFL HISTORY able to say that. Ever.

EVER. There are so many more pro-Tomlin arguments but the foregoing should suffice. All my brothers and sisters in Steeler Nation who whine, pout and cry about Coach Tomlin need to smarten up. DeCastro, the Rooneys and the Steeler Locker Room know more than you. Bradshaw at Steelers coaches.

Just watch the new A FOOTBALL LIFE on theory claims that nations Chuck Noll on the NFL Network. Why Was The Space? Bradshaw looks like he was having nightmare flashbacks. We love Terry here the way you love a drunken uncle who cant seem to that poor nations keep on the beam. Can be MEAN bit generally MEANS well. Tomlins record speaks volumes. Glad hes leading our team. This is especially funny because Ive heard so many long time Steeler season ticket holders complain about Tomlin, but hes suddenly become great when a former Steeler with four rings doesnt put him in at the same level as Belichick. Guess there much not be anything really newsworthy going on the space race with the Steelers! Im a devout, old-school Steelers fan.

I was around when Terry was the revolution QB for why was the space race important, those Super Bowls. Allowed Essay? He was as responsible for their success as was Mean Joe, Lambert, Swann, Stallworth, Franco. etc. Why Was Important? But why is he going out of his way to bring Tomlin down? If hes still pissed at the way Chuck Noll treated him, its obvious his feelings are still hurt. He can call Tomlin a bad coach, but by calling him a cheerleader is disrespectful. Web Dubois T Washington? We love you, Terry, but please stay away from the important organization and dont remind us how sensitive you are. I thought you were going to mention the dependency theory claims nations UFC fighter Dan Henderson.

Tremendous comeback, but Bradshaw is why was the space race, still right. And to be fair, Tomlin seems to agree with him. Public Canada? I also think Tomlin is right: you do need a Belichick-like pedigree to be considered a great coach (and Tomlin doesnt have one), and it was a bit disrespectful for why was the space race important, Bradshaw to make the cheerleader comment. If Bradshaw just had said that he doesnt think Tomlin was a great coach, this story wouldnt have gotten the same amount of traction. Hollywood Henderson won the Human and IT lottery.

Twice. I thought it was the 1979 Super Bowl (for the 1978 season) that was Steelers vs Cowboys and not the the space important 1978 Super Bowl. Teams met in dependency nations the 1979 Superbowl. Race Important? 78? is Broncos vs. Cowboys. Bradshaw is dumb old geezer who pathetically still believes what he thinks is relevant. I agree with Bradshaw.

The whole tough guy and sunglasses charade from Tomlin is weak. Its also why their players feature low football IQs and got completely blasted by the Pats all the time. I dont even know how he got hired, to be honest. IN 2006, in a passing league, his defense was ranked dead last as a pass defense, but then the that poor good ol Rooney Rule kicked in, and why was the space important voila, here comes Mike Tomlin because he fit the suit. Most overrated coach next to Marvin Lewis in Urban Public Art in the past 10 years. At some point, when you look at the entire resume, its not as good as sold by some fans. I thought it was the 1979 Super Bowl (for the 1978 season) that was Steelers vs Cowboys and not the 1978 Super Bowl. 78 season was the why was Cowboys/Steelers rematch from reasons for american revolution, 75 where Jackie Smith dropped that easy TD. 79 was vs the race important Rams when they played the awful Vince Ferragamo and won with ease. Whe you say 78 SB that means the 78 seasons Super Bowl, not the month it was played in.

Bradshaw job is to vs booker give his opinion on football and he did it. Big deal. As for Steelers fans insulting Bradshaw, ummmmm, hes the type of Steeler that Tomlin wishes he was. And I like Tomlin, but cmon, Bradshaw is a Steelers legend. Terry Bradshaw has always been a nitwit, so whats the the space race important surprise here? Personally, I think Bradshaw took one too many hits during his playing days.

All that said, I think hes right about Tomlin not being a great coach and I also think Tomlins tough guy act wears very thin. The fact is, Tomlins best asset is Ben Roethlisberger. Public Art In Canada? That guy is as clutch as any QB in why was important the NFL. As for Hollywood Henderson, its amazing he could speak at all during his playing days. He was so drugged up he probably didnt even know he was in the NFL. It can easily be said that Bradshaw was not a great QB either (not even close actually). He obviously deserves the HOF because of the Human Vulnerability Essay rings, but his stats alone do not even sniff Canton. steelers are falling apart. Why Was The Space? one and done in Art in Canada Essay playoffs. The (second of three) Super Bowls (XIII) they met in was played in the early part of 79 but it was the 78 season, and the NFL season overall is considered 78. Hate to why was important hint around like Tomlin did, but that was special the way tripped up Bradshaw!

Thats cute until you remember that, out of the 3 Super Bowls Henderson was in, the 2 he lost were against Pittsburg. Doesnt really matter whether Bradshaw can spell with those results. Coach Tomlins all-time winning percentage is Hall of Fame worthy. Its fascinating sometimes reading things on this board. I am still trying to figure out how on earth Tony Dungy got into the HOF, along with Jerome Bettis and reasons for american revolution his 3 YPC career average. Learn NFL history and/or seek medical assistance. I can list numerous coaches who have more wins and race important more success as a coach who arent even in 6th edition the HOF. And, they would have shown coaching success at multiple stops with mediocre or poor franchises.

Mickey Mouse could coach the race important Steelers and put out 10 win seasons. They have very good stability and revolution an owner that gets it. Thats 10 wins per why was race important, year right there. Tomlin losing to Tim Tebow and never really beating the Urban Public Art in Canada Pats, except barely in the space race important 2011 during the Lockout year in Pitt, is reflective of Human Vulnerability Essay, how overrated he is. A touch of burn and a touch of humility, all in all a pretty good response. Our human drama is so ephemeral.

RIP, Carrie Fisher. I was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Been a Steelers fan my entire life. There are fans in Pittsburgh that dont care about Tomlins success. They cant get passed the fact that an African-American is the coach of the Steelers.

Steelers.com had to shut down their message board because of these neanderthals and their racist comments. Mike Tomlin is a great Steelers coach. The players love him. Some of you are missing it. How many coaches in the NFL can be classified as great? Only 1, Bill Belichick. The problem is the space race, when Terry Bradshaw just says he is a cheerleader guy. Now that is ignorant to say. Ask the guys who play on the team and are in the building every day if all he does is cheer. They will tell you differently.

He was a secondary coach under Tony Dungy, a D-Coordinator where he lead a defense to Top 5 ranking. He knows football. He does the job of a head coach and does it well. For non-Steelers fans, ask how many would take him. If he was let go or resigned tomorrow about Urban Canada Essay, 25 teams would be in line to try and get him. That speaks for itself. Keep thinking anybody can coach a team with talent. Why Was The Space Race? Ask Rudy T. what it is like to Allowed coach the Lakers with Kobe and the space important Shaq.

Dont be fooled into believing that because a team has talent that it makes it easy sometimes they are the most difficult team to Allowed to Marry? coach. Bill Cowher had 3 straight losing seasonsSo help me with that one? Steelers peeps with no class. The Space Race Important? No surprise. Mike Tomlin is a great Steelers coach. The players love him. Isnt that WHY he is t washington, overrated? Players love Rexie Ryan, too. The difference is the space race, Tomlin is lucky to be the coach of a very stable franchise that gets it.

Its great that players love playing for him, as they did Cowher, but those coaches are not good tacticians at all. Terrible, in fact. Its the Pete Carroll school of coaching. Lots of pom-poms or in this case, the tough guy blue collar facade with sunglasses and this stoic sideline look as if were supposed to believe hes in charge and not some Rooney Rule figurehead hired by the very team that created the stupid and insulting Rooney Rule. I agree with Bradshaw. Is Everyone Allowed Essay? The whole tough guy and sunglasses charade from why was, Tomlin is weak. Its also why their players feature low football IQs and got completely blasted by the Pats all the time. I dont even know how he got hired, to be honest. IN 2006, in t washington a passing league, his defense was ranked dead last as a pass defense, but then the the space race important good ol Rooney Rule kicked in, and voila, here comes Mike Tomlin because he fit the vs booker suit. Most overrated coach next to the space important Marvin Lewis in the past 10 years. At some point, when you look at the entire resume, its not as good as sold by some fans.

Have you looked at the resumeInteresting everyone wants to compare him to Belichick. Every coach falls short so how would he be any different. His resume is better than 98% of the coaches in revolution the NFL so how do you explain that. And your shade throwing that he got the why was the space job because he was black doesnt go unnoticed. So all white coaches have gotten jobs because all were qualified. Dependency Claims Nations? Got it. How do you know that when he got in the space race important the room he interviewed well, showed knowledge and presented himself as a leader. Oh, thats right black coaches dont do that Only all white qualified ones do. Your post shows your ignorance and Is Everyone Essay your racist overtonesI will expose you every time If he was let go or resigned tomorrow about 25 teams would be in line to try and get him.

That speaks for why was the space, itself. Would they though? And, better yet, would Tomlin succeed on a WORSE franchise? I grew up a Dallas fan I knew I liked black and yellow Mario Epps for a reason.

Mickey Mouse could coach the Steelers and Is Everyone put out 10 win seasons. They have very good stability and an owner that gets it. Thats 10 wins per year right there. Correct me if I am wrong but there were 6x seasons under Bill Cowher that the Steelers didnt win 10x games. For those silly people that say that Tomlin won a SB with Cowhers playersnote that Cowher had the same team the why was the space important year before and didnt win 10 games nor make the playoffs. Bradshaw was right.

Tomlin is not a great coach. Particularly irksome is the sheer hypocrisy of Bradshaw. Bradshaw has always bristled, wilted and even emotionally crumbled under the weight of claims that nations, criticism said how much he resented it (to this day) when others meted it out on him (in some cases nearly a half century ago), and YET Bradshaw regularly takes these unsolicited blasts at people. Not cool, Brad. Not cool. Being a Bengals fan for so many years, one thing Ive learned is never count the the space Steelers out. Heres the Urban Public Art in thing about people claiming Tomlin only took Cowhers team and won a superbowl. The team Cowher left Tomlin was 8-8.

Tomlin then went 10-6 and why was race important then 12-4 winning the Superbowl in his second year. Meanwhile Jon Gruden took over a perinial playoff Tamp bay Bucs team that Tony Dungy rebuilt from the dependency theory that poor nations the ground up and won a superbowl his first season. Most, not everyone but most, immediately gave Gruden credit for getting Tampa Bay over the hump and why was the space almost every year since getting fired from Tampa Bay there were rumors of claims, some team pursuing Gruden for a head coaching job. I dont know why the descrepency. Why Was Race? I dont know why Gruden carries so much respect while Tomlin deals with idiots like Bradshaw despite Tomlin having arguably a better coaching career but he is right to feel disrespected to be called a cheerleader rather than a coach. Bradshaw brought up valid points whats wrong with him having an for american revolution opinion? Time to move on.

Ownership needs to stop this. It is not becoming of why was, a head coach. Human Vulnerability Essay? This is the kind of stuff youd expect from Rex or Rob Ryan. Not a fan of Tomlin and I think hes slightly overrated (doesnt mean hes not a good coach) but Bradshaw needed the guy ahead of him in college to why was the space important decide hed rather duck hunt than play ball to even sniff the field. Phil Robertson was that much better than him as QB that it literally took him deciding to apa referencing 6th edition duck hunt instead of ball to why was the space race get Terry on Urban the field. Course Phil still did ok for himself Net worth of 15 million dollars for why was important, something he created himself, not because he could play a game. Well said toocold. Good friends from Urban Art in Canada Essay, Pittsburg and Steeler fans always teling me how fans there can stand Tomlin. Please, send him to Philly.

I love when people go off on why was the space race tangents about how overrated so so player is and oh how did they get in? The targets are always Joe Namath, Jerome Bettis, and Tony Dungy. Bettis didnt have the stats but he was one of the most underrated pieces of the apa referencing 6th edition Steelers offense you had to watch him in why was the space important order to get it. Tony Dungy got in for being the first African American head coach and was a class act everywhere he went a long with making chicken salad with little talent he had to work with on defense in Indy, why are we complaining about reasons for american revolution, a guy like that getting enshrined? and the Namath blasters are just 15-30 year old stat geeks who never watched Joe Namath play in their lives, he was a tough guy who changed the NFL landscape for years to come and happened to be a gunslinger in the wrong area, but back then the Jets were feared with Namath believe it or not. Send him to the space important Philly. 10 years, 102 wins, 5 division titles, 6 playoff appearances, 2 AFC championships, 1 Super Bowl win and zero losing seasons. Reasons For American? At least 29 other franchises would kill for that now. Tomlin should be more concerned with his upcoming postseason loss to Miami, Gase will out coach him once again. #128578; Bradshaws right in a way. Hes not a great coach.

Good coach, but not great. Important? Great coaches dont lose to teams they should beat, and that Tomlin has lost a TON of games the past 10 years to some very inferior teams. Great coaches have their teams prepared each and every week. Race Important? That doesnt always appear to be the case with Tomlin-coached teams. Each year they manage some really ugly losses that just make you shake your head. Apa Referencing 6th Edition? Had he won half the games he was supposed to, he would have hit 100 wins last season. All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in football. Race? Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in and year out the Pats have to battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional divisions in theory claims the NFL.

But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! The only time in why was the space race the last 15 years the Patriots had any competition at theory claims nations all, they lost to lamo Rex in why was race important the playoffs, at web dubois home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! I think expectations are a bit high when a coach gets a team to two Super Bowls and wins one and you think hes bad. He is what his record says he is. A great coach. Why Was? Hes not all time great yet, but he could get there.

Bradshaw was not a great Qb and he benefited from vs booker t washington, playing with 100 guys who ended up wearing the gold jacket.If you are comparing Tomlin to what the why was guy in Urban Public Art in new England has done,then Tomlin is not a great coach if he is what the standard is to be a great coach.Name another coach in the NFL that can hold Tomlins jockstrap . Dec 27, 2016 2:00 PM. Tony Dungy got in for being the first African American head coach. Thats news to Tom Flores, Art Shell, Dennis Green, Ray Rhodes, and the space race Fritz Pollard if you want to include before NFL was NFL. But the others they coached before Tony. If Tomlin is hitching his wagon to revolution Hollywood Henderson, thats more of an insult than the why was race compliment Bradshaw gave him by saying he was a nice coach. Tomlin not looking too bright. All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in football.

Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in theory claims and year out the Pats have to battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional teams in the NFL. But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! The only time in the space race important the last 15 years the Patriots had any competition at Security all, they lost to the space race lamo Rex in the playoffs, at home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in football. Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in and year out the Public Canada Essay Pats have to battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional divisions in the NFL.

But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! The only why was time in the last 15 years the Public Art in Canada Patriots had any competition at all, they lost to lamo Rex in the playoffs, at home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! Did you laugh really hard when the why was the space race important Steelers of the 1970s got to play the Bengals and dependency theory claims poor nations Browns all the time? Or, when the why was the space race 49ers played the dependency poor nations Saints and why was the space race important Falcons a total of 4 times per year in the pre cap era? Hmm? Were the 49ers somehow seen as worse or having it easy, or is Allowed to Marry? Essay, this just you being a little jealous turdling when it comes to the Pats legendary successess? You little Millennials who dont do your homework or know history crack me up. You are the first to run your yaps thinking you know everything behind a keyboard, but youve never been to a library in your life. I weep for this countrys future. There is a saying that goes Opinions are like noses and why was the space rear ends.

Everybody has one. Terry gave his opinion of Allowed, Mike Tomlin and now Tomlin brings up Thomas Hollywood Henderson calling Bradshaw out for his inability to spell the word CAT. Kiddies go to Wordgirl University and important settle your differences like gentleman. Gee whiz and I thought my feud with W G Ventures over the direction of my original characters the Isthmus Sisters was going to be the for american revolution sequel to Day Of The Martyrs. The Steelers won 4 SB titles despite of why was the space important, Bradshaw, not because of Is Everyone Allowed, Bradshaw. Just like the Patriots won first 3 SB titles despite of Brady. Bradshaw was lucky he played for great teams with a groat coach otherwise he wouldnt have been in the HOF.

Bradshaw went 4-0 vs Hollywood and his other Super Bowl opponents. Calling his own plays. Yeah hes real dumb. Well ,this year we wont have to worry about beating the why was race important Pats,because Kansas City will beat them for us. If Tomlin had made that response on Twitter he could be a future POTUS. Tomlin is vs booker, a good coach, but using the Rooney Rule as an the space race important excuse for dependency claims poor nations, him not being great is why was race important, pure bush league. The league has been littered with the apa referencing 6th edition likes of the space race important, Norv Turner, Jeff Fisher, and and IT Essay Rex Ryan over the past 20 something years and why was the space race important what have they exactly delivered? The collective winning percentage of just these mentioned coaches is still lesser than Tomlin, yet announcers and the uninitiated fawn over reasons for american revolution them as great coaches who know how to why was race get the job done. What exactly have they won? As another poster pointed out, Saint John Gruden is web dubois, considered a great coach (for winning with Dungys team) yet Coach Dungy is considered lesser of a coach due to only winning one title with Manning (and together never having a losing record). Gruden systematically ran the Bucs into the ground with his inability to develop an why was the space important offense (but, HE IS A GENIUS..lol)and he had a lot of say in personnel decisions on draft day and such.

What makes Gruden so great? Tomlin wins and if he were unqualified, the Rooneys would have canned his a** years ago. Terrys comments were correct whereas the Stealers coach used an old cheap shot from apa referencing, another cheap shot artist ! What else can you expect from this team #3 worse cheater ! Did you laugh really hard when the Steelers of the 1970s got to why was important play the Bengals and apa referencing Browns all the time? Or, when the 49ers played the why was race Saints and Falcons a total of 4 times per Vulnerability Security, year in the pre cap era? Hmm? Were the 49ers somehow seen as worse or having it easy, or is this just you being a little jealous turdling when it comes to the Pats legendary successess? You little Millennials who dont do your homework or know history crack me up.

You are the why was important first to run your yaps thinking you know everything behind a keyboard, but youve never been to a library in your life. I weep for and IT, this countrys future. But I see you didnt refute anything I said, just resorted to the space race important name-calling. The Steelers battled some very good Bengals teams lead by Paul Brown and Kenny Anderson. And some very good Oiler teams lead by apa referencing 6th edition Bum Phillips and Earl Campbell. And Im not a millennial, Im a baby boomer. I lived this, pal. [and i didnt even mention the cheating] That was a great comeback. Im a lifelong Pats fan.

Only other coach I would ever want, if BB, retired would be Tom Coughlin or Mike Tomlin. Have you looked at why was the space race important the resumeInteresting everyone wants to web dubois t washington compare him to why was race important Belichick. Apa Referencing 6th Edition? Every coach falls short so how would he be any different. His resume is better than 98% of the coaches in the NFL so how do you explain that. And your shade throwing that he got the job because he was black doesnt go unnoticed. So all white coaches have gotten jobs because all were qualified. Why Was The Space Important? Got it. How do you know that when he got in theory the room he interviewed well, showed knowledge and presented himself as a leader. Why Was The Space Race? Oh, thats right black coaches dont do that Only all white qualified ones do.

Your post shows your ignorance and your racist overtonesI will expose you every time He had the worst pass D in that 2006 with the Vikings? How is race, knowing that a racist over tone? WHo has a terrible part of a defense as a DC and then gets a premier head coaching job with such little experience and success? Mike Tomlin, apparently. Dungy leaves the Bucs after his great DC, Monty Kiffin, arranged those great players on that D, and they immediatley win the SB! Gee, what a coincidence, huh? Then Dungy proceeds to 6th edition have a horrendous D in Indy for years and years with a HOF QB, so you tell me how good these supposed great coaches are. Those are damning facts for either Tomlin or Dungy, regardless of how you slice it.

I think each was a good coach, but in no way do either belong in the HOF. Thats preposterous, especially considering people above are saying Dungy was the first successful African American coach, which is the space race important, why he got in. If thats the case, why isnt 2 time SB winning coach, Tom Flores in? Do you have to claims poor nations be black to qualify as a minority or does it go over to why was important Hispanics as well or some other minority group? Hmm? Youre the one playing the race card.

I never said a word about it, other than pointing to the irony of the dependency claims that poor Rooneys coming up with a stupid and sanctimonious garbage PC rules about forcing interviews for candidates a team may not even want. I mean, how awkward. The Rooney Rule would have been fantastic a long, long time ago, but not now. The business is race, so big, owners dont care what the coach look$ like, as long as they win. In sports, it has nothing to apa referencing do with ethniciity or skin color, it has to do with the idea of making the owenr money. If you win, you make a happy owner and fan$. Like I said, the why was the space important stability of the Steelers franchise is the to Marry? Essay big key. If Tomlin was to coach the why was the space important Jets, hed be a victim like every other coach under Woody Johnson, for example. Get over it.

The guy is overrated and Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? also classless. Why Was? That attempted trip on Jacoby Jones was a complete lack of respect for the sport and the players that play it. I am glad he wants to live vicariously through the Human and IT Essay players that play it, but he needs to get over himself. Many NFL fans just arent that impressed. And, dont get me started on how overrated Marvin Lewis and why was Lovie Smith have been, either.

How many leaders do you know step onto the field intentionally to try to cheat to help his team win? The 100K fine is another example of the haves and have nots in this league, too. He should have been suspended. What color is the sky in your world, little Millennial? Youll never expose anything.

I own you and all other know-it-all Millennials who started watching football just 15-20 years ago. There is a very good chance that Bradshaw was helping to Allowed to Marry? create an us against the world theme for his former team. Tomlin not looking too bright. I dont think Mike Tomlin is why was the space race important, ever going to be confused with someone who is intelligent. Look at the players he has on D. What do you think James Harrisons IQ is? It was also funny that he called Tomlin a cheerleader while propping up another guy who was called erroneously too for Human Essay, years a cheerleader with his antics on the sideline. Sorry, but you dont do 10 years of cheerleading and never go under .500 with your so called ace in the hole QB that has carried you all these years (funny how some other coaches never get the well, if he didnt have this QB label, but I digress) missing games just about every year because of injury, and often times he won games with the Mike Vicks, Charlie Batches, and even the why was important Landry Joneses of the reasons revolution world while he was out.

Sounds pretty good to me. Also, funny how quiet the important Arians lovers who tried to bash him have quieted down this year (and dont get me wrong, I love Bruce, but Tomlin is better) since his team went from a Super Bowl favorite to under .500, something Tomlin still hasnt done. bradshaw has psychiatric issues and clearly has an 6th edition axe to grind with steelers. he seems like a nice, genuine guy but is simultaneously a knucklehead. perhaps he should be put out to pasture as an nfl analyst. he doesnt add much critical value and race important is more of a comedic sideshow. and all this is reasons, comin from an eagles fan. the steelers as an important nfl franchise are beyond reproach. Cmon everyone! Terry Bradshaw has always been a little slow. Absolutely not the sharpest knife in Urban Canada the drawer!

Did you laugh really hard when the race Steelers of the 1970s got to play the Bengals and Browns all the time? Or, when the 49ers played the Saints and web dubois Falcons a total of why was race, 4 times per Allowed to Marry?, year in the pre cap era? Hmm? Were the 49ers somehow seen as worse or having it easy, or is this just you being a little jealous turdling when it comes to the Pats legendary successess? You little Millennials who dont do your homework or know history crack me up. You are the first to run your yaps thinking you know everything behind a keyboard, but youve never been to a library in why was the space race important your life. I weep for this countrys future. You forgot to tell him to get off your lawn. Terry is RIGHT! Tomlin is vs booker t washington, a mediocre coach who benefits from having talented players on his team. IF Tomlin were white, yall would NOT be defending him so much.

You KNOW this to be true. Black coaches are a protected class whereas white coaches get ripped to shreds. Terry is RIGHT! Tomlin is a mediocre coach who benefits from having talented players on his team. Wow, Tomlin sure wins alot for being a mediocre coach. And how is this protected class you talk about treating Bowles of the Jets?? You may go now. I dont think Mike Tomlin is why was the space important, ever going to Art in be confused with someone who is intelligent. Look at the players he has on D. What do you think James Harrisons IQ is?

34? Whatever it is, Im sure its higher than those of Aaron Hernandez Michael Floyd. [actually, James Harrison has invested his $ wisely, and why was the space important is a very successful business man. Dependency Theory Claims That Nations? perhaps you should do some research] They both are idiots. But I believe the cheerleader went into halftime of why was race important, Sundays game and did a big cheer in front of Haley and Pig ben saying LETS GET ANTONIO BROWN THE FOOTBALL it was obvious some adjustments were made and they worked. credit the cheerleader in league full of sabre metrics, replays, challenges and dependency claims that poor nations terrible referrring for doing something old school to turn the the space important game. Signed a disappointed but proud Ravens Fan. No one would have to defend him because people would be fawning over web dubois him like Jon Gruden or Jeff Fisher who were lesser coaches for years and kept getting tagged as great.

But this guy actually is very good and gets tagged as a cheerleader like all he does is call time outs on why was the space race important Sundays. Oh, and btw, even the reasons for american revolution coordinator thing doesnt hold up anymore since Butler and important Haley replaced the old ones that were apparently carrying him, lol. Maybe, just maybe when you say stupid stuff, you should prepare to get blasted for for american revolution, it. Going to 2 Super Bowls in 10 years isnt exactly easy. Bill Walsh only went to 3 with the greatest QB and collection of talent Ive ever seen to put it into why was the space race, perspective. But there does seem to be a theme that needs to be called out of black coaches never getting credit. I saw this same thing with Tony Dungy and for american revolution James Franklin of how he was absolutely the only reason Hackenburg was bad. Now, Hackenburg cant get on the field over Bryce Petty or a twice benched Ryan Fitzpatrick, and why was the space race important Franklin just won the Big 10 after being the only team to beat Ohio State so far this year.

So maybe you should be figuring out whats wrong with you if the first place you go when good black players at QB or coaches are given credit is a racist rant, not the rest of us who hear how dumb you sound. Theory Claims Poor Nations? Because there are many, many mediocre white coaches who have been hired and fired, but if a black guy fails, its some Rooney rule rant about how the guy never deserved the job and the only why was reason the ones who are succeeding have their job is because of it. If thats how you feel, youre making the point of why the rule exists. Talking about James Harrisons IQ when you guys drafted Aaron Hernandez? Thats rich bro!! Mike might not be a great coach with whatever metric quantifies that but I can tell you as a former player of his he was a hell of Urban Canada, a coach and great person. The tough guy act people talk about is the space important, really intensity. He is always intense about everything that he does and claims poor its contagious to race important the players and everyone in the program. Hopefully he will get respect one day for the great job that he has done.

Hollywood Henderson. Show off. Cocaine user. Urban Public Art In Canada? Alcoholic. Something to be a fan of, eh. See But Mike played right into Terrys wheelhouse ?Bradshaw embraces that dumb as a box of hammers label but Bradshaw is the space, really dumb like a fox ! Top rated cheaters in the NFL. Spot Terry a Catch- he got it right; Spot Terry an Attack the D-line- he got it right. Spot Terry Bradshaw with 4 SB rings?

Spot Terry Bradshaw MVP? Anyone willing to spot the greatest Steeler QB a little freedom of speech- an opinion accurate to many? Tomlin is a silly excuse for Human, a coach its like trying to tell Henderson immitation meat is race, not a steak. Terrys been to four Super Bowls and won them all, he doesnt know what losing one feels like, ehh Mike. Coaches should take the Allowed Essay high road. When Pittsburgh loses again it will confirm Bradshaws opinion is valid. Having actually watched Bradshaw from the beginning, I can say he developed into why was race, a HOF QB. He always seemed slow at first, but once he got connected, he was the reasons best. Tough? In one game, he was knocked out of bounds, probably illegally, had his helmet knocked on why was the space race important and was bleeding.

To the bench? Nope, straight to the huddle and called the dependency theory that next play. I have always wondered about the real relationship between Noll and Bradshaw; neither of them felt good about Pgh or the Steelers, I guess. It is my thinking that Bradshaws opinion reflects on a long-standing hangup, not something of why was important, merit. Dec 27, 2016 2:10 PM. All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in dependency claims that poor football. Absolutely NO COMPETITION.

Year in and year out the Pats have to battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional divisions in important the NFL. But every year Tomlin has to apa referencing battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! The only time in the last 15 years the Patriots had any competition at all, they lost to lamo Rex in the playoffs, at home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! Its funny everyone says that but they are the only teams who usually beat the pats..plus Brady owns the steelers and why was the space pretty much anyone not named Denver or the Giants. Urban Art In Canada? That being said I like tomlin damn good headcoach but your point holds little credibility pats have ran afc playoffs for the space important, 16 years no matter who they play. Dec 27, 2016 4:50 PM. Coaches should take the high road. When Pittsburgh loses again it will confirm Bradshaws opinion is valid. What do you or any fan truly know about reasons, coaching in the NFL? Its hilarious how fans think they possess enough knowledge as to evaluate and critique a SB winning coach.

Tomlin took the high road. Why Was Important? Terry Bradshaw doesnt like the fact that Pittsburgh has a black coach. Thats the real issue for Vulnerability Essay, TB. Brady vs steelers 10-2. Brady vs ravens 8-3. Brady vs bengals 6-1.

Id say the pats would dominate the why was mighty afc north just as much as the east. All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in apa referencing football. Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in why was the space race and year out the Pats have to battle with 3 of the Security Essay most inept, dysfunctional divisions in the NFL. But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! I think the Patriots collective record against race, the Steelers, Bengals, and Ravens over the last 15 years has been something like 30-8. They beat the AFC North and the AFC East like a drum. Since realignment in 2002 there are no teams with a winning record against the Patriots. That is reasons for american revolution, particularly true among the why was the space important teams of the AFCN who have managed a total of 6 regular season wins combined in 15 years. Try to image a fan of the AFCN thinking they would be more competitive than Buffalo, Miami, and the Jets have been in that span. Now that is funny.

What do you or any fan truly know about coaching in the NFL? What a completely specious question. I trust Bradshaws knowledge. How many WHITE coaches who never were anything in the NFL and never won anything have ever been called out by reasons revolution a former player in public as not a good coach? Why the public rant against the space important, successful black coaches? Its bad enough black coaches cant get a fair shot at being hired as head coaches in the NFL, without such a public rant by a HOFer. Its insulting, not only to dependency theory that Tomlin but all black players in the space race important the league, for its obvious there should be more black head coaches in apa referencing the league. Is there little wonder that so many successful black college coaches in the space race the NCAA dont want to join the NFL? Its still a racist league in dependency that a lot of ways, and the league truly has no legitimate interest in making the why was the space game safe. Its all window dressing. The NFL is only interested in making money, which trumps player safety 24/7.

Brady vs steelers 10-2. Brady vs ravens 8-3. Brady vs bengals 6-1. Id say the pats would dominate the mighty afc north just as much as the apa referencing 6th edition east. As a Steelers fanall I heard for the space important, the past several weeks is reasons, what the the space race important Ravens will do to the Steelers on and IT Essay Christmas Day because of recent history. Why Was The Space? LMAO The Ravens are sitting their butts home watching the playoffs. I see 6x losses above. The Pats have been beaten and will be beaten again.

Both the Steelers offense / defense are Top 10 in the NFL and just as good as the Pats. Bradshaws Steelers beat Hendersons Cowboys in the Super Bowl, right? I think the 6th edition Patriots collective record against the Steelers, Bengals, and Ravens over the last 15 years has been something like 30-8. They beat the AFC North and the AFC East like a drum. Yetthe AFC North has won the AFC Championship 5x in the Bill Belichick-era with 4x Super Bowl wins. Dec 27, 2016 5:24 PM. How many WHITE coaches who never were anything in why was important the NFL and never won anything have ever been called out by a former player in public as not a good coach? Why the public rant against successful black coaches?

Its bad enough black coaches cant get a fair shot at being hired as head coaches in the NFL, without such a public rant by a HOFer. Allowed? Its insulting, not only to Tomlin but all black players in the league, for its obvious there should be more black head coaches in the league. Is there little wonder that so many successful black college coaches in why was race important the NCAA dont want to join the NFL? Its still a racist league in a lot of ways, and the league truly has no legitimate interest in making the game safe. Public? Its all window dressing. The NFL is only interested in making money, which trumps player safety 24/7. Great point but not perhaps the correct application: Bradshaw comments were stupid but he played for the Steelers and why was the space important is personally invested. I think the real question is would Bradshaw have used the same words if the theory claims that poor nations Steelers coach were white or Mike Cower who is 1-1 in SBs as.

Bradshaw was a good QB on a GREAT team, and yeah, hes not the the space race important brightest bulb on the tree. Sure has been a good marketing genius, though has record album income, late night TV appearances all over the place (not sure WHY, either), and for american revolution a steady gig on FOX, so while his I.Q. may not dazzle anyone Id sure love to have his income. Dec 27, 2016 4:56 PM. Dec 27, 2016 2:10 PM. All those AFC East division titles in why was race important the least competitive division in football. Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in and year out the apa referencing Pats have to the space race battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional divisions in the NFL. But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Human Security Essay Ravens or Bengalsor both!

The only time in the space race the last 15 years the Patriots had any competition at Is Everyone Essay all, they lost to lamo Rex in the playoffs, at race important home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! Its funny everyone says that but they are the only teams who usually beat the pats..plus Brady owns the for american steelers and pretty much anyone not named Denver or the Giants. That being said I like tomlin damn good headcoach but your point holds little credibility pats have ran afc playoffs for why was the space race, 16 years no matter who they. Is it me, or do Pats fans forget what a dumpster fire they were before BB and apa referencing 6th edition TB arrived 15 years ago? The Pats experienced 35 years of nothing, and apparently the Pats fan base have experienced memory lapses all throughout the NE area. They want US to pretend life began for them with TB and why was important BB. Theory Claims That Nations? Well, I guess it did didnt it? He isnt a great coach..

He is a pretty good coach but when the chin left this cat couldnt hire anyone He still hasnt been able to change much since either He was given a team stacked full of HOF players Terry must be off the anti depressants. Tomlin is doing nothing but prove Bradshaw correct referencing drug-addled punk Hollywood Henderson is not a response to an argument, its a substitute for one. Because Tomlin doesnt have a credible response. A .642 regular-season winning percentage and a measely 6-5 playoff record for a combined .5935 winning percentage is race, good, but nothing that stands out; heck the dependency claims nations Rams fired a coach with a .512 record. What is the space important, up with the Patriot trolls on Steelers threads lately? Especially with Tomlin going out of his way to compliment BB? Its like a complex of some sort. Didnt Chuck Knoll hate Bradshaw too? Go steelers!

No such thing as bad press Love being in the news. Bradshaw has an opinion, just like every steelers fan does. I happen to agree with TB that MT is NOT a great coach!! he might be a good coach, maybe. Human Vulnerability And IT Essay? Some of the game decisions he makes leave you scratching your head. The Space Race Important? His teams sure dont look ready to play quite often, and the injuries wow I have to question the conditioning of this team sometimes. Really good coaches hold players accountable when they make bonehead mistakes. MT sure doesnt hold players accountable. Dumb penalties after dumb penalties and the 2 point tries.totally sickening. Also if MT is a Cowboys fan, he sure as hell shouldnt be coaching the STEELERS. A little known fact about Hollywood Henderson.

While being strung out on crack for several years, he checked himself into a treatment center and since 1983 Henderson has remained clean and sober, some 33 years now. In the days of vs booker, celebrities, including sports heroes, in and out of Rehab time and time again, Henderson remaining clean is quite an why was the space important accomplishment. T Washington? How many young men in todays NFL do foolish things, partly because theyre young. Henderson the why was important grownup is a motivational speaker on how to theory claims poor remain clean and why was race important sober. How many of you have issues with the beer, or the hard booze, yet here throwing stones? Just sayin Its amazing how many people think Bradshaws hayseed act is the Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay real guy. The Space Race? About as accurate as OJ being a nice guy.

And anyone that thinks Robertson was a better QB than Bradshaw is right on that level; guy was terrible. Maybe he would have developed as a QB if he had cared, but he didnt. Vulnerability Security Essay? Bradshaw did, and it showed. Tomlin is a good coach with a very different style. Honestly, I can see how people think he is more of important, a cheerleader. His personality just isnt like a lot of other successful coaches.

That said, the wins speak for themselves. People that claim hes successful because he has good players/coaches around him forget that Belichick was fired in Cleveland. Tomlin is a better coach than Bradshaw was a QB and maybe thats what really hurts. Since Terry is speaking his mind why not ask him if ingesting huge amounts of steroids had anything to do with those 4 SB rings those Steeler teams from the 70s collected.Yes i know they were not the apa referencing only team heavy on the steroids but history has shown it was part of the why was the space important plan in Pittsburgh.Yes i also know there was no testing at the time and 6th edition the NFL kind of looked the other way when it came to the use of race important, supplements,but it was a factor. Tomlin won with Cowher team, everything was already in place for him to succeed just as it was for Switzer in Dallas when Jimmy left. Great response by Tomlin. Can Tomlin spell weasel? Is it me, or do Pats fans forget what a dumpster fire they were before BB and TB arrived 15 years ago? In the 24 seasons before BB and TB arrived in nations NE in 2000 the Patriots had 7 losing records. Why Was Important? They had made the playoffs 4 of the previous 6 years including a SB app. in 96. The Patriots are the only AFC team that is 100 games above .500 in their history.

They have the most winning seasons since 1960 (when they began). Hollywood Henderson. Dependency Theory That Poor Nations? Show off. Cocaine user. Alcoholic. Something to be a fan of, eh. And lottery winner!! If it werent for racist attitudes against black QBs in the 70s, Bradshaw wouldnt have sniffed the field. Joe Gilliam was a much better QB. In the 24 seasons before BB and TB arrived in NE in 2000 the Patriots had 7 losing records. They had made the playoffs 4 of the previous 6 years including a SB app. in 96.

The Patriots are the why was the space important only AFC team that is 100 games above .500 in their history. They have the most winning seasons since 1960 (when they began). All that success and the Steelers remain #1 in Super Bowl appearances and for american revolution wins? Since Terry is speaking his mind why not ask him if ingesting huge amounts of steroids had anything to do with those 4 SB rings those Steeler teams from the race 70s collected.Yes i know they were not the only team heavy on the steroids but history has shown it was part of the web dubois plan in the space race Pittsburgh.Yes i also know there was no testing at the time and the NFL kind of looked the other way when it came to the use of Vulnerability and IT Security, supplements,but it was a factor. What history are you babbling about?

You can speculate as much as you like. The Steelers won 4x SBs because of the space race, their talent. They certainly didnt win because they had a monopoly on the drugs you believe they took. Next thing you know you will attempt to discredit receivers and Vulnerability Essay DBs that used stickem. Steelersbest team in important the NFL Super Bowl era. Accept it. Bradshaw makes his money now on being an idiot so what does his opinion matter? Not to mention he was barely a good QB when he played owes his rings to the defense they had. People who live in theory nations glass houses should not throw stones. I should have just posted this:

Pass attempts: 3,901. Passing yards: 27,989. Passer rating: 70.9. Not fit to why was the space hold Rothesbergers jock. All that success and 6th edition the Steelers remain #1 in why was the space race important Super Bowl appearances and wins? All that success means they werent a dumpster fire before the arrival of BB and TB. Pittsburgh has had great success with 41 winning seasons in claims 82 years and the space race important 8 appearances in the final with 6 Championships. Patriots success is limited to 57 years with only 36 winning seasons, 9 appearances in the final and Is Everyone Allowed to Marry? Essay 4 Championships.

Who knows what the next quarter century will hold for them. All that success means they werent a dumpster fire before the the space race important arrival of BB and TB. Pittsburgh has had great success with 41 winning seasons in 82 years and 8 appearances in the final with 6 Championships. Patriots success is limited to reasons revolution 57 years with only 36 winning seasons, 9 appearances in the final and 4 Championships. Who knows what the next quarter century will hold for them. I personally dont care anything about professional football until it was diversified and why was the space became the Vulnerability Security NFL.. That is 51 yearsand during this span the Patriots existed. I know what will happen in the next 10 yearsSteelers adding more trophies and remaining the team with the most SB appearances and wins. Take that to the bank.

Best comeback of the the space race important year! Long suffering Bills fan here. I have to say: I love Tomlin. Vs Booker? This guy is the coolest coach in the league. Why Was The Space Important? The Inside the NFL highlights of the apa referencing Steelers running over the Bills was the best highlight clip Ive seen in years. Tomlin yelling Run it in! and the then asking Bell if he knows what the Electric Company was just awesome. I hope he continues there for a long timeunless he comes to Buffalo.

But that will never happen. Hes way too good for our second rate organization. Lets disrespect a 4 time Superbowl Winning Legend Thats a great idea. Geerrh, a former great player for the space, the team Im coaching criticized me! Jeff Fisher whining about Vulnerability, Dickerson. Dec 27, 2016 11:16 PM. Is it me, or do Pats fans forget what a dumpster fire they were before BB and TB arrived 15 years ago? In the the space race 24 seasons before BB and TB arrived in for american revolution NE in 2000 the Patriots had 7 losing records. They had made the important playoffs 4 of the previous 6 years including a SB app. in 96.

The Patriots are the only AFC team that is apa referencing 6th edition, 100 games above .500 in important their history. They have the most winning seasons since 1960 (when they began). Oh, so theyre giving championship trophies for most games over .500. Whats that trophy look like? The point was, the Pats one nothing before BB and TB. Nothing. I guess 31 dumpster fires rage every year.

Image the smoke rising above Pittsburgh for more than 3/4 of a century. Now that is to Marry?, a dumpster fire (according to skawh) 76 years of abject failure. Image the smoke rising above Pittsburgh for more than 3/4 of why was the space, a century. Now that is a dumpster fire (according to skawh) I think he just didnt know Patriots history and talked his way into a corner. Its no big deal. Its just a lovers quarrel.

Lets see, Pittsburgh won 35-31. Dependency Theory Claims Nations? Bradshaw was the race important MVP. The next season, Pittsburgh won that game too. Some burn, Coach. Kind of fell flat. I piggybacked off lynn swann and the steel curtain for 4 rings, so now i have the authority to badmouth other people -terry bradshaw. Not surprised Tomlin is a Hollywood Henderson fan. All style, no substance. Reasons? So typical. Dec 27, 2016 6:40 PM.

Dec 27, 2016 4:56 PM. Dec 27, 2016 2:10 PM. All those AFC East division titles in the least competitive division in why was race important football. Absolutely NO COMPETITION. Year in and year out the for american Pats have to battle with 3 of the most inept, dysfunctional divisions in why was race the NFL.

But every year Tomlin has to battle against either the Ravens or Bengalsor both! The only time in the last 15 years the Patriots had any competition at all, they lost to lamo Rex in the playoffs, at home! Makes me laugh, really, really hard! Its funny everyone says that but they are the only teams who usually beat the pats..plus Brady owns the steelers and dependency theory claims that nations pretty much anyone not named Denver or the Giants. That being said I like tomlin damn good headcoach but your point holds little credibility pats have ran afc playoffs for why was the space race, 16 years no matter who they. Is it me, or do Pats fans forget what a dumpster fire they were before BB and TB arrived 15 years ago? The Pats experienced 35 years of nothing, and apparently the Pats fan base have experienced memory lapses all throughout the NE area.

They want US to Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay pretend life began for them with TB and BB. Well, I guess it did didnt it? No, those of the space race important, us whose team has a history beyond 2013 know all about the 6th edition Pats of old. Why Was The Space Race? We watched for 10 years or more before Ben Dreith stole a playoff win and 6th edition handed it to the team that eventually won the SB. We understand your jealousy as we were once jealous of teams that had long term success. We feel your pain. Its your racism we have problems with. Every comment, if its not up front its dripping in why was the space important the background. Allowed To Marry? Essay? Racists of why was important, all colors are doomed to an unhappy life. You must be logged in to leave a comment.

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an essay on why was race media Promotion Of Tolerance And Understanding. Attract The Attention Of Policy Makers. Strengthen Relations With Other Countries. ii) Economic Debate. iii) Social Awareness. iv) Religious Clarification. ii) Social Evils. iii) Deteriorating Religious Impressions. Sensationalism of news to get cheap popularity. To show one as evil and other as liberator continuously repeating the comments and visuals. Vulgarity due to dependency that nations, inflow of foreign culture. Why Was The Space Race Important. The English and dependency theory claims that poor, Indian channels are affecting the moral of the youth. Time wastage due to constant watching the why was the space important dramas. Simplicity is diminishing due to more materialism. Generation gap is increasing. Weakening religious impression due to foreign culture. Pakistan is facing a conflict between conservative and secular approaches. Therefore, media is cautious in debating on such sensitive issues. The government indirectly restricts media by withholding advertisement. PEMRA frequently threatens to cancel the licence.

Other agencies of the government also pressurize the media. Monopoly of media by theory claims that nations big groups is thwarting the expansion of smaller channels. Why Was Race. Media has been the fear of every dictator after taking over the government. The illiterate masses are exerting zero sum pressure on policy makers. If a party or institution invests in the media, it wants to see its own vested interests to Art in Canada, be reflected. The views projected by the media are not necessarily of the the space public or of the employers. Rather, the views of the investors are reflected. Corporate barons who have a large chunk of the dependency theory claims that poor nations Pakistani media obey the official orders to get monetary benefits. Journalists have been intimidated and humiliated by the occupants of power. Everyone wants the journalists to obey their orders. Government must realize the importance of media in this modern age. She should ensure the why was the space race important freedom of media.

Article 19th of the constitution of Pakistan, 1973, guarantees the freedom of speech, expression and Is Everyone to Marry? Essay, the press. Government must use media as a source to why was race, promote good governance. Here are some suggestions to be followed: Let the media introduce an internal and external checks and balances. Accountability of Art in Essay media be ensured. The aim of media activism should be to strengthen the weak and important, vulnerable segment of society. Media must help stabilizing the national institution and socio-economic, political and administrative structure by pointing out Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay drawbacks and why was the space race, appreciating the good works done by government. There is a cultural invasion from the West and Indian TV channels and cable TV networks. Web Dubois. Our values are being attacked and are in important danger. Media must build our confidence and faith in our values. We as viewers must mend ourselves, so that we may not be carried away with the media hype. Media must help sustain confidence in our national institutions such as parliament. armed force and or social structure. The feelings of despondency, frustration and deviant behaviour need to be neutralized. Only an effective media can do this. The sudden boom in the media has led to serve shortage of trained manpower, so people must be appointed to the positions with more journalistic experience than they really have. Human And IT. The print and broadcast media must make every effort to ensure that their coverage is factual, balanced and informed. Live pictures must be responsibly broadcast. Race. i am very impress you make a good cake of words. yaar can you help me in writing like this, if u do so i shall be grateful to you. i am very impress you make a good cake of words. yaar can you help me in writing like this, if u do so i shall be grateful to web dubois, you. 1-western media vs islamic media.

2-domination of western media and its influence on eastern side. *you can tell more about a person by what he says about others than you can by what others say about him*-leo aikman! Here are a few suggesions. Keep it up you will do good Inshallah. Age wrinkles the body, but disobeying Allah wrinkles the soul. 1-western media vs islamic media. 2-domination of western media and its influence on eastern side. Here are a few suggesions. Keep it up you will do good Inshallah.

When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered, and speedily reformed then is the outmost bound of civil liberty attained. That wise man looks for Milton. No power on this earth can block the truth as its God who, being the truth himself, always guards it. Nowhere in the history could the race truth ever be suppressed, it always revealed itself in some other form and with dangerous consequences. British philosopher John Stuart Mill underlined the need for free speech mainly for revolution three reasons. he believes that freedom to read and write is an race important element to expose and reveal the truth, to apa referencing, ensure self-development and self-fulfillment of citizens and to the space, help ensure participation of the citizens in a democracy. Not only the starting paragraph but every new outline or paragraphs first lines should be impressing. it gives a very good and thoughtful effect on your writing. As when after introduction you will write on dependency theory that poor media in Pakistan then start like: (the Pakistani media is an why was the space race enthusiastic member of the new warrior clan of the 21st century and despite belonging to war torn country. is playing active role in keeping with the demands of the apa referencing 6th edition modern times. by airing in divergent views and cross questioning on significant national and social issues the media reflects and informs public opinion and practically shares the task of race parliament.(then write as u wrote in your essay on apa referencing Pakistani media it was just an example starting paragraph and you can write some more good material or your own good starting Paras. One thing more I would say the essay on media always comes with a different side it is not in a simple form that media in Pakistan or role of media. it is always in a different form like the role of media and terrorism, the positive role of media in politics or its effects or yellow journalism etc etc.then u can also add an outline of media as the fourth pillar of the state I hope these tips will be useful for why was the space race important you. you doing good bas every time you start new paragraph ,start it with impressing lines.your concusion paragraph was excellent.

Keep it up. Best of luck. Mere fana honay mei meri fana ka fana hona ha. Ar meine apni fanaa mei ae khuda tujhy payaa. When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered, and speedily reformed then is the outmost bound of civil liberty attained. That wise man looks for Milton. No power on this earth can block the truth as its God who, being the Human Vulnerability and IT Security Essay truth himself, always guards it. Nowhere in the history could the truth ever be suppressed, it always revealed itself in why was the space important some other form and with dangerous consequences.

British philosopher John Stuart Mill underlined the need for free speech mainly for three reasons. he believes that freedom to Is Everyone Essay, read and write is an why was the space race important important element to expose and Urban, reveal the truth, to ensure self-development and self-fulfillment of citizens and to help ensure participation of the race important citizens in Essay a democracy. Not only the starting paragraph but every new outline or paragraphs first lines should be impressing. it gives a very good and thoughtful effect on your writing. As when after introduction you will write on media in Pakistan then start like: (the Pakistani media is an enthusiastic member of the new warrior clan of the 21st century and despite belonging to war torn country. is playing active role in keeping with the why was the space important demands of the modern times. by Is Everyone to Marry? Essay airing in divergent views and cross questioning on significant national and social issues the media reflects and informs public opinion and practically shares the task of parliament.(then write as u wrote in your essay on Pakistani media it was just an example starting paragraph and why was important, you can write some more good material or your own good starting Paras. One thing more I would say the essay on revolution media always comes with a different side it is not in why was important a simple form that media in Pakistan or role of Urban Essay media. it is always in a different form like the role of media and terrorism, the positive role of media in politics or its effects or yellow journalism etc etc.then u can also add an outline of media as the fourth pillar of the state I hope these tips will be useful for why was the space race important you. you doing good bas every time you start new paragraph ,start it with impressing lines.your concusion paragraph was excellent. Web Dubois T Washington. Keep it up. Best of luck. Bundle Of Thanx Maria its really very kind and nice of why was race important u explaining everything in detail to guide me abt my essay everytime and apa referencing, giving ur precious time to pinpoint my weak points, when it comes to why was the space race important, essay i always wait for ur reply.it was my first attempt to write any essay on this topic so i chose write on this simple topic like the Vulnerability Security above and then move forward to more difficult and complicated one,ya i'll surely write on the topics mentioned by u..thnkng u alot once again keep guiding me. u always welcome and the space race, i would say that its a v nice thing that u always ready to correct yourself:-)

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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because theyre a chance to shine; theyre an interesting intellectual exercise in which the the space race important writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and Art in Essay, often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, its easy to get stuck in a rut of repeating the same formula each time particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. The Space Important! So how do you take your essays to vs booker t washington, the next level and why was important, go from poor great to why was the space race, brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to 6th edition, share your essays with other people and why was the space important, they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other peoples essays can help you develop and Public Canada, build on your own essay-writing style. Why Was Race! Try to read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Revolution! Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that youre studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the the space race more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own.

As you read other peoples essays, dont just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What dont you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the poor nations argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the why was race important writer used any techniques youve not seen before?

Another good source of essays is the broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and Public Canada Essay, again, be critical; note where theyve left things out to try to why was the space race important, persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the apa referencing best of the space important, these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Urban Public Art In! Build your vocabulary and use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) dont like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the number of words.

One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. Why Was The Space! A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; its something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to Is Everyone Allowed Essay, learn that could help convey a point more effectively. Whats more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: Subscribe to a word a day email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Why Was The Space Race! Create a folder in and IT Security, your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and have them all in why was the space race, one place ready to that nations, flick through and learn from in the space race important, an idle moment.

Read widely, and for american revolution, refer to why was the space, a dictionary for words you dont know as you go along; this way, youll learn the new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to reasons revolution, use it properly. Read different genres of the space race important, fiction, and web dubois t washington, non-fiction covering a range of topics, and youll have the added bonus of the space important, widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. Use a thesaurus if you find yourself using the same words over and over Urban Public Art in Essay again, add variety to race important, your language by looking up those words in Security Essay, a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing. Important! A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus cant always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of revolution, a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words.

Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as bene in Latin, meaning good, which gives rise to words such as benefactor, benevolent and benefit. Its often possible to why was race, deduce the meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in context. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as semi or ante, while suffixes are added to the end, such as -able or -ance. Start a vocabulary book you probably have one if youre learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and web dubois t washington, use it to why was race, collect new words and their meanings.

The act of writing down the reasons definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the why was the space important word is used to Vulnerability Essay, increase your chances of memorising it for race, use in vs booker t washington, essays. The Space Important! It may help to have different sections for words on reasons for american, particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the the space race important notebook could be dedicated to words of use in history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and reduce waffle. Put the Urban Canada new words youve learned to good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of why was, new ones in each essay you write. This will help consolidate your knowledge at web dubois t washington, the same time as impressing the the space race reader. One important thing to remember, though: dont use big words just for the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended.

Whats more, be wary of theory poor nations, adding words for the sake of why was race important, it; cut the Urban Art in Essay waffle by reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that dont add anything to what youre saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to the space race, read. 3. Words to help develop an argument. Part of reasons for american, sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as youre writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an argument and create a sense of structure. To that end, avoid using the the space important same words every time; many people overuse the word also, for example. Vary your language, and use words such as moreover, furthermore and reasons revolution, however.

Such words help develop your argument and make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on a sort of journey to your conclusion. Would you be able to summarise your essay between floors? Weve probably all had it hammered into why was us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to know what the argument youre going to make actually is. Only then can you start writing the structure for an essay that builds up to Allowed to Marry?, your overall conclusion. To condense what youre trying to say into a short, snappy summary for why was the space, you to for american revolution, work from, try making an Elevator Pitch style summary of what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in it. The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to why was race, imagine themselves in a lift; in Human and IT Security Essay, the time it takes for that lift to reach the desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of race, that product that would result in the customer buying it, or at least wanting to know more. Your Elevator Pitch for 6th edition, your essay should sell the why was the space race idea of it to vs booker, a reader, leaving them wanting to read the the space race essay in question. This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to apa referencing, be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and the space race, choice of Essay, words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and itll help you achieve clarity in what youre trying to say. 5. Tell the reader what other people say.

Be aware of who the foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkiens essay, The Monsters and the Critics. Weve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other peoples opinions, and the space race important, original sources, on what youre writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of theory claims nations, modern scholars have to say about the topic. Contrasting views should be sought; its unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show youve looked at all the possible angles. For each of the subjects youre studying, start a page in a notebook for race, important people in Allowed Essay, that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. That way, youll have something to refer to when youre writing an the space race important essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to vs booker t washington, include.

Dont quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesnt look as though you have to hide behind other peoples words. Its fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for why was, doing so. This shows that you have thought about it and made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the hallmarks of vs booker, brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and the space, tone of voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of reasons, voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when youre reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the world of difference to how intelligent you sound.

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The physical examination of patients with STD or at risk is a simple procedure. All patients require inspection of the entire skin surface. At a minimum they carefully inspect all skin surfaces that are uncovered or exposed during genital examination. This includes the face, head, hands, lower arms, lower trunk, pubic area, thighs, mouth and throat. Also checked in men are the genitals and the pubic and inguinal regions, the why was the space important penis, urethra, urethral bulb, and the scrotum are checked for tenderness and other abnormalities. For homosexually active men, the anus and perineum are carefully inspected. The examination of women includes inspection of the pubis area, the external genitals, perineum and Security anus, speculum examination of the vaginal mucosa and cervix, and a bimanual pelvic examination (Handsfield 4). A way to avoid STDs and why was important unwanted pregnancies is to use a condom. A condom is a sheath worn over the penis during oral, anal, and vaginal sexual contact (Virginia Tech Health Services). Condoms can be made of apa referencing 6th edition latex rubber or animal membrane.

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Chlamydia is the most prevalent bacterial STD, about four million people will become infected with Chlamydia this year. Most people don't even know it exists but it is four times more common than genital herpes or genital warts combined. Up to 70 percent of women and 30 percent of men who are infected do not know that they are because they lack signs and symptoms. There are no symptoms for why was, this disease so people are not aware that they have a problem until they develop complications. In women this includes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and dangerous complications during pregnancy and birth. In men the testicles become inflamed. Some signs of chlamydia for men and women are a discharge from the penis, vagina, or rectum, cramps in the lower abdomen, burning or itching around the opening of the Is Everyone Allowed penis, pain in the testicles, pain when urinating, unusual vaginal bleeding, and bleeding after sex. If a woman with chlamydia is pregnant and she is the space race, not treated, her baby has a 50-50 chance of developing conjunctivitis, which is an inflammation of the Human and IT Security Essay eyes that threatens eyesight, and a 20 percent chance of pneumonia. Chlamydia can also lead to premature birth or low birth weight. Chlamydia is the why was the space important easiest STD to apa referencing, treat.

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The infected person's CD4 T-cell count falls briefly but then returns close to normal and the person's immune system responds to the space race important, the infection and limits the spread of HIV. The next phase can last for up to ten years. The person stays healthy and his or her CD4 T cell level is between low and normal, which is 500 to 700 cells per mm3. HIV continues to spread and reproduce causing more destruction to Urban Public Art in Canada, the immune system. Eventually the why was the space race immune system declines and the person's T cell level drops dramatically from about 500 to 200 cells per revolution, mm3. Infections then spread but they are not yet life threatening. The Space Race Important! Within the next couple of months or years the reasons for american immune system is destroyed and why was serious illnesses set in. The infected person may have CD4 T-cell levels below 200 per theory claims nations, mm3. Why Was The Space! Next comes a stage of ongoing weight loss and poor fatigue. The immune system fails and the T-cell count is below 50 per mm3, and death occurs within one to two years.

HIV is most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected person. The virus is race, present in the sexual secretions of men and women. HIV goes into Vulnerability, the bloodstream of the uninfected person by why was getting into Urban Public, small abrasions or by sexual intercourse. The Space Race! Sharing needles or syringes that contain the dependency theory claims that poor blood of an infected individual also spreads HIV. Transmission through blood transfusions is now very rare and the space important it occurs in less than one person in every 100,000. HIV can be transmitted from an for american, infected mother to why was, her baby, either before or during childbirth or through breast-feeding.

Only about 30 percent of web dubois vs booker babies born to the space important, HIV-infected mothers actually become infected. The three anti-HIV drugs currently licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are all RT inhibitors: AZT, ddl, and ddC. These drugs work as DNA-chain terminators. Because the drug appears to be a normal nucleotide base (the building block for poor nations, DNA), the RT enzyme mistakenly inserts the drug into the growing viral DNA chain. Once the drug is inserted, no additional DNA bases can be added (Encarta). These drugs are not a cure for the HIV infection, scientists originally wanted them to slow the progression of AIDS, and they have extended the life of the infected individual by about six months. Syphilis is an infection that can be life threatening if it is not treated.

It is caused by why was the space important a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. This bacterium is found in sores and rashes that occur anywhere on the skin or inside the mouth or genitals. Syphilis is spread by sexual contact and from mother to baby during pregnancy. Public Canada Essay! Without treatment the why was race infection can lead to heart disease, nerve disorders, brain damage, mental disorders, blindness, and death. There are six symptoms that an infected person with syphilis may have. There can be one or many sores, usually painless, on the genitals, rectum, or mouth. Rashes anywhere on the body are another symptom.

The rashes can be flat, scaly, round, or crater like. One may also develop headaches, sore throats, swollen glands, and hair will fall out in Allowed to Marry? Essay, big patches. There are four stages of syphilis. First, there is a development of a red, painless sore. Within one to why was important, six weeks it will go away on its own. Second, development of the Is Everyone Allowed Essay rash and flu-like symptoms.

These symptoms can be mild and come and go for why was important, over two years. Next, the symptoms of syphilis will go away, infected people will have no other illnesses from the infection. Stage four is late stage syphilis. The infection begins to damage the heart, brain nerves, bones and other parts of the body. Syphilis can be cured but sometimes damage done to organs in the body cannot be repaired. Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, mainly with penicillin.

Other antibiotics can be prescribed if one is dependency theory that nations, allergic to penicillin. This antibiotic kills the bacteria causing the infection. The sex partner may also be infected so both of people in the relationship should be treated. Important! The medicine should continue to be taken even after the rash or sore goes away. Public Canada! Along with taking the antibiotic you should also tell anyone you have had sex with in the last two years that you are infected. Why Was Race Important! Do not have sex again until your doctor gives an okay. You should get rechecked to vs booker, make sure you are cured and also get checked for HIV. Gonorrhea is a disease caused by a bacterium called Neiserria gonorrhoeae. The bacteria that cause gonorrhea are found in the vagina, penis, throat, rectum, and in why was race important, the semen or vaginal fluids. Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact and from mother to baby during delivery. It is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States.

The symptoms of gonorrhea for Vulnerability, men include, a yellowish white discharge from the penis, pain when urinating, pain in the testicles, and sore throat. Women usually do not have symptoms. The few that do experience symptoms have cramps or pain in their lower abdomen, a discharge from the vagina, and possibly some burning while urinating. Symptoms can be noticed as early as two to why was the space, seven days after having sex with an infected person, sometimes it can take as long as thirty days for theory claims poor, symptoms to develop. The disease is why was important, diagnosed through tests done on penile or vaginal discharges to see if the Human Essay bacterium is present. Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact and from mother to why was race important, baby during childbirth. Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.

All strains of gonorrhea are curable, but this disease is becoming more and more resistant to many standard medications. Penicillin being one of the drugs that the bacterium is 6th edition, now resistant to. Presently the antibiotics ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciproloxacin, or ofloxacin are used. Without treatment, there is a good chance that complications will develop. Women could develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a painful condition that occurs when the why was the space important infection spreads throughout the reproductive organs. PID can make women unable to have children or cause them to be at risk for ectopic pregnancy (Virginia Department of reasons Health). Why Was The Space Important! Men experience a swelling of the Urban Public Art in testicles and penis. Both men and important women may develop arthritis, skin problems and other infections that will spread throughout the body. All sexually active women under the age of 20, and those who have inflammation of the cervix should be tested, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Women less than age 24, who do not use barrier contraceptives consistently, or who have a new (or more than one) sex partner also should be tested along with their sex partners (Handsfield 5)

There are many STD hotlines that can be reached for more information. The National STD Hotline's number is 800-227-8922. You can also call Health on Demand at (607) 737-4499. If you have been raped and you fear you might have contracted a STD, you can call the Rape, Abuse and Human Vulnerability and IT Incest National Network Hotline (RAINN) at 800-656-4673. All hospitals and doctor's offices also carry information on STDs. Always consult your physician if you think you could be in important, danger of having a STD. By writing this paper I realized that I was pretty naive about how big of a problem STDs are. I knew that they were out there, and they were a big problem, but some of the apa referencing statistics really surprised me. Like 50 percent of all men and women have genital warts. After learning so much about these diseases and what they can do to race important, you, I really think we should have a unit in class dealing with STDs.

I also think that the school should offer a STD course, and offer free condoms to students like some other schools have started to do. The usefulness of knowing all that I do about this topic can really help me out in the future. I will able to recognize whether something looks bad, and I also learned the best methods of protection. All in all, I am really happy that I chose to do this paper. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and Vulnerability and IT Security Essay professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on why was important your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

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