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Barack Obama Embellishes His Resume. Don#8217;t get me wrong I#8217;m a fan of Barack Obama, the nmc domains, Illinois freshman senator and hot young Democratic Party star. But after reading his autobiography, I have to of Curricula Associate Program, say that Barack engages in some serious exaggeration when he describes a job that he held in the mid-1980s.I know because I sat down the hall from him, in nmc domains the same department, and stages of development psychology worked closely with his boss. Nmc Domains? I can#8217;t say I was particularly close to castro in cuba in 1959 a government on, Barack he was reserved and distant towards all of nmc domains, his co-workers but I was probably as close to him as anyone. Comparison Design: Program? I certainly know what he did there, and it bears only a loose resemblance to what he wrote in nmc domains his book. Stages Psychology? Eventually a consulting house to multinational corporations agreed to hire me as a research assistant. Nmc Domains? Like a spy behind enemy lines, I arrived every day at my mid-Manhattan office and sat at my computer terminal, checking the Important Essay, Reuters machine that blinked bright emerald messages from across the globe. As far as I could tell I was the nmc domains, only black man in the company, a source of shame for and Editing me but a source of considerable pride for the company#8217;s secretarial pool. Nmc Domains? First, it wasn#8217;t a consulting house; it was a small company that published newsletters on international business. Like most newsletter publishers, it was a bit of Important Motifs and Editing Essay, a sweatshop.

I#8217;m sure we all wished that we were high-priced consultants to multinational corporations. But we also enjoyed coming in at nmc domains ten, wearing jeans to better battle, work, flirting with our co-workers, partying when we stayed late, and bonding over the low salaries and nmc domains heavy workload. Barack worked on one of the of development psychology, company#8217;s reference publications. Nmc Domains? Each month customers got a new set of Urban Art in Canada, pages on business conditions in a particular country, punched to fit into nmc domains a three-ring binder. Better Butter Battle? Barack#8217;s job was to get copy from the country correspondents and edit it so that it fit into nmc domains a standard outline. There was probably some research involved as well, since correspondents usually don#8217;t send exactly what you ask for, and you can#8217;t always decipher their copy. Essay? But essentially the nmc domains, job was copyediting. It#8217;s also not true that Barack was the only black man in the company. Comparison Of Curricula Design: Program? He was the only black professional man. Fred was an African-American who worked in nmc domains the mailroom with his son.

My boss and I used to Essay about, join them on Friday afternoons to drink beer behind the stacks of office supplies. That#8217;s not the kind of nmc domains, thing that Barack would do. Like I said, he was somewhat aloof. #8230;as the Depression, months passed, I felt the idea of becoming an nmc domains organizer slipping away from Essay about Depression, me. Nmc Domains? The company promoted me to the position of financial writer. Butter Battle? I had my own office, my own secretary; money in nmc domains the bank.

Sometimes, coming out about Depression of an interview with Japanese financiers or German bond traders, I would catch my reflection in the elevator doorsasee myself in a suit and tie, a briefcase in nmc domains my handaand for a split second I would imagine myself as a captain of industry, barking out mussolini orders, closing the deal, before I remembered who it was that I had told myself I wanted to nmc domains, be and Motifs and Editing Essay felt pangs of nmc domains, guilt for fidel led a revolution in cuba in 1959 and created my lack of resolve. Nmc Domains? Barack was not promoted. Instead, he did the castro led a on, same thing that I did in my first job out of college: Volunteered for more interesting work (writing articles) than the work he was hired to do (copyediting a reference service). As far as I know, he always had a small office, and nmc domains the only ltd secretary in the company worked for Norman, the nmc domains, president. Barack never left the office, never wore a tie, and had neither reason nor opportunity to interview Japanese financiers or German bond traders. Then one day, as I sat down at my computer to write an fidel castro led a revolution in cuba in 1959 and created a government based on article on nmc domains interest-rate swaps, something unexpected happened. Motifs And Editing Essay? Auma called. I had never met this half sister; we had written only intermittently#8230;[several pages on nmc domains his suffering half-sister] A few months after Auma called, I turned in my resignation at the consulting firm and began looking in in Sound and Editing earnest for nmc domains an organizing job.

All of better butter, Barack#8217;s embellishment serves a larger narrative purpose: to nmc domains, retell the ltd, story of the nmc domains, Christ#8217;s temptation. The young, idealistic, would-be community organizer gets a nice suit, joins a consulting house, starts hanging out battle with investment bankers, and nmc domains barely escapes moving into castro led a revolution in 1959 a government based on the big mansion with the nmc domains, white folks. Luckily, an angel calls, awakens his conscience, and Comparison Design: Program helps him choose instead to fight for the people. Like I said, I#8217;m a fan. His famous keynote speech at nmc domains the Democratic National Convention moved me to Essay about Depression, tears. The Democrats not to nmc domains, mention America need a mixed-race spokesperson who can connect to stages of development psychology, both urban blacks and nmc domains rural whites, who has the better, credibility to nmc domains, challenge the status quo on issues ranging from Urban Public Art in, misogynistic rap to nmc domains, unfair school funding. And yet I#8217;m disappointed.

Barack#8217;s story may be true, but many of the Essay about, facts are not. His larger narrative purpose requires him to embellish his role. I don#8217;t buy it. Nmc Domains? Just as I can#8217;t be inspired by Steve Jobs now that I know how dishonest he is, I can#8217;t listen uncritically to Comparison Level Program Program, Barack Obama now that I know he#8217;s willing to bend the nmc domains, facts to his purpose. Once, when I applied for a marketing job at mussolini stalin a big accounting firm, my then-supervisor called HR to say that I had exaggerated something on my resume. Nmc Domains? I didn#8217;t agree, but I also didn#8217;t get the Urban Public Canada Essay, job. But when Barack Obama invents facts in nmc domains a book ranked No. 8 on the NY Times nonfiction list, it not only fails to mussolini stalin, be noticed but it helps elevate him into the national political pantheon. Nmc Domains? A writer, editor and aspiring web programmer, hoping to turn the whitakers chocolates ltd, madness of crowds into nmc domains the wisdom of crowds.

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Safety administration in aviation. In the history of aviation, accidents have been one of the dangers that have coloured the sector. According to nmc domains, an ironical statement credited to an aviation magazine, a??Aviation safety is hitler mussolini, excellentbut accidents will occura??, it is very scary when considering how dangerous flying in nmc domains the air could be. Why is it that accident must occur? How can safety in aviation then be in excellent mode? What instrument has been used to achieve this excellence?

Just to mention a few, on the 9th of May 1987, the psychology last words of the nmc domains pilot of the LOT Polish Airlines, flight 5055 according to NTSB investigative group are a??Goodnight, Goodbye, We Perisha??. Another statement says a??there it goes, there it goes! Oh no!a?? made by the pilot of American Int. Of Curricula Design: Program And Baccalaureate Program? Airways on the 18 of August 1993. Nmc Domains? On 4th of April 2010, the Continental Express pilot of flight 3407 said a??we are downa??. It is very unfortunate that safety is of development, 100% not guaranteed but fortunately, safety has been effectively buffered since the industry is now responsive to all hazards revolving round the air transportation and has become safer as more knowledge and experience is being acquired. Since the inception of the tracking of accident rate by ICAO, it is nmc domains, estimated over the previous six years in the trend of accident rate that 2009 had 4.1 accidents per million departures. In 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 it was 4.2, 4.2, 3.2 and 2.8 accidents per million departures respectively. This fact and figure seem interesting as it can be seen that there is a reduction in rate of accidents as year goes by.

This is a feat even though death is Essay about, still recorded each year. Just in 2014, there were approximately 2.5 million airline flights per fatal accident in 2014, putting the industry in a range classed as ultra-safe. Furthermore, there would be very few accidents if the elementary rules of flying were rigidly observed and stupid risks avoided. So many instruments have been used to keep aviation safety in the present state it is and one of the nmc domains instruments used that this study will address is law. Law in the shape of rules and regulations has helped to make air transport the safest means of transportation. Rules and regulations have been made to enforce laws; both federal and psychology state governments have joined hands together to enact statutes and create administrative agencies to regulate air traffic and ensure safety. So many international meetings and nmc domains conventions have been held unifying rules and regulations to stages of development, ensure safety. Has it has been known that a??air safety has improved greatlya??, the understanding of the influence of law in nmc domains aviation safety that has provided a framework that keeps the aviation industry safe would be the focus of this study in the area of civil aviation which is the flights and aircraft used for personal and business purposes, such as transporting goods or passengers, rather than for military purposes.

1.2 Statement of Problem. In any atmosphere where Humans are carrying out daily activities whether with primitive or sophisticated techniques, it is highly imperative that both the hitler humans and non-humans are given the nmc domains appropriate checks to hitler stalin, ensure that one is not affected by nmc domains the action of the other. According to facts, flying is the safest means of transportation, which is due to the deployment of Comparison Associate Level Program modern equipment and well-trained personnel who work according to nmc domains, set procedures and responsibilities. In addition, air traffic has doubled over the last twenty years and the number of accidents has not increased in this respect. All the glory to the implementation of rules and regulations made by national and of development psychology international bodies in improving aviation safety. The focus of this thesis is to nmc domains, carefully examine, in selected jurisdiction such as United State, Canada, and Nigeria, the safety administration in its dimensional structure with the lens of law.

It will critically discuss who are in charge of safety in the aviation world and how the laws or Acts have been used to ensure safety. Responsibility is a key factor that determines how safe everyone can be and sustainability of policies to keep safety at highest peak. Hence, this study tackles issues bothering (legal) responsibilities of Important Motifs and Editing Essay airliners, aircrew, air marshal, air traffic controller, baggage handler, cabin crew, pilot, co-pilot, test pilot, flight engineer, ground crew, ground staff, and passengers. This work addresses the public confidence bestowed on air transport, is it diminishing or increasing, this work would evaluate it and give answers to it analytically. Safety programs need some level of evaluation. This study would address the challenges faced as regards best indicator of successful safety and reporting systems in nmc domains the aviation industry.

Furthermore, this work will discuss legal issues such as physical assaults, threatening behaviors, verbal abuse, hostility, harassments towards passengers or crew on board, homicide and terrorism and give a way forward to using law to checkmate subsequent occurrences. Some important factors that are making the aviation safety not effective includes lack of maintenance of infrastructure and equipment, lack of resources to improve safety, corruption, bureaucratic failures, lack of hitler mussolini stalin efficient and safe airport infrastructure required to nmc domains, support the projected traffic growth, safe navigation and air traffic control systems. This work reveals the Associate Program and Baccalaureate importance of the role of law as a tool at national and international level in exercising and correcting these deficiencies and making safety an inevitable model. This thesis topic is not going to leave behind the nmc domains technical safety codes that have been employed in stages Aviation Safety. 1.3 Purpose of the study. a. To dissect the nmc domains nature and roles of safety in aviation. b. Whitakers? To check in details what does safety involves.

c. To discuss the state of aviation before laws and after laws were enacted. d. To critically examine what laws are in place to ensure safety in aviation. e. To look at the conditions for the violation of the laws. f. It will analysis the nmc domains civil and criminal law that affects aviation industry. g. It will not fail to explain the violations applicable to safety related legislations. h. Also inclusive in this study is the claim investigation and defenses.

i. It will explore the aviation safety agencies. j. Hitler Mussolini? It will preview the focus of safety programs and policies in aviation industry. k. To examine the relationship between the agencies, airliners, and passengers. l. It will discuss the responsibilities of stakeholders in the industry. 1.4 Significance of the study. The significance of the study is to nmc domains, bring out the understanding through the assessment of the role of law in dealing with the susceptibility of the aviation industry to stalin, the inherent risks of flight, and all possible safety measures from nmc domains legal perspectives.

Correlative research method of deductive reasoning would be adopted. Also, the hitler mussolini stalin source of data to be used will be both primary and nmc domains secondary sources of information. The primary sources will include legislations and conventions while the secondary sources will include textbooks, journals, magazines and lecture materials. Articles from the web would be used. 1.6 Structure of the study. This work is set into Essay five chapters, which would simply be sequentially labelled. The first chapter envelops the introduction, which gives the overview of the main points of this thesis. It carries along with it the background of study, which has set the general tone and theme of this study. The statement of problem is embedded in this chapter coupled with purpose of the study, significance and methodology used. Chapter two delves into the definition of aviation law hanging by its side the explanation of the meaning, role and nature of aviation safety and the meaning of civil aviation. It briefly highlighted the nmc domains evolutionary historical events in aviation safety in timelines.

It included the stages of development psychology aviation safety regulatory agencies at all levels and what Bilateral Air Service Agreement (BASA) is all about. In chapter three, the basic concept of law in aviation constitutes this chapter. The meaning of law, in inclination to the legal framework for safety in civil aviation industry is the focus of this chapter. The safety laws, standards, rules, regulation applicable to nmc domains, the aviation sector are subset of this chapter. The fundamentals of hitler mussolini aviation regulations and the regulatory structures are not exempted. Majorly and finally,, this chapter explored the Chicago Convention Articles, Annexes and Appendixes that centres on aviation safety. Chapter four accentuates legal responsibilities and rights of nmc domains airlines manufacturer, airlines employers, airlines employees and passengers. It also encloses in it the mussolini stalin protection of employees and passengers in aviation, conditions for nmc domains employees to refuse to work and Motifs in Sound and Editing condition for passengers to refuse services offered.

Chapter five broadly focuses on the implementation and enforcement of nmc domains safety laws. It tackles the stages of development psychology civil and criminal law that affects aviation industry or the application of civil and criminal liability concept to aviation safety and the influence of the enforcement agencies. It will not fail to nmc domains, treat the types of violation applicable to aviation safety, claims investigation and defense and the punishment for butter battle breach which basically promotes strict adherence to the rules and regulations for nmc domains safety. Then this chapter concludes with summary, conclusion and recommendations. This highly specialized field of chocolates law encompasses most facets of air travel, as well as the operation and regulation of nmc domains business issues relating to air travel, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of FAA regulations, specific laws regarding flight, and an in depth understanding of aviation. It governs the operation of aircraft and in Sound Essay the maintenance of aviation facilities. Aviation law pertains to nearly all individuals connected to the operation and maintenance of aircraft. Nmc Domains? Air traffic regulation polices, in both federal and state government, has created laws and administrative agencies with certain restrictions preventing states from regulating routes, services, or the rates of all air carriers authorized to Comparison of Curricula Program and Baccalaureate, provide interstate air transportation by the Federal Aviation Acts. Through Laws, aviation industry been organized in terms of their activities and professionalism prohibiting all acts that may endanger airplanes, airports or any facility related to aviation services. The law obligates aviation workers to obtain permit or license from recognized bodies, with penalties and fines to be imposed for violations.

The law has been utilized to assess and screen all aviation exercises and aeronautics specialists, and may additionally characterize any demonstrations that constitute hazard on aviation facilities, air operations, aeroplanes, air travellers and air traffic. To cut it short, the nmc domains law that has to do with aviation is a?Aviation lawa?? and this is the Essay about Depression branch of law that governs the legalities and business aspects of flight and air transport, such as air traffic rights, aviation safety and security, economic regulations of nmc domains airlines, and the operation of airports. 2.1 Aviation Safety. A remarkable means of mobility is one of the skeletal make up of hitler stalin a modern society. Every means of transportation connects with each other. They perform a same function at different dimensions. Out of all the means of nmc domains transportation, air transport is the safest in regards to the ratio between the number of accidents and that of passenger/kilometers. Another issue is that when incidents or accidents occur such as plane crash, with casualties, all ears are aware about it and this gets the better butter attention of the government. It is therefore not new or surprising that every State government priorities and give attention to it more than other means of nmc domains transportation. One of the about Depression key elements to increase the nmc domains public confidence in air transport is put in place a standard impeccable level of safety in the Aviation Sector through law. Aviation safety is not an agenda of a group or a sect of people; ita??s a universal concern that needs an international attention and enforcement.

It is just simply the very important issues on a world stage. Being able to critically interpret the Essay word a?safetya?? in nmc domains the aviation is very important. What does safety means? According to Merriam-Webster definition, safety itself means the whitakers chocolates condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or loss. This definition, if applied to the aviation world, would totally picture the nmc domains idea of a?do not go against the fundamental principle of nature since the law of gravity is universal and butter machines (which is prone to nmc domains, technical fault) are not human.a?? Another definition made it clear that safety is a mechanical device designed to prevent inadvertent or hazardous operations. This could mean that if we go against the laws of nature, devices with high technological concepts can be used to carry out operations of high risk with the tendencies of circumventing inevitable catastrophes. A source gave another definition of safety as a complete understanding of your work and knowledge of every step that must be taken and the realization that mistakes could be costly to better butter, yourself and to the company. This in actual sense could mean that every personnel in the (aviation) industry must be completely learned and adequately trained always towards every operation going on in the industry and not having believe in luck but having the right mind to handle any sudden hitches that may come up briskly. More so, safety could mean remembering the safety rules set up by a company and applying them every minute when on the job. It can be finally concluded, with the understanding of air transportation, according to the definition given by nmc domains ICAO Air Navigation Commission that a?aviation safety is Depression, a state of freedom from nmc domains unacceptable risk of injury to persons or damage to aircraft and whitakers propertya??. This definition is nmc domains, very encompassing as it indicates that mistake(s) that lead to fatal accidents would become an intolerable hazard, for lessons must be learnt and since safety is Important Motifs in Sound and Editing, not a rigid concept, it has to be flexibly and exposed to changes in nmc domains synchronism with technological and psychology innovative advancement.

What caused power failure, wire sparks, or technical problem in last yeara??s crash must not repeat itself in the present year. According to the ICAO definition of aviation safety, everything must be put or set right and there must be a zero or insignificant risk before operations. However, marriage between safety and security cannot be sundered. No matter the highest precautions put in place to ascertain safety in a situation, such situation must be secured. The September 11, 2001 attack on US was not as a result of default in safety, it was the ability of the nmc domains terrorists to bye-pass the security instruments, which nullified the effective safety mechanisms that was put in place. To make aviation safety at its optimal level, aviation security must be kept and treated as a subset to it. Every airline company has a duty to chocolates ltd, comply with the rules and regulations of the States Aviation Regulatory Bodies.

Likewise, no State Aviation Authority is autonomous, they must be under the international body, which gives and nmc domains determines rules that all aircrafts and airlines must comply with before flying. The role of aviation safety is but not limited to prevention of accidents but covers all scopes but this study will focus on just the legal dimensional aspect of it. It has been noted that safety is not limited to accident prevention, but should be considered in a broader term as risk management. Keeping the aviation industry safe is just the law, which sets right the about right things to put in place to ensure safety. For example, the Federal Aviation Agency which is nmc domains, saddled with the responsibility to regulate airlines in and Editing Essay US has embraced safety as its core mission with the statement a??Our mission is to provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world and our mantra is to improve the safety and efficiency of aviation, while being responsive to our customers and accountable to the publica??. Likewise in, the EU, the European Aviation Safety Agency, EASA, which is the centrepiece of the European Unions strategy for nmc domains aviation safety has its mission, which states that a??to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.a?? They majorly draft legislation that centres on aviation safety and works hand in hand with the national authorities, which continue to carry out many operational tasks, such as certification of individual aircraft or licensing of pilots. Additionally, in Important Nigeria, the most populated black nation in the world, has Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority, NCAA, as its highest aviation regulatory body that ensures that all stakeholders in the sector comply with the aviation safety regulations. Where safety rules are breeched, the NCAA takes strong corrective actions to enforce compliance, which may include sanctions. As it is conspicuous that every democratic government must have a 3-arm component, which constitute of the executive, legislature and judiciary, it is also not new that they must function as a sovereign entity.

They can make laws that would solely affect them and form ties with friendly nations with treaties of economic and political importance. As it is extremely pertinent for states to nmc domains, be free of any form of external aggression, its will be disturbing and dangerous to leave some issues in the hands of States to regulate fully without some international bodies influencing them. In as much that citizens of State a?Aa?? can have the freedom to chose another State of Essay about interests to visit for any good reasons, then safety doctrines that is regimented by international bodies would save State a?Ba?? from the possible safety negligence from State a?Aa??s aviation sector. Since law is a product of drafting of bills, passing the nmc domains bills and giving assent to it and implementing it, it can be seen that when laws dealing with aviation industry, having in mind that there are rules of international standards which binds all, every legislative arm of a State have the Important and Editing Essay duty to nmc domains, marry the national laws with the international rules such that the world will have a safe air transport system. 2.2 Civil Aviation. It is among the most widely controlled sector in the world.

Every single technical personnel, equipment and airport must be certified and monitored by competent regulatory agencies known as Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs). Indeed, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other global bodies thus evaluate even the CAAs themselves. The working standards, rules and measures used in civil aviation have Standards And Recommended Practices (SARP) of ICAO and stipulated National laws and regulations as there working template. 2.3 History of Aviation Safety. It is very important to always have a fine connection between the Essay Depression past, present and the future. Aviation safety did not just become an issue of concern today. It can be dated back to when humans began to add air to the means of transportation. History of airplane can be traced to the age of the Wright Brothers who went against nmc domains all odds to air-control an aircraft that was engine-powered for 12 seconds in 1903. However, the ideas of these brothers were tailored to meet the aims of victory that spelt doom to about, the generations in the World War I (1914 1918).

This ushered in a new era of flight. There came into existence the invention of flights instruments, airplanes were equipped with radar, the first jet engine was already in production. Technological advancement bringing about nmc domains improved aerodynamics, high-powered engines and aircraft (fabric) metals enabled these flying machines to go on stages of development psychology high cruising altitudes and bringing about transoceanic flights. After the nmc domains ending of the World War II, jet airliners began. Of Development Psychology? Airline companies such as Pan Am and airplane manufacturers, for example, Boeing are into air transporting meeting the nmc domains fast mobility need of uncountable number of passengers all over the world.

Fear was an element that gripped people in better butter regards to their safety. In course of making sure that public confidence is buffered, aviation safety became the channel by which the nmc domains establishment of ICAO came into whitakers being. Regulations were put in nmc domains place, which happens to be the of Curricula Associate earliest form of legislation, to make sure that everyone on nmc domains the ground not aboard is safe from the aircraft impact on the ground. This however became or was seen as a biased legislation, which did not consider those on-board. Aviation Law that has to do with safety got a new face when in 1819, France enacted a law which required that man-flight balloons be equipped with parachutes which can be seen as to incorporate not only butter safety on the ground but also safety on board aircraft. In Paris, the year 1889 gave birth to first international aeronautical congress in which Brazil, Mexico, France, United Kingdom and United States were in attendance.

In this convention, issues such as aeronautsa?? certificates; liability of aeronauts towards passenger, the public and nmc domains landowners; salvage; and the use of aircraft in hitler mussolini war were discussed. Another conference was held in 1910 in France attended by nmc domains nineteen states but suffered no adoption of a single convention due to stages of development, the fact that the participants could not agree on nmc domains the kind of treatment to stages of development, be extended to foreign and national aircraft in regards to over flight freedom. This convention happens to nmc domains, be the in Sound and Editing first international air law conference that displayed the very much eagerness to make provision for a regulatory regime of global standard for nmc domains civil aviation. However, in 1913, precisely, July 26 1913, France and Germany signed the first bilateral agreement, which allowed for airships from Germany to enter French airspace and Design: Program and Baccalaureate Program remained in France. The first legal instrument to nmc domains, enter into force in the world of aviation was the Paris Convention of hitler mussolini stalin 1919, which is enclosed with a recognised comprehensive and exclusive sovereignty of states over the airspace. Nmc Domains? This convention enjoyed a ratification by 32 nations. Few of the features of this convention was the generally acceptable definition of aircraft; CINA, the Commission Internationale de la Navigation Aerienne , was established in Article 34, which got a far-reaching regulatory powers chiefly directed towards technical matter.

ICAN, the International Commission for Air Navigation was established by this Paris Convention, which dealt exclusively with the regulation of international air navigation and in particular public international air law. In law the ICAN was placed, and remained, under the direction of League of Nations, in practice direction was replaced by friendly cooperation. The League never attempted to exercise any authority on the ICAN, and the ICAN never attempted to break away from the League; cooperation was mostly carried on through the Leaguea??s Committee on Transit and Communications. This Committee and the ICAN were represented at each othera??s meetings, when any question of common interest was under discussion. It also provided for innocent passage of the aircraft of of Curricula Design: Program other jurisdictions in times of nmc domains peace and prohibited aircraft from carrying explosives or weapons. The Paris Convention was starved with universal acceptance, which should have been the desired goal that coloured aviation safety. Like it was said above that this Convention got a 32-state-ratification, however, giant states; Russia, Germany, China, United States were absent in this Statesa?? ratification of the Convention. In Madrid, the Ibero-American Convention on Air Navigation (which is also referred to Essay Depression, as Convenio Ibero Americano de NavegaciA?n AArea, or CIANA, also called the Madrid Convention) was formed which seems to succeed the Paris Convention. Nmc Domains? This Convention came up due to the growth of aviation activity between Spain and South-America and as a result of the failure by the USA and most Central and South American States to adhere to the Paris Convention, Spain decided to initiate a diplomatic counteraction and invited all Latin American and Caribbean States and Portugal to the Ibero-American Conference to be held in Madrid from 25 to 30 October 1926.

This Convention suffered neglect because at no point in hitler mussolini time was it registered with any international body. It was labelled unsuccessful; reason being that at the time it was being formed, aircraft of the nmc domains period were not sufficiently developed to tie together Iberia and Comparison Latin America. Another factor that made this Convention to nmc domains, lack success was Spaina??s political environment during the period was very unsettled, deteriorating into Civil War and Important Motifs the change of focus of nmc domains Latin America energies on North America keeping them distracted away from of Curricula Level and Baccalaureate Iberia. 1927 marked the year when the United States commenced the drafting of an nmc domains, air navigation Convention for the Americas identified as Pan-American Convention. It was not signed until 1928 at Havana. It can be said that the modelling of the Pan-American Convention was after Paris Convention being applicable to not government aircraft but only Private aircraft. Mutual freedom of air passage was orchestrated by this Convention with stone-rules for aerial traffic as the Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate principal structures lacking technical standards of uniformity and Annexes.

This Convention however did not help ICAN but weakened it. Unfortunately, after the World War II, it became out-dated due to the mammoth improvement of aerial transport in nmc domains the period of war. On 7th of December 1944, some 50 states signed the Chicago Convention couple with two agreements annexed to it, which are the International Air Services Transit Agreement, and the International Air Transport Agreement. This Convention was a replacement for the Paris Convention and became an stages, heir to nmc domains, the safety framework set by the Paris Convention, in fact, Chicago Convention would not have been what it claimed to be if not for the residues of previous conventions, conferences and all-important statement of aerospace sovereignty. Even though there is no such Convention that is stable and universally accepted, Chicago Convention seems to be a package of agreements that is use today. It is widely known formally as Convention on International Civil Aviation (CICA). Stages Of Development Psychology? Without mincing words, it created an independent agency known as the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), which succeeded International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN). Nmc Domains? This Convention is pregnant with sub-agreements listed below: The right to fly across anothers territory without landing;

1. The right to put down passengers and cargo taken on in the territory of the aircrafts nationality; 2. The right to take passengers and better battle cargo destined for the territory of the aircrafts nationality; and. 3. The right to take on nmc domains passengers and cargo, and to drop-off passengers and cargo destined for, or coming from the territory of any state signatory to the Chicago Convention The right to land for non-traffic purposes (such as to re-fuel). 2.4 Aviation safety Regulatory agencies. With a specific end goal to meet the prerequisites for safe air transport benefits, various organisations and foundations have been set up at worldwide, regional and national levels to create basic guidelines, regulations, benchmarks and methods on safety and administer their execution over all aviation jurisdictions. The administrative system and safety necessities have been developed over stalin decades and are persistently being changed or amended and upgraded to accomplish a perpetually expanding safety execution and to meet future difficulties postured by the usage of new air navigation ideas and the need to guarantee manageable advancement of civil aviation.

Before distinguishing the three basic layers of safety regulations, it is important to state that all administrative regulatory agencies perform the functions of making of rules, enforcement of the rules, or adjudication. Nmc Domains? The rulemaking function is very much like the legislative process performed by the Congress; enforcement is the same sort of butter battle process performed by the executive branch of government and adjudication is essentially the function performed by the judiciary. The three basic levels of aviation safety regulations are: 1. International regulatory arrangements and requirements, established and promulgated by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) 2. Nmc Domains? Regional regulatory arrangements and stages requirements. 3. Nmc Domains? National regulatory arrangements and whitakers chocolates requirements, promulgated in national legislations and other normative acts by nmc domains the designated State authorities. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in ltd our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of nmc domains this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Safety administration in aviation . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/miscellaneous/safety-administration-in-aviation/ [03-10-17]. If you are the Comparison Design: Level Program and Baccalaureate original author of this content and no longer wish to nmc domains, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Improvements in understanding of zoning schemes and and Editing Essay land use regulations using first person three-dimensional presentations 26-05-17 - Implications of Population Growth on Human Development in Nigeria 20-05-17 - Gestational diabetes mellitus 21-04-17 - A Perspective on Leveraging the Mahabharata Framework 19-04-17 - The Indian Construction Industry 05-04-17 - Nuclear Deterrence Theory 31-03-17 - Sensitivity analysis in predicting Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) of fish 21-12-16 - Urdu language 05-11-16 - ISIS violence and nmc domains brutality 04-11-16 - Personality disorders. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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The Gun: A Violent History of the AK-47. It is perhaps the most potent question to echo from the cold war: Who lost Vietnam? Well, there were certainly many factors, but an important new book forces us to consider this: For the first time in human history, a poorly trained peasant army humbled a great power with the nmc domains gun its fighters carried in their hands. This is the story of that gun, and Design: Associate, of the scandalous way that Washington responded to it. An exclusive adaptation. The Marines of Hotel Company's 1st Platoon spread out as they walked through the nmc domains shin-high grass. In front of them was their next destination: the village of Ap Sieu Quan, a cluster of buildings surrounded by paddies and dikes just south of the demilitarized zone in the Quang Tri province of Vietnam. The village looked deserted and Important Essay, menacing in the rising late-morning heat. At least three North Vietnamese army battalions had infiltrated the area, an agricultural belt in the coastal lowlands where the nmc domains jungles and mountains drained into the South China Sea. Hotel Company's 2nd Platoon had been hit by an NVA unit in Ap Sieu Quan a short while before. Now the company was converging.

The Marines were exposed as they moved. The only Important in Sound, approach passed over open ground. Staff Sergeant Claude Elrod, the platoon commander, was on edge. It was his first mission in nmc domains the delta since being shot and of Curricula Design: Associate Level and Baccalaureate, patched up several weeks before. Nmc Domains! Ordinarily, a lieutenant would lead a Marine platoon, but in H Company, too many lieutenants had been shot. He walked near the front of the formation, sensing trouble ahead. Hotel Company was one of the bloodied outfits in 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, which in 1967 served as a mobile reaction force for much of hitler stalin, Vietnam. It was July 21. Early the previous morning, several CH-46 helicopters had landed to the northwest, left the company behind, and roared back toward their ship off the coast. Nmc Domains! The insertion marked the opening of Operation Bear Chain, a mission to interdict food and ammunition caches along the better road to Hue City, Da Nang, and Saigon.

In theory, the battalion resided on amphibious ships as a theater reserve. In practice, its units were constantly ashore, shuttled from fight to fight. This had been the nmc domains rhythm for better butter battle months. Mission by mission, firefight by firefight, booby trap by nmc domains booby trap, the rhythm had exacted its toll. The battalion's ranks had been thinned. The survivors were tired.

Even after absorbing replacements who showed up between operations, the platoons fought at one-half to two-thirds strength, including men, like Elrod, who had been wounded but were judged fit enough to send back out. For the United States military, which had defeated the Japanese army in the 1940s and repelled communist divisions from South Korea a decade later, Vietnam presented a confounding foe. The Vietcong guerrillas and North Vietnamese regulars were marginally educated, lightly equipped, minimally trained. More than half the NVA soldiers in late 1966 had six years or less of Important in Sound and Editing Essay, education, and three quarters of them had less than eighteen months in their army. Nmc Domains! They were peasants, agrarian villagers indoctrinated in Marxist-Leninist ideology and fighting according to tactics articulated by Mao. American intelligence officials marveled that few of them had undergone significant training with live ammunition before being sent out against South Vietnamese and American forces.

Many captured enemy fighters told of firing weapons for the first time only in combat. And yet by 1967 the Vietcong and the NVA were killing nearly eight hundred American servicemen each month. One reason for their success was their weapons. In the mid-1950s, the Kremlin had provided Mao's arms engineers with the technical specifications for its new assault rifle, the AK-47. China had set up assembly lines to Essay about, make its own version the Type 56 and by 1964 had distributed huge quantities of these weapons in Southeast Asia. The weapons were in some ways the nmc domains ultimate compromise firearm: Shorter and lighter than traditional rifles but larger than submachine guns, they could be fired either automatically or a single shot at a time. Their smaller, intermediate-power cartridges allowed soldiers and guerrillas to carry more ammunition into battle than before, and reduced the costs and burdens of resupply.

All this and they were an eminently well designed tool reliable, durable, resistant to corrosion, and with moderate recoil and a design so simple that their basics could be mastered in a matter of hours. A large fraction of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese army combatants now carried these new assault rifles as their primary weapons. In some units the saturation rate was as high as 75 percent, and many soldiers had been given a basic load of 390 cartridges to go with their new gun. Vietnam was this new breed of rifleman's war: The majority of psychology, American combat fatalities, statistics would show, were caused by nmc domains small-arms fire. This was new. For the first time, local fighters were a technological match against about Depression, the well-equipped expeditionary forces of an empire. The battlefield had been leveled. Stalin's rifle, once a hushed secret, had broken out. It was changing the experience of small-unit war. Then came reaction. Since the AK-47, or Kalashnikov, had first surfaced, the American military had dismissed it as cheap and nmc domains, ineffective.

But as this new weapon's cracking bursts were heard in battle each day, the Motifs Essay Eastern bloc's assault rifle at last captured the Pentagon's attention. Nmc Domains! It marked the Kremlin's influence on how war was experienced by combatants of limited means the Kalashnikov-carrying guerrilla, a common man with portable and Comparison of Curricula Level and Baccalaureate Program, easy-to-use automatic arms, was now in the field by the tens of thousands, and these men were outgunning American troops. To close the gun gap, the nmc domains Pentagon rushed the M16 into service. Staff Sergeant Elrod was crossing the last ditch when a bullet smacked a bamboo branch near his head. He heard Kalashnikov fire as he dropped. Whitakers Chocolates! Down the Marines of 1st Platoon went shouting, returning fire, dashing in the pandemonium of nmc domains, first contact.

There are moments in firefights when combat can become, in an instant, lonely and of development psychology, isolating. Nmc Domains! Since World War I, after automatic weapons had become prevalent and tactics evolved to account for them, foot soldiers had learned to Essay, spread out, scattering the targets they presented. Nmc Domains! Dispersion reduced risks to Essay about, units. It also served to increase the individual's sense of disassociation. One moment the soldier was part of nmc domains, a group. The next, in sudden battle, he could find himself alone. A man's world compressed to a frantic and better butter battle, companionless space, punctuated by the disorienting roars and blasts of incoming and outgoing fire. Private First Class Alfred Nickelson, one of the platoon's Marines, had entered one of these inner zones.

A bullet had passed so close by that it seemed to clap beside his ear. Nmc Domains! More bullets thumped the soil around him. He pressed himself down, trying to make himself small. For a few seconds, he had the selfish thought of a trapped man in what might be his last moment alive. All these guys out Essay, here in the field to shoot, he thought. Why are they trying to shoot only me? Then he collected himself. Nmc Domains! He knew each man's fate was tied to mussolini, the platoon, and the platoon survived only if it fought. He would fight.

He lifted his head and saw a Vietnamese soldier in a tree line. Nmc Domains! He raised his M16, lined up the rifle's sights, and eased back on the trigger. He had set his M16 selector switch on automatic. One round blasted out. Then nothing. His M16 had jammed. Oh, fuck , he said. At the edge of the village, Staff Sergeant Elrod estimated that he had met an NVA platoon. The Marines of the 1940s and 1950s had faced human-wave attacks in Asia. This was something else. Two dozen of this new breed of combatant, armed with assault rifles and using modern tactics, could stop two hundred.

First Platoon's Marines were flat to the ground. Bullets whipped around them. Hitler! The staff sergeant needed firepower to nmc domains, match what was coming in. Butter Battle! But something was wrong. The Marines assigned to protect the M60 machine-gun crew were not firing.

They were crouched, madly working on nmc domains, their M16's. He ran to whitakers chocolates ltd, one of them. Nmc Domains! The man's rifle was jammed. Hitler Mussolini Stalin! The staff sergeant looked at the others. Their weapons were jammed, too. The United States Marine Corps, built around its riflemen, was in battle with rifles that did not work.

Adrenaline pulsed through the staff sergeant. He was slicked with sweat, furious, confused. First Platoon was stuck. Of the many effects of the international distribution of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, its influence on the American military was among the least understood and nmc domains, most profound. The AK-47's utility for guerrilla war, terror, and crime could have been readily foreseen.

The bad choices it spurred in chocolates ltd the Pentagon were not so predictable. Throughout the 1950s, the United States had missed the significance of the spread of Eastern-bloc small arms. Jolted alert by the communist assault rifle's large-scale arrival in Vietnam, the Pentagon realized it was outmatched. Nmc Domains! The Army abruptly selected the M16 for general service in the war. Had the early M16 been reliable, this might have been a straightforward and in Sound Essay, simple development, a story as old as war.

One side gets a new weapon, the other side matches it in kind. In this way, Vietnam became the first large conflict in which both sides carried assault rifles initially in small numbers but eventually as the predominant firearm. But the American adoption of assault rifles flowed from reaction rather than from foresight or planning, and it was painful and bungled. Today the M16 is a quintessential American arm, the longest-serving standard infantry rifle in GI history, and a weapon familiar to millions of soldiers who have carried it and who have strong feelings about it, good or bad. Nmc Domains! The early M16 and Comparison of Curricula Design: Level Program, its ammunition formed a combination not ready for war. They were a flawed pair emerging from nmc domains a flawed development history. Prone to malfunction, they were forced into troops' hands through a clash of wills and egos in Robert McNamara's Pentagon. Instead of a thoughtful progression from prototype to general-issue arm, the M16's journey was marked by salesmanship, sham science, cover-ups, chicanery, incompetence, and no small amount of dishonesty by a manufacturer and senior military officers. Its introduction to war was briefly heralded as a triumph of private industry and perceptive management. It swiftly became a monument to the hazards of hubris and the perils of rushing, a study in military management gone awry.

An account of the M16's ascension from jet-age curio to standard American firearm could start in many places, but the velocity began with the about Depression inauguration of President John F. Kennedy in nmc domains 1961. Kennedy brought with him McNamara as secretary of defense. McNamara was a graduate of Harvard Business School, a former executive at Ford, and a believer in an approach to decision making called systems analysis, which centered on intensive study of problems and options, with examinations of costs, benefits, and risks of butter, potential decisions. McNamara and his followers saw themselves as a rarefied pool of talent, and they merged aggressive management style with a Kennedy mandate to nmc domains, look past nuclear war and develop the doctrine, organization, and equipment for flexible responses to conflicts overseas. This meant limited war, which further meant countering the Eastern bloc in proxy fights. Several of McNamara's officials turned their attention to the question of the rifle. The rifle conundrum was significant. America's military machine had entered the nuclear age with an array of fearsome killing tools. The Air Force had supersonic jets and intercontinental missiles; the Army was fielding new battle tanks to whitakers chocolates, enhance divisions that had settled into Europe; the Navy had launched a nuclear aircraft carrier.

Yet when it came to the most basic tool of empire and of war the nmc domains infantry rifle the Pentagon had sputtered and stalled. The government had spent more than a decade bringing forward the M14, a big weapon made according to the almost religiously held rifle traditions of the stages of development time. The M14 was a heavyweight and hewed closely to the legends of American frontier marksmen with eagle eyes and nmc domains, far-shooting, powerful rifles. Its automatic-fire version weighed more than twelve pounds, stretched almost four feet long, and had both tremendous recoil and mussolini stalin, heavy ammunition, which meant soldiers could carry a limited amount of rounds. The Army spent huge sums on its development, only to discover that soldiers equipped with M14's were outmaneuvered and outshot by opponents with AK-47's, which were almost perfectly suited to the short-range fighting in nmc domains the vegetation of stages psychology, Vietnam. America's ordnance officials had lost the arms race of nmc domains, their lives. Just when troops needed a smaller automatic rifle, their government had nothing for them.

The alternative rifle that caught McNamara's eye, at first known as the AR-15 , had sprung from ArmaLite, a private southern California concern. ArmaLite was an infant and an upstart, a company that began as a workshop in the Hollywood garage of George Sullivan, the better butter battle patent counsel for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Sullivan was an engineer fascinated with the nmc domains possibilities of applying new materials to change the way rifles looked and felt. In 1953, he met Paul Cleaveland, secretary of the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation, at an industry luncheon. Motifs And Editing! The pair talked about lightweight firearms and new ways to manufacture them. Cleaveland mentioned the nmc domains conversation to Richard Boutelle, Fairchild's president, who was a gun buff, too. Boutelle and Sullivan agreed to Essay Depression, collaborate, and ArmaLite was founded in 1954 as a tiny Fairchild division.

It hired a former Marine, Eugene Stoner, as a designer. One of the early creations was the AR-15, made at the informal request of an nmc domains Army general who wanted a prototype rifle that would fire a small, high-speed round. The AR-15 looked like nothing else in Depression military service. It had an aluminum receiver, plastic furniture, and an odd-looking carrying handle. It was thirty-nine inches long.

It weighed, when unloaded, roughly 6.5 pounds, about nmc domains half the of development psychology weight of an nmc domains automatic M14. Its appearance small, dark, lean, and synthetically futuristic stirred emotions. To its champions, the AR-15 was an embodiment of fresh thinking. Critics saw an ugly toy. Better! Wherever one stood, no one denied the ballistics were intriguing. Stoner had designed a narrow but powerful new cartridge, the .223, for his weapon. The cartridge's propellant and the AR-15's twenty-inch barrel worked together to move a tiny bullet along at ultrafast speeds in excess of nmc domains, thirty-two hundred feet per second, almost three times the speed of sound.

Here was a rifle with conceptual promise, albeit on hitler stalin, practical merits it was untested and its sponsors at Fairchild were struggling financially. In January 1959, with few customers in sight and the Pentagon committed to big rifles made according to old ideas, Fairchild transferred the AR-15's manufacturing rights to Colt's Firearms for $325,000 and a royalty-sharing guarantee. In summer 1960, Colt's took the AR-15 on the road, including to police departments around the United States, where its sales team fired into a variety of objects (automobiles and nmc domains, water cans were favorites) and engaged in better butter battle giddy declarations of the rifle's powers. While automobiles were being pierced, punctured, and shredded, another salesman arranged for General Curtis LeMay, then the Air Force's vice chief of nmc domains, staff, to mussolini stalin, be invited to Boutelle's birthday party at Boutelle's gentleman's farm in Maryland. LeMay, like Boutelle, was a gun buff.

The invitation was crafted to appeal. A sample AR-15, the nmc domains new miracle gun, would be on Important Motifs in Sound Essay, hand for the general to nmc domains, fire. The party was held over of Curricula Level and Baccalaureate Program, the Fourth of July. Nmc Domains! The hosts set up three watermelons and butter, invited the general to try his hand. What followed was one of the odder moments in arms-procurement history. Watermelons were bright and fleshy in ways water cans were not, and when struck by the little rifle's ultrafast bullets, the first two fruits exploded in vivid red splashes. LeMay was so impressed that he spared the nmc domains last melon; the party decided to eat it. Whitakers! No doubt this was great fun. It was also nonsense.

But salesmanship was salesmanship. Colt's salesman understood that the nmc domains Air Force wanted its own automatic rifle for defending strategic-missile sites. He also knew that LeMay was unimpressed with the M14. Colt's, for the price of Level, fresh fruit and cold cocktails, had a convert. In 1961, LeMay became Air Force chief of staff, and in 1962, the Air Force entered a contract with Colt's for eighty-five hundred rifles. Nmc Domains! This was a small order. But just like that, the AR-15 entered the American military arms system via a side door. The rifle's first acceptance occurred as Washington was stepping up its involvement in Vietnam. McNamara, who had been watching Southeast Asia with alarm, was already enthused about the weapon and had authorized its use in secret combat trials with Vietnamese soldiers. For the secretary, the AR-15 provided a means to both match the Kalashnikov and to show up the Pentagon establishment and the ordnance community, whom he did not trust. Colt's new rifle had momentum.

It is Associate Program worth a pause to consider the significance of the step not taken. After McNamara's team endorsed the assault-rifle concept, the United States military could have decided what it wanted an assault rifle to be and to do. This would have been a matter of nmc domains, proposing specifications for caliber, muzzle velocity, weight, accuracy, and any number of other characteristics. These specifications could then have been provided to hitler mussolini, government designers and private industry to Ruger, to Colt's, to Remington, to Winchester, to Browning, to Cadillac Gage, and nmc domains, others with a deadline for design submissions. In doing so, the intellectual capital of the private sector would have been invited to compete.

And when the deadline came, the Pentagon would have had multiple designs from which to select. Instead, the United States had a hyped rifle rising through the bureaucracy with little testing or vigorous competition. Its selection process looked less like deliberation than lunging. And as McNamara and Level Program, General William Westmoreland pushed and pulled the rifle along, the signs from tests and field reports of nmc domains, its emerging weaknesses were suppressed. Colt's assault rifle, the internal reports said, was vulnerable to corrosion and given to Essay about Depression, malfunctions. Nmc Domains! No matter. The most senior military officials knew American troops were being outshot. They ordered the of development psychology M16 as the military's version of the AR-15 was named first in a batch of nmc domains, 104,000, and then as the standard firearm for the war. Important Motifs! The rollout began. By February 1967, Hotel Company had been given its share of M16's during a refit on Okinawa and turned in its M14's.

The troops grasped the advantages of a lightweight automatic rifle with little recoil. They knew they could now carry more rounds into each firefight. They were satisfied with how the nmc domains rifles, fresh from crates, handled on ranges. There was concern about a shortage of cleaning gear, but otherwise everything seemed in about Depression order. A few weeks later, Hotel Company returned to Vietnam. On a sweep of the countryside on nmc domains, April 26, a few M16's jammed.

But the fighting was not intensive. The problem was attributed to unfamiliarity with the rifle, perhaps combined with inadequate cleaning, though the Marines who were cleaning the weapons thought this was not so. Then came the shock. In late April, the battalion was preparing for combat against dug-in NVA units on chocolates ltd, Hills 861 and 881 near Khe Sanh. On April 30, the company moved out on nmc domains, foot again, jumping into better butter battle an attack at first light with 2nd and nmc domains, 3rd Platoons abreast of each other. In 3rd Platoon, as Lieutenant Thomas Givvin, the commander, moved uphill, he found at least five M16's with cleaning rods forced down their barrels resting on the ground. These were the discards of Marines who had fought on the hill several days before. Hotel Company walked through tall elephant grass and was attacked. The ambush turned swiftly into a brutal close-quarters fight. Whitakers Chocolates! Rifle by rifle, several of the Marines' new M16's jammed. The malfunctions had consistency; the most common was the failure of the rifle to extract a spent shell casing after a bullet was fired.

To resume fighting, the troops needed to nmc domains, thread together a rifle-cleaning rod, plunge the rod down the Essay about barrel, and knock the spent case free, a movement akin to what soldiers did in the Revolutionary War. After conferring by radio with the battalion commander, the company commander, Captain Raymond Madonna, ordered the nmc domains Marines to fall back so he could call in air strikes and artillery fire. The company suffered eight dead Marines and one dead corpsman that day. Depression! Forty-three others were wounded. On May 3, the remnants of nmc domains, Hotel Company and part of Foxtrot Company were ordered to whitakers, help Echo Company, which had been pinned down in front of a bunker network. Foxtrot would approach from the nmc domains southeast. Hotel would attack from the north; its plan was to strike the enemy's rear.

The Marines began a flanking movement down a ravine and Depression, through triple-canopy jungle; they moved for nmc domains as long as nine hours. The company had only Important in Sound Essay, one platoon 1st still at fighting strength. As the sweat-soaked Marines at nmc domains last moved near the bunkers and were preparing to rush, the captain gave an about Depression order over the radio to his platoon commander, Lieutenant Ord Elliott: Fix bayonets. He was effectively telling men to prepare to fight to nmc domains, the death, hand to hand. Whitakers Chocolates Ltd! The order was superfluous. Nmc Domains! Elliott had already told the men to ready their knives. Comparison Design: Associate Level! With bayonets affixed, the officers thought, the Marines whose M16's failed might slash or stab their way through the fight. Nmc Domains! It was the age of the B-52 Stratofortress and the submarine-launched Polaris ballistic missile. Essay! A Marine Corps platoon and nmc domains, company commander were preparing their men for an attack in which they would wield their rifles like lances, swords, and spears.

The Hill Fights were among the bloodiest battles yet in the war. More than 150 Marines were killed. Several hundred more were wounded. Days later, as the battle wound down, M16 jamming had been widespread enough that sadly surreal scenes unfolded at one helicopter landing zone, where wounded Marines waited to be evacuated. Healthy men wandered among the casualties, asking their bloodied colleagues if their rifles had worked. When they found a wounded Marine whose rifle had performed well, they exchanged a faulty M16 for the M16 that had reliably fired. Battle! Initial acceptance of the M16's had turned to nmc domains, disgust. One survivor vented to the Asbury Park Evening Press : Believe it or not, you know what killed most of us? he wrote. Our own rifle. If the grim news and angry accounts from battle arrived as a surprise for the public, there was little about them that was surprising for those who manufactured and fielded the rifle.

The M16's jamming was related to battle, several factors including changes to nmc domains, the ammunition's powder, poor corrosion resistance, an absence of Important in Sound, chromium in the chambers, and nmc domains, others that had previously been identified, either in the military's stateside testing or from examinations of rifles used in Vietnam. Colt's had sent engineering teams to Vietnam since at least 1966, whenRobert D. Fremont, a company engineer, reported in writing to his bosses that major problems with corrosion were turning up in the war. He recommended the possible use of Essay Depression, stainless steel for barrels or chrome plating the chambers and nmc domains, bores of the AR-15 weapons in order to mussolini, combat corrosion and nmc domains, neglect. His summary was chilling. Colt's weapons, he wrote, are sadly lacking in corrosion resistance. Three weeks later, David Behrendt, a Colt's engineer assigned to stages of development psychology, Vietnam, mailed audiotapes back to his supervisors. Nmc Domains! Many M16's were jamming, he said. Almost all were corroded. Working alongside soldiers, Behrendt restored most rifles to working order.

But it was not a good sign that a corporate engineer with a bag of parts was required to keep a new rifle in service. Combat equipment was supposed to be hardier than that. Behrendt noted, too, that the better butter battle new powder was making the M16 run fast. Engineers had been working on a replacement part a buffer inside the return spring that would slow the weapons down. But none were yet in Vietnam. Speaking into a tape recorder halfway around the world, he urged action. You better get that new buffer over here right pronto to stop some of this malfunction.

Colt's data accumulated. Another rep in Vietnam, J. B. Hall, summed matters up. Hall had met veterans of Operation Attleboro, one of the largest battles to date. The operation had been a startling experience. Marines faced heavy Vietcong automatic-rifle fire, and their M16's jammed. There is no question that soldiers in Vietnam are losing confidence in the M16 rifle, Hall wrote. Nmc Domains! It is imperative that we take all steps possible to correct the situation. Hall's report was the most urgent.

It included a list: Plate the bore and butter, chamber with chromium, install heavier buffers, correct the corrosion problems on receivers and barrels, and find a way to cover the magazines when not being fired. He offered a recommendation: a crash program to provide a better weapon. A little more than two weeks later, the latest news of the nmc domains M16's poor performance reached the top of the Army. Colonel Harold Yount visited the Pentagon to of Curricula Design: Associate Program Program, brief Colonel Richard Hallock. Hallock's interest in the M16 was zealous and personal. Nmc Domains! He had been an psychology early supporter of the rifle, and nmc domains, more than four years before he had been a supervisor of Project AGILE a secret combat test with Vietnamese soldiers wielding AR-15's that had given the new weapon much of its early internal military hype. The meeting marked a potentially agonizing moment. Chocolates! The weapon he had advocated was failing, and nmc domains, as near as he could tell, the chocolates ltd failures were getting American soldiers killed. What to nmc domains, do? Hallock filed a classified memo detailing the of development meeting. It left no doubt that the Army had long understood the scope and nature of the M16's problems, had done little to resolve them, and still was moving slowly to help soldiers in Vietnam.

I asked if he had a plan to retrofit the weapons in nmc domains the field with this buffer and he said he did not. First production of the new buffer, he said, would be in January and they would go on new weapons. He said that if the whitakers chocolates ltd buffers were sent to the field for the old weapons they would not be available to go on the new weapons that also are going to nmc domains, the field. Important Motifs And Editing! I asked if he had plans to nmc domains, get a special priority to increase the production rate and speed up availability of the whitakers chocolates ltd buffer and he apparently did not. I also asked about clearing up the fouling caused by ball powder.

He did not say that anything definitive had been done to correct the problem. I asked him if there were any reports yet from Vietnam indicating the occurrence, in fact, of the nmc domains excessive malfunctions that one would expect. . He said there were some, but didn't elaborate. Colonel Yount's inaction was not how military officers were expected to carry out their duties. Colonel Hallock wanted the problems remedied. But he was equally interested in of development restricting who knew of them. There was a scandal to contain, even if it meant limiting the number of technicians working to fix the nmc domains malfunctions. Colonel Hallock impressed upon his peer the need to keep quiet. After returning to his office, Colonel Yount made a change. As of November 29, his weekly significant action report as head of the office managing the M16 carried a new line: The report must not be reproduced, filed or referenced in any official correspondence.

Only he and two other people were allowed to keep file copies of his reports. All other copies, he wrote, will be destroyed within 10 days of receipt. At a time when the battle M16 program desperately needed candor, attention, and more resources, and when commanders and troops in the field should have been informed of the problems emerging in Vietnam, another cover-up had begun. The betrayal reached beyond those safe in the Pentagon and on nmc domains, bases stateside. A din of complaints about in Sound and Editing M16 jamming was rising from the nmc domains ranks.

But the replies of Essay about Depression, generals in Vietnam mixed paternalistic denials that the nmc domains M16 was failing with strong defenses of the weapon's merits. Marine officers followed the Army's pattern: They blamed the troops for the weapon's problems. At a press conference in Da Nang just after the stalin battles for Hills 861 and nmc domains, 881, one commander, Lieutenant General Lewis W. Stalin! Walt of the 3rd Marine Amphibious Force, delivered a classic performance of an officer who has lost touch with his men. Nmc Domains! First he declared that the Marines in his command were 100 percent sold on the M16. Most of stages psychology, those who had relied on the weapon in battle, he added, have nothing but praise for nmc domains it. This can only be read as a lie. General Walt pressed on. Better Battle! He put blame for malfunctions squarely upon individual Marines and their NCOs and officers, saying they had either not adequately maintained their rifles or had tried to nmc domains, force too many rounds into their magazines.

This was a slap at men at butter battle war. In a resonant slip of the tongue, General Walt added that rumors of unsatisfactory M16 performance were started by a very, very small majority. Nmc Domains! Not long after the press conference, General Walt was reassigned to Washington. In July, the whitakers ltd month of Operation Bear Chain, the commandant of the Marine Corps, General Wallace Greene, repeated General Walt's position, calling the M16 ideally suited for nmc domains Vietnam. The brass had set a tone. Essay Depression! With the generals standing behind the M16, complaints had little chance of finding a supporting audience. The Marines in Vietnam were on their own. By early 1967, the sense that something was terribly wrong had reached Washington. Angry troops were sending home letters.

Journalists were hearing complaints. Reports of the AK-47's reliability were also providing an obvious contrast. The Washington Daily News posed the question. In the past two years, with amazing competence and thoroness [sic], the nmc domains communists have replaced their earlier inferior weapons with the rapid firing AK-47 automatic assault rifle of Soviet design and Red Chinese manufacture. . The AK-47 . is as good as the new M-16 rifle U. S. troops use. Comparison Design: Program! It is less liable to jam and therefore, in the opinion of some experts, may even be better. . Why is it that North Vietnam, with aid from nmc domains its Chinese ally, could foresee the need and meet it, despite all sorts of obstacles? Why is it that the U. S., with its $25 billion to $30 billion yearly war budget, superlative defense plants, and reputed logistic superiority, could not keep pace? By spring 1967, the problems had become so widely known that Congress took an interest. On May 3, 1967, Representative L. Mendel Rivers, chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, appointed Representative Richard H. Ichord as head of a special subcommittee to examine the development, production, distribution and sale of M-16 rifles. Ichord steered wide of the question of which weapon was better the M14 or the M16. If the military wanted the M16, so be it.

He wanted to know why the M16 was malfunctioning at an unacceptably high rate. One rifle-failure incident after another eroded public confidence. Senator Peter H. Dominick of of Curricula Design: Associate and Baccalaureate, Colorado visited Vietnam that May. He inquired about the M16. He was told it was a good weapon. Someone produced an M16 and handed it to the senator, who tried to nmc domains, fire it. It jammed. Stages! In June, members of Ichord's panel held their own test with an M16 provided by Colt's. Nmc Domains! If any one M16 might have been expected to perform flawlessly, this should have been it: the test rifle a manufacturer facing congressional investigation presented as a sample to about Depression, Congress. The subcommittee's rifle jammed several times. Nmc Domains! No one needed to be told what this might mean in combat.

But another GI crystallized for whitakers ltd the congressmen a particular species of nightmare: The other night we got a radio message from one of our night ambushes. . The last words they said were, out of hand grenades, all weapons jammed. The next morning when they got to them, their hands were all skinned up and cut and their stocks on their rifles were all broken from using them as clubs. Out in nmc domains the field beside Ap Sieu Quan, Private First Class Nickelson worked on Essay about Depression, his jammed rifle. He had given away his position by nmc domains firing. Bullets raked the grass nearby. He reached for a grenade, pulled the pin, and threw it as far as he could toward the trees; he hoped its blast would divert the Motifs and Editing Essay attention of the enemy soldiers. After the nmc domains explosion, he removed his rifle's magazine and pulled back on the charging handle to stalin, look inside the chamber.

The empty cartridge was stuck there. He cursed again and reached for his cleaning rod. Around him was chaos. Nickelson pushed the rod down the muzzle and knocked the empty cartridge case clear. He returned the magazine to its place and chambered a second round. Nmc Domains! Again he looked up and spotted the North Vietnamese soldier in the tree line. The man was on his stomach, prone and firing out. Nickelson aimed his M16 and eased back on the trigger again. Firing on Important Motifs Essay, automatic, he hoped to hit the nmc domains man multiple times. The first bullet hit the soldier in the left leg.

He watched him roll out of better butter, sight into the bushes. But Nickelson could not finish him. His rifle had jammed again. Just as it had on Hill 881, Hotel Company fell back. Aircraft and artillery hit the village. The company moved forward later, after the NVA had slipped away. Hotel Company had suffered miserably once more.

Five Marines were dead, thirty were wounded. Nickelson had survived. He rose to nmc domains, his feet but left his jammed rifle in the dirt. He had shipped to Vietnam a month before. Until that day, he had never handled this kind of rifle. In the United States, he had trained on an M14. In his one previous firefight, his M16 had jammed, too after firing a single round. Stages Of Development! Nickelson was new to war, but he was no fool. A rifle that failed in battle was worse than useless.

It was detestable. As far as he was concerned, it was a discard. Upon arriving in-country, Nickelson had bought a .38 revolver from a soldier who was rotating home part of an underground market for troops arming themselves with personal weapons as insurance against the failures of their issued guns. Now an officer ordered him to pick up his M16. Fuck you, Nickelson said. He would never carry an M16 again. Back on board the nmc domains USS Tripoli after Hotel Company left Ap Sieu Quan, the company's executive officer, Lieutenant Michael Chervenak, seethed.

Chervenak was a man who followed his own compass. A former high school quarterback, he had graduated from Penn State and been accepted at naval flight school, which was a plum. Battle! He wanted to fly jets. Nmc Domains! When he was selected for helicopter training, he did something pilots in good standing at the school rarely do. He quit, and asked for orders to the infantry in Vietnam. Stages Of Development Psychology! He was new to Hotel Company and nmc domains, had replaced an of development officer who was shot through the head on Hill 881. When he arrived, he heard of the M16's problems but reserved judgment until he had been in combat with the nmc domains rifles himself. Important In Sound! After Ap Sieu Quan, he was in a state of quiet rage.

He cleaned up and visited the stateroom where Captain Richard Culver, his company commander, was bunking. Nmc Domains! The officers discussed the M16's malfunctions. The lieutenant wanted advice. What would Captain Culver think if he wrote an open letter detailing the company's experiences? The Marine Corps was not helping its Marines. The truth about the M16 needed to butter battle, be told, somehow, if the problem was to be fixed. Captain Culver, a former enlisted man, was the son of nmc domains, a Marine. His father enlisted in 1918 at better butter battle age fifteen. Raised on bases, commanding a company at war, he was more than reluctant to speak outside the nmc domains chain of command. But he knew this young officer was right.

Writing a letter, he told him, was a good idea. Lieutenant Chervenak found a typewriter in the chaplain's stateroom, and whitakers ltd, he and the captain composed a draft. When they finished, he climbed belowdecks to the enlisted quarters and asked Staff Sergeant Elrod to read it. I am a Marine First Lieutenant and have been serving in a rifle company in Vietnam since the 15th of May. Ever since my arrival, immediately following the battle of hill 881, one controversy has loomed above all others that of the M16 rifle. I feel that it is my duty and responsibility to report the truth about nmc domains this rifle as I have seen it. My conscience will not let me rest. We are constantly told that improper cleaning and unfamiliarity with the weapon cause any malfunction which may occur.

Any rifle that requires cleaning to the degree they speak of has no place as a combat weapon. Essay About! I believe that the cold, hard facts about the M_16 are clouded over by a fabrication of the truth for political and nmc domains, financial considerations. Motifs! I have seen too many marines hiding behind a paddy dike trying to clear their rifle to accept those explanations any longer. Our battalion has test fired these rifles on numerous occasions, aboard the ship and in the field, to try to find a solution to this problem. All rifles were cleaned and inspected prior to these tests. Having supervised several of nmc domains, these tests, I will swear to the fact that at least 25 to 40% of the Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate Level and Baccalaureate Program rifles malfunctioned at nmc domains least once under these optimum conditions. During a recent fight on the 21st of July, no fewer than 40 men in my company reported to me that their rifles had malfunctioned because of failure to extract. Because of these inoperative rifles we were severely hampered in our efforts to extract a platoon which had been pinned down.

Lack of sufficient firepower also caused us great difficulty in stages of development getting our casualties out. Having 40 rifles malfunction in any rifle company is a serious matter, and in an understrengthened company such as ours, the gravity of the nmc domains situation is greatly increased. I do not mean for this letter to slap at Comparison Design: Associate Program my battalion, the Marine Corps, the Colt Manufacturing Company, the Defense Department or anyone else concerned. It is written out of concern for the safety of the men in nmc domains my company and of the great morale problem that the M16 causes. I will stand and stake my reputation on the fact that we have had men wounded and perhaps killed because of inoperative rifles. The search for the truth is paramount in Motifs and Editing Essay all of us and I ask you to look into nmc domains this problem and hitler mussolini stalin, search for the truth there . this problem has been overlooked too long and too many attempts have been made to gloss over a situation that endangers the lives of men. Staff Sergeant Elrod finished the nmc domains letter. He had served ten years, had seen lieutenants come and go, and Comparison Program Program, had a strong sense of how the officer ranks worked. Nmc Domains! Loyalty, by his read, meant working hard and shutting up. He liked the letter very much.

Hey, sir? he said. You're not planning to make the Important and Editing Marine Corps a career, are you? On July 27, Lieutenant Chervenak mailed four copies of the nmc domains letter. He sent one to The Barnesboro Star , his hometown newspaper in Pennsylvania. He mailed another to The Washington Post . The last two went to Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Representative Ichord. On each he signed his name officially. In all the mussolini available records surrounding the bloody introduction of the M16, this stands as one of the nmc domains few brave and candidly honest acts. It fell to a twenty-three-year-old lieutenant, his unit repeatedly thinned by casualties, to stake his name on the truth.

Back in Washington, Representative Ichord's subcommittee ground toward conclusion. The Army had stonewalled the investigation, but the mussolini congressmen understood viscerally that the M16's performance in Vietnam was much worse than acknowledged. On October 19 the nmc domains subcommittee published a scalding report. It declared the M16's malfunctions serious and excessive and labeled the Army and Marine Corps negligent. On October 29, The Washington Post published Lieutenant Chervenak's letter. His words had an better battle instant effect. Nmc Domains! The corps opened an investigation not into Comparison Associate and Baccalaureate the causes of the rifle's failures or the nmc domains slow reaction by the chain of command to troops' complaints but into the officer who dared to write to the Post . On December 3, a pair of representatives from Colt's and the Marine Corps caught up with the battalion at a base outside Da Nang. They had been ordered to follow up on the lieutenant's allegations. Marines gathered in the theater for a presentation, at which a Marine warrant officer opened with the familiar lines. He told his audience that the M16 was a good rifle, and if it was failing, it was because they were not cleaning it adequately. The Marines shouted and Important, jeered.

The battalion commander demanded quiet. The representative from Colt's, Kanemitsu Ito, was shaken by their fury. The warrant officer and Ito held a technical inspection, and Marines filed by to show them their rifles. Ito was a decorated Koreanwar veteran himself, and a former test officer in nmc domains the Army. He was small, lean, and muscular, a fastidious forty-seven-year-old man with a record of bravery who had roamed Vietnam trying to understand why Colt's rifles had performed so badly since at least 1966. He was conscientious to Essay, an almost excruciating degree. As the Marines filed past to nmc domains, show him rifles that had failed them, he worried that the troops might label him a profiteer. After all, he thought, every rifle to be replaced might be seen as another sale for Colt's.

He decided to let the warrant officer do the talking. Quietly, he watched. That night, emotionally and physically exhausted, Ito typed a letter and sent it back to Colt's. He had news. What Lieutenant Chervenak had written to whitakers, the Post was not quite right. Matters were actually much worse Ito and the warrant officer had condemned sixty-seven of the company's eightyfive M16's.

I walked into nmc domains a den of hitler mussolini, angry, feroucious [sic] lions when I visited the 2nd Battalion of the nmc domains 3rd Marines. It was really a touchy situation. I would never ask anyone else to be in the situation I was in. Butter Battle! The officers and nmc domains, a great majority of the men hated the M_16A1 rifles. They had a right to hate it. Ito had been telling his bosses at Colt's in clear terms for more than a year that the M16 had real problems, and Comparison Program Program, now he knew that these problems were worse than what the military or Colt's had ever publicly said. On December 28, Ito and Paul Benke, Colt's president, met at the Pentagon with officers involved in nmc domains the M16 program. Ito's presentation was direct: The new buffers were reaching many units, but severe problems persisted. Whitakers! About 70 percent of the rifles in the Marines' possession, he said, should be condemned due to pitted chambers. Benke, the man who ran Colt's Firearms, would get the last word.

The reports of problems, he said, even when supported by his own engineer fresh from nmc domains Vietnam, were hearsay. Several months after the fight for Ap Sieu Quan, Staff Sergeant Elrod became the battalion's intelligence chief, and was meritoriously promoted. One day in spring 1968, after a skirmish in a gully near Khe Sanh, Gunnery Sergeant Elrod found an AK-47 beside a dead North Vietnamese soldier. And Editing Essay! He claimed it as his own. This was not a trophy. It was a tool. Now he had a rifle he could depend on. Nmc Domains! The AK-47 did not solve all his problems. It solved one problem but replaced it with another. There was a special danger related to and Editing Essay, carrying the enemy's weapon: The M16 and the AK-47 have distinctly different sounds.

Whenever Elrod fired his new weapon, he risked drawing fire from other Marines. He considered this less of a risk than carrying a rifle that might not fire at all. A few weeks later, Gunnery Sergeant Elrod was walking across a forward operating base near Khe Sanh with his AK-47 slung across his back. A lieutenant colonel stopped him. Gunny, why the hell are you carrying that? he asked. Because it works, Elrod replied. Claude Elrod, Alfred Nickelson, Tom Givvin, Raymond Madonna, Ord Elliott, Richard Culver, and Michael Chervenak all survived Vietnam. Elrod, Madonna, and Culver went on to serve full careers. Chervenak, who spoke out publicly against the M16, was reprimanded in writing and nmc domains, his promotion to the rank of captain was delayed a year, which effectively docked his pay. (Promotion to captain is an achievement usually so simple that the chocolates ltd test, many Marines say, is to serve the requisite time and be able to fog a mirror.) He left the Marine Corps, attended law school, and nmc domains, had a successful career in private practice. Colt's Firearms no longer exists. Paul Benke, the ltd president of Colt's during the nmc domains bungled rollout of the M16, continues to hitler mussolini, defend the rifle and Colt's behavior, saying he and nmc domains, the company only wanted to provide the best weapons possible to stages of development, troops at war.

The M16 and its ammunition were changed and modified repeatedly in nmc domains the months and years after the uproar of 1967. The current firm, Colt Defense LLC, provides rifles to Essay about, the American military and to many government organizations around the nmc domains world. Its president, a retired Marine general, William Keys, was, as a younger man, among those Marines who suffered from faulty rifles in Vietnam. The line's current versions, the M16 and the M4 carbine, are incomparably more dependable than the M16 of the mid-1960s, though they remain controversial arms, and critics, citing various perceived shortfalls (often reliability and stopping power) continue to call for a replacement. Better Battle! Many of the complaints have been over the standard ammunition that the American military's M16's and M4's fire, which troops have reported passes too easily through lightly clad Afghan and Iraqi men and often fails to deliver incapacitating wounds. The AK-47 and Type 56 rifles, two variants of the Kalashnikov that were common in the early years of the Vietnam War, have largely been phased out and nmc domains, replaced by chocolates an extended family of descendants that were made in the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, the former Warsaw Pact nations, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and other countries.

Some of the original rifles are still in nmc domains use and can readily be found in Afghanistan. Together the entire Kalashnikov line routinely and hitler mussolini, erroneously called AK-47's are the most abundant firearm on earth, and nmc domains, the predominant weapon of war today.

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5 Cover Letter Techniques = Spellbound Hiring Managers. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. Nmc Domains. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Comparison Of Curricula Design: Associate Level And Baccalaureate. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. The bottom-line is, the purpose of a cover letter is to lure the reader to, well, read your resume and call you for an interview. Nmc Domains. Now, you may be dying to ask me, #8220;Then, why cant I only submit my resume?#8221; My answer is, you canbut how do you know your competition didn#8217;t submit a persuasive cover letter that just about nudged you off the top spot? Worst-case scenario, they can set your cover letter aside, but its available if they need more convincing. So, how do you create cover letter that is Essay, not tossed? Im glad you asked#8230; Cover Letter Techniques That Work.

Here are five cover letter techniques that will get you noticed by hiring managers. 1. Break A Leg With Your Opening Act. Dont begin cover letters with an ordinary and boring statement. You really want to #8220;have them at hello.#8221; (Sorry. Couldnt help it.) Really, captivate with the very first sentence. Exude sincerity, offer specific value, spin it, and make sure its employer-oriented. Here is one of nmc domains my favorite openings: Dear Mr. Bradley, Offering to drive pharmaceutical sales growth by generating qualified leads, penetrating territories, and closing the toughest sales, consistently! Please allow me to of development psychology introduce myself#8230; You can tell a personal story that further positions you as the best candidate. You can provide statistical insight, reinforcing your industry knowledge.

You may opt to walk your employer through your process. In other words, you can communicate more personally than you would on nmc domains, your resume and leverage that #8220;ace in your pocket.#8221; See an example I used in a cover letter: I am an avid golfer (with a pretty good handicap) and golf at least twice per weekI have closed many sales on the golf course over a weekend. Clients consider me a trusted friend and have even helped me form golf teams for charity events, which is an excellent way to network and battle, gain new business#8230; Do you think I would have been able to add this golf example in nmc domains the resume for my client no. Now, lets say candidate #1 is a stellar sales person and candidate #2 (my client) is hitler stalin, also an outstanding revenue producer this example is nmc domains, helping my client promote an added value. This #8220;sign-on benefit#8221; clues the hiring manager my client initiates and develops fruitful relationships through personal networking strategies that will be advantageous to the company. Besides, its memorable. In a pile of hundreds of resumes and Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate Level Program, cover letters, memorable is a winner!

Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but dont repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for nmc domains your cover letter. This is Motifs in Sound and Editing Essay, a strategic career marketing plan. Nmc Domains. Example: Please refer to my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM. I have aggressively launched unique sales strategies that have produced up to Important in Sound and Editing Essay $8M annually. You will find a full account of my projected sales plans and exceeded goals by nmc domains percentage per year. Now, we have asked the mussolini stalin, hiring manager to review the nmc domains, resume and we have provided a bit of information to spark interest.

It is important to add quantifiable information and be specific, as you dont want to seem vague. However, there is no need to provide all the details in the cover letter, especially if it will be on the resume. Motifs And Editing Essay. While I urge you to tease the teasing must be done with actual facts and specific references not generalities that mean nothing. There is a physiological connection that goes on when you get a person to think or say yes. So, when you craft your cover letter try to nmc domains envision the in Sound, reader nodding their head in agreement with your statements.

In order to do this, you must validate their needs. Nmc Domains. You can cast this spell through reinforcing statements or questions. Essay. Take it easy on nmc domains, the questions, thoughyou dont want to come across too sales-driven. (The art of career marketing is a delicate balance.) In sales, they always direct you to ask for mussolini the sale. Well, ask for the interview. Just ask for nmc domains it! The point here is that your cover letter is a supporting influencing tool. It must be unique, inviting, compelling a prelude to a well crafted resume in Program and Baccalaureate order to provoke action. Nmc Domains. Your cover letter is of Curricula Design: Level Program, part of a marketing package and so merely writing it as you would any other communication letter is not going to generate the interviews you seek.

True story: I had a client tell me that, when he was interviewed, he was told the cover letter clinched the interview and the resume was used as a guide for an interesting interview. Here is a beginning part of that cover letter: Music and entertainment is my passion. I am lucky to have realized so early what I was born to do! I have known I wanted to nmc domains work in whitakers the entertainment industry since I was 11 years old. Nmc Domains. At age four, I already had an affinity for about Depression music and entertainment#8230; I loved to nmc domains perform, watch all the of development, award shows on TV, memorize the choreography to music videos, and I always wanted to know how it all worked behind the scenes. Client landed a job with Universal Music Distribution. There you have it. Market yourself as the ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter.

The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the nmc domains, employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in Important Motifs a very special way.

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Archives pour la categorie Case Study Houses. MC COY Esther Case Study Program 1945-1962 Henessey Ingalls 1977 Los Angeles SMITH Elisabeth A.T. Blueprints for Modern Living: History and nmc domains Legacy of the Case Study Houses MIT Press 1998 STEELE James, JENKINS David, KOENIG Pierre Pierre Koenig Phaidon Press 1998 MC COY Esther, BLAKE Peter Craig Ellwood Architecture Hennessey Ingalls 1997 ALBRECHT D. Associate! The Work of Charles Ray Eames COLOMINA Beatrice The Work of Charles and Ray Eames, A Legacy of invention 1997 STEELE James Eames House, Charles and Ray Eames Architecture in nmc domains Detail Phaidon 1995 HINES Thomas S. Richard Neutra and Search for Modern Architecture University California Press 1994 MC LAMPRECHT Barbara Richard Neutra Complete Works Taashen 2000 SACK M. Richard Neutra Gustavo Gili 1994 Barcelone. List of Important Motifs in Sound Essay, articles: Baboulet, Luc; Le Case Study Program et la tradition americaine ; AMC (France); n98; 05/1999; ; On the Mies Edge ; Domus (); n614; 02/1986; Goldstein B.; The Entenza Years ; Art and Architecture (Etats-Unis); n; 1990; ; ; Architecture dAujourdhui (France); n; 02-03/1966; Case Study House n16′, by nmc domains C. Ellwood. Craig Ellwood was still a very young architect when he was selected to design a Entenza Case Study House. This is the first in hitler stalin the series of nmc domains, three villas he designed for the Case Study House Program. It offers a house here where he developed while working on multiple outdoor spaces qualities that come to extend and enrich the home of various and unexpected ways. For his house just Elllwood used metal columns that had appeared on the market. Indeed, due to the decline of the railway, many found themselves unused rails produced.

They were recast which raised metal companies to develop new product lines The use of square columns instead of columns H can save a lot of money, they are lighter and can simplify a number of details such as those bindings woodwork. Stalin! The beams used are I to 6 inches and nmc domains 36 feet long. Translucent panels 10 feet in stalin height are treated as extended walls of the house. The interior walls of the house are also treated as screens. They are of the nmc domains same material as the of Curricula Associate Level Program and Baccalaureate exterior walls to express continuity between interior and nmc domains exterior spaces spaces.

These panels are by exposing the stages of development psychology structure which is painted black. They are off the nmc domains ground, and are separated from the ceiling by a transom window. Motifs In Sound! The villa consists of a grid of 8 feet. The house is nmc domains, divided into two areas occupied by the circulations, one inner and one outer longitudinally extending in the direction of the project. The boundary with the street is freely drawn by stages of development a solid line turn opaque or translucent tower. Nmc Domains! This watershed limits any tower covered and not confined areas (like the porch); other spaces, enclosed and whitakers discovered (as the court of children); or some interior spaces and nmc domains with others outside.

This boundary separates Similarly, the better prices of the nmc domains rooms from the stages street by a series of panels of translucent glass The indoor and outdoor spaces are organized around the two perpendicular axes carry the project. The partition between social spaces and nmc domains individual spaces is along a North-South axis passing at the entrance. Whitakers! It amazing how close the villa whose area is in nmc domains a simple rectangle, which is butter, built with a completely systematic metal structure does not prevent to achieve a wide variety of spaces and nmc domains uses. Each space is fully qualified. This remark is particularly sensitive to mussolini the game of indoor and outdoor spaces. Nmc Domains! This is Essay, illustrated for example in nmc domains the input sequence: the porch is divided into two parts, creating a covered walkway for pedestrian access. Basically, the villa allows a double entry: service entrance that allows access to the court and the kitchen but also main entrance angles. The patio at the entrance allows movement of the light at the output while creating a view. Essay About! Each room is extended by outdoor spaces in direct continuity with the interior space. The master bedroom has a double orientation opening on two distinct areas, each with a different status: an enclosed space and privacy to nmc domains the east; a terrace that opens fully to the outside overlooking the whitakers chocolates far south Similarly, the living areas have a triple orientation with three types of large spaces.

Open to the outside distant and providing a wide view to the south: the view terrace as baptized Craig Ellwood. Open to foreign direct space and close to the garden: the living-terrace is protected under large pergolas. It comes in direct extension of the nmc domains dining room. Much more protected, the Important child-play may have lived both as a space service and nmc domains much more closed and intimate space. Stages Psychology! The position and nmc domains status of the service areas is butter, much less clear. Ellwood seems to make the difference in nmc domains service areas such as bathrooms that are treated as opaque and irremovable cores while the about space kitchens are treated as completely at nmc domains, Koenig transferable manner These spaces are scattered and fragmented in Design: Level and Baccalaureate the plan of a house. The diagram shows the spatial sequence extending along one of the two structural axes of the nmc domains project From west to better butter east, succeeding are: the nmc domains living terrace / child court / the entrance patio / porch for cars. Case Study House n9, by better C. Eames et E. Saarinen. This house was designed in collaboration with Charles Eames and nmc domains Eero Saarinen. This villa was built on the same site and with the same construction system that the villa # 8. It is nevertheless the antithesis and develops a radically different reflection.

This villa was built for J. Entenza himself. Important! She adapted to its requirements. Entenza wanted to focus on the reception areas. The house structure is based on a metallic structure, with columns of H to 4 inches (10 cm) to nmc domains 7.5 feet tall. The aim was to better battle enclose the maximum possible space in nmc domains shape and stages of development structure as simple as possible. This villa has been designed to be built to industrial methods but it was not really thinking as a prototype. The living room was designed according to the principle of nmc domains, elastic space. Architects have developed the idea that space can expand or contract depending on the life of its occupant and the number of guests. The engineer Edgardo Contini project expresses the general advantage of the better butter villa: The intention of the nmc domains Entenza House is to eliminate structure to be anti-structural, to of Curricula Level Program and Baccalaureate Program be anonymous as possible. In the nmc domains Entenza house no beams are expressed, no columns visible. The total concept was architectural : it was resolved in terms of better butter, architecture, in nmc domains contrast to the Eames house, which was structurally assertive.

This villa is in addition and in contrast to the Case Study House No. Essay About! 8 also called Eames House, located just next door. They both use the same structural system. This system is based on the metal profiles of nmc domains, high lightness. Yet in each case the architects make a radically different use. It is interesting how two radically different about of development psychology, can be developed on nmc domains the same site with two identical structural systems and a similar programming.

In the Eames House structure is completely highlighted. It is structuring, not only literally but figuratively: it articulates, rhythm and of development cadence of the nmc domains project. Important In Sound! It is everywhere the first expression. Nmc Domains! In the Entenza House , the search is at an entirely different level. The structural system is Essay about Depression, used in nmc domains a much more minimal and Essay about Depression paradoxically much more efficient than in the Eames House. Moreover, the structure is not used here to articulate and rhythm space. Rather, the goal seems rather in Entenza House to break free completely to access full spatial and nmc domains programmatic flexibility. Stages Of Development! The Entenza programmatic requirements for the house allows us to nmc domains better understand the basics of thinking developed by stages psychology Eames and nmc domains Saarinen. It is in the treatment of the relationship of the butter common areas and individual, intimate and shared the villa shows all its richness. The house is in a square of nmc domains, 54 feet (about 16.50 meters) square it occupies almost entirely.

The program is distributed as follows: the North-East quarter is occupied by individual rooms and private (rooms, bathroom); the northwest quarter, for about Depression, service parts (laundry, garage, cellar ) Finally, the southern half of the common areas (living room, dining room, kitchen ) Each part is separated by full or partial opacities games but also translucency. Nmc Domains! They have with each other but also with the chocolates outside space of the nmc domains subtle relationships. Thus, the input is separated by hitler mussolini stalin a simple translucent filter garage which is lit from overhead way. The light is thus transmitted and scattered by the filter in nmc domains the manner of lateral entry. The kitchen is separated by a wall furniture fair amount has so obscure the Comparison of Curricula Program Program view. Nmc Domains! This makes it possible to maintain a unit of space while introducing discontinuities. The separation between the master bedroom and dressing room is about Depression, treated in the same way The connection between the room is treated with a sliding panel will allow to separate or unite spaces in the main bedroom and living room. Another type of discontinuity is introduced by nmc domains the fireplace, treated fairly minimal, floating and movable. Important In Sound! A final type of nmc domains, discontinuity is better butter battle, introduced by treating the soil levels of differences in the villa. Nmc Domains! This difference between the northern half and south of the house is equivalent to about 90 cm. It allows the creation of large footboards in Comparison of Curricula Design: Level Program and Baccalaureate the middle of the stay.

These steps by creating casual seating allows the opportunity to strengthen the space of the living room around the nmc domains fireplace. On the Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate Level Program and Baccalaureate other side, between the bedroom and nmc domains the living room, the height difference allows the creation of a sofa next stay with the top of the file arrives at the chamber floor. These dispositions allow to obtain spaces of great functional flexibility. They have a high spatial malleability and high versatility while remaining perfectly qualified. A number of scenarios illustrating this elasticity are studied in whitakers ltd a series of nmc domains, diagram (see next page): Scenario 1 : We start here with the basic element around which is built the common area in the villa Entenza. This is the part of the living room occupying the better battle south-eastern part of the villa. This element is limited by nmc domains the fireplace and Important Motifs and Editing the sofa that closes the space of very intimate way. Nmc Domains! On the other side, the kitchen that can be associated indifferently to 3 different types of Essay Depression, areas: living room with part of which is bounded on nmc domains the east by emmarchement transforming this part of living a formal dining room ; or with the internal extension of the kitchen open to the living room: creating an informal dining room. About Depression! Finally, it may be associated with the outdoor terrace in the kitchen extension. Thus creating a place for outdoor dining. Scenario 2 : In this scenario, the nmc domains basic unit is associated with the chamber and part of the terrace creating a very intimate spatial sequence type: bedroom + living room + terrace, privatizing some way the living room and terrace.

This scenario shown in hitler stalin photos 3 and nmc domains 4. Butter Battle! We clearly see the alcove effect in which the chamber is taken. Scenario 3 : Here, the nmc domains master doubled the portion of the space on the other side of the fireplace. The home is no longer a limiting factor but a central stay home And this part is in complete continuity with the outdoor terrace, which still has larger space. Scenario 4 : This scenario explores the better butter possibility or common areas are assembled and dilated to nmc domains the extreme. Here they form a very large reception area. This space is both fragmented and united. About Depression! It includes an nmc domains, input sequence and various conducive to Depression discussion forums. It is a period to which many of us have been anxiously looking forward for nmc domains, long years . Of Development! These words written by Neutra early in nmc domains the program shows how the Case Study Program was an expected event. Important In Sound And Editing! Indeed, Neutra wore a constant interest in innovation in the field of design and construction of individual houses. Nmc Domains! During these long years, Neutra thought to bring out Comparison Design: and Baccalaureate of the home craft to nmc domains industrialization.

The two-bedroom house is better battle, a problem that has already solved many times. Plans in 1948 are in line with all the reflection that he developed during his career. Assembling a prefabricated core services and containing wet and heating installations was a limiting factor of the nmc domains plan. This core was placed so as not to psychology prevent future extensions of the villa. In a second step, an extension was added to the south in 1958. The house has an L-shaped plan with the nmc domains dining room and living room facing south open on a social patio bordered by giant Eucalyptus. Better Butter! Both bedrooms have their own open to the west garden. The composition of the house based on a frame alternating category successively 10 feet and 4 feet.

The combination of these two measurements: a structural dimension and the dimensions of prefabricated wet core which houses all services (kitchen and bathroom) for the 10 feet. Nmc Domains! The dimensions of 4 feet of the frame are treated rather as margins in the project. All circulations are collected. It allows to arrange a set of butter battle, continuities and transparency through the project. It also allows the posting of items.. Nmc Domains! Elle autorise egalement le detachement des elements. Important Essay! The structural system is nmc domains, not emphasized in the project. The structure has no presence or strong or rhythm in the project. Opacities treated on module 4 feet are worked in a completely fragmented.. They support many advanced and chocolates ltd Returns indoor and outdoor play areas.

These effects the villa allows multiple orientations allowing each space to benefit from nmc domains its own private outdoor space. Hitler Mussolini Stalin! The roof is covered in this same principle. It is widely comes in front of the facade is thus withdrawn leaving the elements exceed in nmc domains height as chimneys .. All these treatments contribute to the effect of dissolution of the house into the surrounding nature, with which she seems to merge. This diagram shows the north side of the house, it helps to stalin understand the relationship maintained by the spaces of the house with the environment. It illustrates a typical indoor-outdoor device with Neutra Both interiors are visible both chambers. Nmc Domains! Same size, the relationship of their interior spaces with the exterior space is treated with the same repeating pattern that creates an effect of outside in space. Case Study House Program: synoptic.

Elements de Sapin / Platre. Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Platre, Lattes de bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque.

Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre. Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin. Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia.

Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli. The Case Study Houses program: presentation #038; history. The Study Houses program was launched in Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate Program January 1945. So he started in the very particular and very conducive context of the United States in the immediate post -war period. A man , John Entenza was able to see that it was a key moment . Nmc Domains! He was able to take the lead in maximizing its benefits . This context and and Editing Essay the personality of the latter are the elements that made ??the success of the program. This post-war period is a period of scarcity where all types of building materials are missing. Nmc Domains! Paradoxically , it also corresponds to Motifs in Sound and Editing a period where the construction industry works very intense.

This intensity is explained by the long period of inactivity that preceded it . On the one hand due to the economic crisis of 1929, the building activity is very slow throughout the thirties. On the nmc domains other hand , the war of 39-45 marks a complete and total output any breakpoint. All economic activity is oriented to the war effort moment. There was then very little opportunitees construction except for purely utilitarian building structures During all these years, and especially during the war , there has been a great technological development and many progress. These new technologies will finally be tested and applied to of development psychology the building , so for nmc domains, example : New plastics make possible the chocolates ltd construction of homes using panels and translucent screens . The invention and nmc domains use of arc welding allows for welding of such quality that they can finally be exposed indoors . Improvement of synthetic resins, which make them more resistant than natural resins, serves to seal and develop jointings adapted to Essay Depression new light building panels . The emergence of new adhesives coming from the aviation industry allows the nmc domains development of Comparison of Curricula Design: Associate Program, a wide variety of nmc domains, new composite materials . Finally, the construction period was not slowed mean a total shutdown of architectural production . On the contrary, the butter battle period between the wars saw a multitude of flower theoretical projects . All its potientalites will finally be able to know a realization . They will crystallize in the experiments of the Case Study House Program. John Entenza is the nmc domains man who has by his editorial work and critical to Motifs and Editing all these reflections to emerge . Nmc Domains! It opened a whole experimental area . Entenza began the hitler stalin publication of the Arts and Architecture magazine in 1938. Nmc Domains! Context Californian has certainly always been in favor of mussolini, Modern Architecture . Nmc Domains! But it is Important in Sound, necessary at the time to nmc domains communicate through a media suppport to better butter battle the general public. It is nmc domains, thus promote an understanding of new approaches to Comparison Design: Level Program and Baccalaureate construction of individual houses emerged during the nmc domains postwar period . The magazine has become the indisputable leader to win public acceptance of Design: Level and Baccalaureate Program, a good design and work on architectural quality . Entenza is nmc domains, who was the initiator. Essentially teacher, he is convinced that all living with architecture , work on of development psychology the quality of the built environment affects us all. It keeps a democratic faith in nmc domains the ability of the of Curricula Associate Level Program public to understand qualitative work on our built environment when making an effort to submit it . In 1944, he has a good idea of the nmc domains course will take the modern architecture after the war. The weather is favorable for experimentation.

Potential customers have never been so many Indeed, the Design: Associate Level Program Program low housing production during the years of nmc domains, depression has led to a shortage of housing that is Comparison Associate Program, deeply felt at the end of the war. In addition, there is a real work to be done because some potential customers are already thinking about the time in terms of house key in hand . Moreover, the nmc domains term Architecture seems a big word for Program, families who want , in an emergency, fit comfortably and nmc domains economically . While the hitler stalin West Coast has always been a great place for experimentation and innovation in contemporary architecture ; Entenza sees the risk that the architectural quality of the houses built regresses due to the strong post-war production. It is indeed to be feared and nmc domains that the quality is up to the quantity It certainly there has customers who can wait patiently for the architect completes the plans , which are in a demanding approach to architectural quality . It is also at this time that sponsorship organizations can fund experimental work. But Entenza to realize that despite all many existing innovative ideas on Essay Depression the drawing board or in the minds of designers may not be able to nmc domains materialize and be permanently lost. In 1945, Entenza abandons its liabilities editor role to play a dynamic role in the architecture of the postwar period. He committed eight agencies including the magazine Arts and Architecture becomes the client. Each of these agencies is Motifs in Sound, responsible for the design of a house. Nmc Domains! Thus begins the program will continue after the departure of better butter, Entenza magazine in 1962. The Case Study House Program ends in nmc domains 1967 to stop the Depression publication of Art and nmc domains Architecture . The success and longevity of the program is due to its simplicity. In Sound And Editing! The only stated goal is the nmc domains development of an environment of well-being without any ideological bias. Architects are encouraged to experiment with new forms and Important in Sound and Editing Essay new materials.

But the materials should not be used or only selected according to nmc domains their objective qualities . There is no question of better butter battle, using a material only because it is new . The approach includes a landscape design close to home as well as designing furniture by renowned designers environment. During the nmc domains first three years of the program , six houses are fully completed , furnished and Comparison of Curricula Associate Level Program and Baccalaureate landscaped and nmc domains open to stages the public . Approximately 500,000 people visit the first dozen houses . Nmc Domains! The critical success houses promotes more than any public acceptance of an experimental design . Financing institutions to become progressively more open and cooperating . Banks are gradually fund contemporary homes . It should be noted that up to this time they refused fairly systematically fund houses with glass walls, open without dining room , kitchen facing the Comparison of Curricula Design: Level and Baccalaureate Program street, a flat roof and concrete slab floor plans; convinced that it was a risky investment without resale value However, all the houses of Case Study House Program were excellent investments and they prove their resale prices In the nmc domains 50s , after 13 houses either completed the program continues at whitakers, the rate of one house per year. Nmc Domains! Selected architects are usually young and stalin little known outside of Southern California . Koenig and Ellwood authors of five projects in two of nmc domains, them have both barely thirty when they are asked to design a Case Study House . Many architects of the end of the program were inspired by the first publications of the magazine. Koenig and decided to study architecture after the interest inspired him reading the newspaper . By throwing a look at of Curricula Design: Associate, the achievements of the nmc domains program over the last eleven years Entenza takes stock of the Design: Program Case Study Houses program : We like to nmc domains think that these houses have been responsible for some remarkably lucid thinking in whitakers chocolates terms of domestic architecture. While it is nmc domains, true that not all have been every mans dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in the sound use of new materials and in better re-use of the old, and had attempted, with considerable success, to suggest contemporary living patterns. Nmc Domains! The analysis of these documents allow us to identify three distinct periods in the program of the Case Study Houses : 1945-1950 , the program proved its worth. In those first years , priority is given to the economics of the projects . In these early years of the program of whitakers chocolates ltd, Case Studies, 13 houses were built and 7 projects presented.

The period begins in 1945 with the announcement of the nmc domains program and stages ends with the completion of the house of Eames and Saarinen for nmc domains, Entenza . All the architects of this period are already confirmed and recognized professionals. They each have a personal style already widely proven Any houses built during this period, that of Eames and Saarinen was the first to play with the layout and structure. It is stages psychology, also the first in the program to focus on nmc domains the use of industrial materials and techniques in the field of architecture. Homes # 8 and # 9 are halfway house between the more traditional villas of the Depression first period and nmc domains purely experimental houses the following years . 1950-60 The experimental period. In a second time, during the stages decade of 50, the focus is on nmc domains innovative dimension villas, the true economic dimension from the background without , however, be lost sight of.

This period extends from the summer of Important in Sound and Editing Essay, 1950 when Soriano started working on nmc domains his house in hitler mussolini stalin the summer of 1960 , with the completion of the nmc domains second house Koenig. Most homes built during this period are experimental metal frame houses , the others being experiments on elements against plywood precast factory. For a century and a half the industry has been used for building materials but the whitakers ltd house construction has resisted industrialization. Nmc Domains! Architects believe at the time that we must change that. Stages Psychology! Steel promises to nmc domains bring domestic architecture to industrialization after the end of hitler, World War II . Nmc Domains! But the fundamental difference between houses wood frame and steel frame houses is that in the case of a steel frame all the details should be set at design unlike the Comparison Associate and Baccalaureate Program wooden frame where you can leave a number of details to the discretion of the manufacturer The priority of this period is the development of projects that can serve as prototypes for manufactured homes . Finally, one last time , the program has a broader focus. The Case Studies developed during this period no longer interested only in experiments on one house.

Reflections extend over a larger scale. Nmc Domains! You work on groups of houses and about Depression their integration to nmc domains the environment and the city. Les Villas experimentales du Case Study House Program. Le Case Study Houses Program est lance en 1945, par un jeune editeur californien John Entenza par l’intermediaire de son journal Arts Architecture . Dans le cadre du programme, le magazine fait appel a differents architectes pour etudier un projet de maison individuelle. Les projets est construits, puis meubles. Butter Battle! Il est ensuite porte a la connaissance de tous: d’abord publies dans les pages de Arts and Architecture , les villas sont ensuite ouvertes au grand public pendant une certaine periode et finalement vendues. Cette initiative a plusieurs objectifs designes par Entenza. Nmc Domains! Il s’agit tout d’abord de promouvoir aupres du grand public une nouvelle maniere de concevoir l’architecture domestique. Il cherche egalement a provoquer cez le public une nouvelle exigence de qualite architecturale pour leurs propres maisons. Le programme des Case Study Houses: presentation #038; historique. Le programme des Study Houses a ete lance en Janvier 1945.

Il a donc debute dans le contexte tres particulier et tres propice des Etats-Unis de limmediat apres-guerre. Un homme, John Entenza a su voir quil sagissait dun moment clef. Battle! Il a su prendre les devants pour en tirer les avantages. Ce contexte ainsi que la personnalite de ce dernier sont les elements qui ont fait le succes du programme. Cette periode dapres-guerre est une periode de penurie ou tout les types de materiaux de construction sont manquants. Nmc Domains! Paradoxalement, elle correspond egalement a une periode ou lindustrie de la construction fonctionne de maniere tres intense. Cette intensite sexplique par la longue periode dinactivite qui la precede. Dune part suite a la crise economique de 1929, lactivite constructive est fort ralentie pendant toutes les annees trente. Dautre part, la guerre de 39-45 marque un point darret complet et total a toute production . Toute lactivite economique est a ce moment orientee vers leffort de guerre . Il y a alors tres peu dopportunitees de construction excepte pour construire des structures purement utilitaires

Pendant toutes ces annees et notamment pendant la guerre, on assiste a un tres grand developpement technologique et a de nombreux progres. Ces nouvelles technologies vont enfin pouvoir etre experimentees et appliquees au batiment, ainsi par exemple : Les nouveaux plastiques rendent possible la construction de maisons utilisant des panneaux et des ecrans translucides. Linvention et lutilisation de la soudure a larc permet dobtenir des soudures dune qualite telle quelles peuvent etre enfin exposees a linterieur des maisons. Lamelioration des resines synthetiques, qui les rendent plus resistantes que les resines naturelles, permet detancher et de developper des jointements adaptes au nouveaux panneaux de construction legers. Lapparition de nouvelles colles provenants lindustrie aeronautique permet le developpement dune tres grande variete de nouveaux materiaux composites. Enfin, cette periode de construction ralentie na pas ete synonyme dun arret total de la production architecturale. Bien au contraire, la periode dentre-deux guerre a vu fleurir une multitude de projets theoriques.

Lensemble de ses potientalites vont enfin pouvoir connaitre une concretisation. Stages! Elles vont se cristalliser dans les experimentations du Case Study House Program. John Entenza est lhomme qui a permis par son travail dediteur et de critique a toutes ces reflexions de voir le jour. Il a ouvert tout une aire dexperimentation. Entenza debute la publication du magazine Arts and Architectures en 1938. Le contexte Californien a certes toujours ete favorable a lArchitecture Moderne. Mais il est necessaire a lepoque de communiquer au travers un suppport mediatique aupres du grand public.

Il sagit de favoriser ainsi une bonne comprehension des nouvelles demarches de construction de maisons individuelles apparues pendant cette periode dapres-guerre. Le magazine est devenu lindiscutable leader permettant de gagner le public a lacceptation dune bonne conception et dun travail sur la qualite architecturale. Cest Entenza qui en a ete linitiateur. Essentiellement pedagogue, il est convaincu que vivant tous avec larchitecture, un travail sur la qualite de lenvironnement construit nous concerne tous. Nmc Domains! Il garde une foi democratique en la possibilite du public de comprendre un travail qualitatif sur notre environnement bati quand il est fait un effort pour le lui presenter. En 1944, il a une bonne idee du cours que va prendre larchitecture moderne apres la guerre. Le temps est favorable a lexperimentation.

Les clients potentiels nont jamais ete aussi nombreux En effet, la faible production de logements pendant les annees de depression a entraine une penurie dhabitations qui se fait durement ressentir au sortir de la guerre. De plus, il y a un veritable travail a effectuer car une partie des clients potentiels pensent deja a lepoque en terme de maisons clef-en-main. Design: Program Program! Qui plus est, le terme dArchitecture semble un bien grand mot pour des familles qui veulent, dans lurgence, se loger confortablement et economiquement. Meme si la cote Ouest a toujours ete un grand lieu dexperimentation et dinnovation en matiere darchitecture contemporaine; Entenza entrevoit le risque que la qualite architecturale des maisons construites regresse du fait de la forte production dapres-guerre. Il est, en effet a craindre que la qualite laisse ainsi place a la quantite Il y a certes des clients qui peuvent attendre patiemment que larchitecte acheve les plans, et qui sont dans une demarche exigente de la qualite architecturale. Nmc Domains! Il existe egalement a cette epoque des organismes de mecenat qui peuvent financer des travaux experimentaux. Mais, Entenza se rends compte que malgre tout beaucoup didees innovantes existants sur les tables a dessin ou dans lesprit des concepteurs risquent de ne pouvoir se concretiser et detre definitivement perdues.

En 1945, Entenza abandonne donc son role passif dediteur pour jouer un role dynamique dans larchitecture de lapres-guerre. Il engage huit agences dont le magazine Arts and Architecture devient le client. Chacune de ces agences est chargee de la conception dune maison. Cest ainsi que commence le programme qui se prolongera apres le depart de Entenza du magazine en 1962. Le Case Study House Program sacheve en 1967 a larret de la publication de Art and better butter battle Architecture . Le succes et la longevite du programme sont dues a sa simplicite. Le seul but annonce est le developpement dun environnement de bien-etre sans aucun prejuge ideologique. Nmc Domains! Les architectes sont encourages a experimenter de nouvelle formes et de nouveaux materiaux. Mais les materiaux ne doivent etre selectionnes ou utilises seulement en fonction de leur qualites objectives. Il nest pas question dutiliser un materiaux seulement parce quil est nouveau.

La demarche inclut une conception paysagere de lenvironnement proche de la maison ainsi que la creation de mobiliers par des concepteurs reconnus. Stages Of Development Psychology! Durant les trois premieres annees du programme, 6 maisons sont totalement achevees, meublees et paysagees puis ouvertes au public. Environ 500 000 personnes visitent la premiere douzaine de maisons. Le succes critique des maisons favorise plus que tout lacceptation du public dune conception experimentale. Les institutions de financement deviennent au fur et a mesure de plus en plus ouvertes et cooperantes. Les banques commencent peu a peu a financer les maisons contemporaines. Ils faut preciser que jusqua cette epoque elles refusaient assez systematiquement de financer des maisons avec des murs en verre, plans ouverts, sans salle a manger, une cuisine faisant face a la rue, une toit plat et des dalles de beton au sol; convaincues quil sagissait dun investissement hasardeux sans valeur de revente Or, toutes les maisons du Case Study House Program furent dexcellents investissements et elles le prouvent par leurs prix a la revente Dans les annees 50, apres que 13 Maisons soit completees le programme continue au rythme dune maison par an.

Les architectes selectionnes sont habituellement jeunes et peu connus hors du Sud de la Californie. Koenig et Ellwood auteurs de cinq projets a eux deux ont tout deux a peine trente ans quand ils sont sollicites pour concevoir une Case Study House. Beaucoup darchitectes de la fin du programme ont ete inspire par les premieres publications du magazine. Ainsi Koenig decida detudier larchitecture suite a linteret que lui inspire la lecture du journal. En jettant un regard sur les realisations du programme au cours des onze dernieres annees Entenza tire un bilan du programme des Case Study Houses: We like to think that these houses have been responsible for some remarkably lucid thinking in terms of domestic architecture. Nmc Domains! While it is true that not all have been every mans dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in the sound use of new materials and in re-use of the old, and had attempted, with considerable success, to suggest contemporary living patterns. (Nous aimons a penser que ces maisons ont ete responsables de quelques reflexions remarquables dans le domaine de larchitecture domestique. Meme sil est vrai que toutes ne representaient pas la maison revees de tout homme, elles ont en revanche eu une tres large influence dans lutilisation de nouveaux materiaux et dans la reutilisation de lancien et ont tente avec un succes respectable de suggerer les voies dun mode vie contemporain.)

Lanalyse de ces documents nous permettent de degager trois periodes distinctes dans le programme des Case Study Houses: 1945-50, Le programme fait ses preuves. Dans ces premiere annees, la priorite est donne a la dimension economique des projets. Dans ces premieres annees du programme des Case Studies, 13 maisons furent construites et 7 projets presentes. La periode debute en 1945 avec lannonce du programme et se termine avec lachevement de la maison de Eames et Saarinen pour Entenza. Tout les architectes de cette periode sont deja des professionnels confirmes et reconnus.

Ils ont chacun un style personnel deja largement eprouves De toute les maisons construites au cours de cette periode, celle de Eames et Saarinen est la premiere a jouer avec le plan et la structure. Elle est egalement la premiere dans le programme a se concentrer sur lutilisation de materiaux et de techniques industrielles dans le domaine de larchitecture. Les maisons #8 et #9 sont des maisons de transition entre les villas plus traditionnelles de la premiere periode et les maisons purement experimentales des annees qui suivent. 1950-60, La periode experimentale. Dans un deuxieme temps, au cours de la decennie 50, laccent est mis sur la dimension innovatrice des villas, la dimension veritablement economique passant au second plan sans cependant etre perdue de vue. Cette periode setend de lete 1950, quand Soriano commence a travailler sur sa maison a lete 1960, avec lachevement de la deuxieme maison de Koenig.

La plupart des maisons construites au cours de cette periode sont des maisons experimentales a ossature metalliques, les autres etant des experimentations sur des elements en contre-plaques prefabriques en usine. Depuis un siecle et demi lindustrie a ete utilisee pour les materiaux de construction mais la construction de maison a resiste a la lindustrialisation. Les architectes pensent a lepoque que lon doit changer cela. Lacier promet damener larchitecture domestique a lindustrialisation apres la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale. Mais la difference fondamentale entre maisons a ossature de bois et les maisons a ossature acier est que dans le cas dune ossature dacier tout les details doivent etre regles au moment de la conception contrairement a lossature bois ou lon peut laisser un certain nombre de details a la discretion du constructeur La priorite de cette periode est le developpement de projets qui peuvent servir de prototypes pour des maisons industrialisees. 1960-65, Changement dechelle. Enfin, dans un dernier temps, le programme a pris une orientation plus large. Les Case Studies developpees pendant cette periode ne sinteressent plus seulement a des experimentations sur une seule maison.

Les reflexions setendent sur une plus large echelle. On travaille alors sur des groupements de maisons et sur leur integrations a lenvironnement et a la ville. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre.

Platre, Lattes de bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre.

Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin. Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia.

Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli. Visite virtuelle de la villa Savoye de Le Corbusier.

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