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Argumentative Essay against Abortion. Argumentative Essay against Abortion. During the reaction, course of slavery period, Western history, Judeo-Christian culture has been a significant source of limits on individual freedom. One Christian tradition has viewed nature as #8220;God#8217;s rules#8221; and of hcl, has therefore tended to oppose human tampering with natural processes. From this tradition has emerged the idea of the sacredness of Schizophrenia Essay, human life, a belief which has affected modern attitudes toward the reaction, abortion issue. Some Catholic leaders have placed the andy warhol, protest against reaction and naoh abortion within a larger ideological framework of the slavery period, need to reaction of hcl preserve all human life (Cleghorn p.129-142). From this perspective, the rejection of abortion accompanies the and gertrude, condemnation of nuclear warfare and capita punishment, along with efforts to eliminate such deadly problems as poverty and malnutrition. And Naoh? All such issues form a #8220;seamless garment,#8221; the purpose of Variola and Smallpox Disease Essay, which is to preserve human life. Conceivably, the nobility of this cause has led some people, and especially Catholics, to reaction and naoh refuse any withdrawal from the war began, line of conception as the reaction of hcl, beginning of human life. However, research suggests that the Variola Virus and Smallpox Disease Essay, #8220;seamless garment#8221; argument might apply only to a small, perhaps elite, segment of reaction, Canadians (Jelen p.118-125). Need essay sample on Argumentative Essay against what are quantum numbers Abortion ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for reaction, you for only $12.90/page.

Another Christian tradition relevant to abortion emphasizes the sinfulness of human nature, views desires for warhol monroe, physical pleasures or comforts as corrupting, and emphasizes the reaction of hcl, need to control the human#8217;s baser nature. What Are Quantum Numbers? This puritanical perspective finds expression in a commitment to various traditional moral rules. Thus, research has consistently found that opponents of legalized abortion hold traditional ideological views about and naoh gender and family such as the Can Strike Anyone Essay, belief that woman#8217;s place is in the home (Luker p.160); a condemnation of reaction, sex education in the public schools (Schwartz p.10-12); and an opposition to various forms of sexual freedom, divorce, and sociological paper, pornography (Neitz p.270). Such attitudes have been collectively identified as #8220;social traditionalism#8221;. Of Hcl? The head of the Pro Life Action has said, #8220;There#8217;s more to Schizophrenia Essay life than the viscera twitch, and I think using sex purely for pleasure is and naoh, sort of animalistic#8221; (quoted in Ridgeway p.29). The Peloponnesian After? Thus, a second ideological basis for of hcl and naoh, opposition to legalized abortion is a commitment to social traditionalism. Another secular, ideological basis for limiting arguments based on Can Strike Anyone, individualism is political conservatism. Of Hcl? Prominent conservatives tend to Can Strike Anyone distrust human nature and spontaneity (e.g, Kirkpatrick p.81-94). #8220;Historically, conservatives have been distrustful of man#8217;s basic nature and have emphasized the reaction of hcl and naoh, need for numbers, restraining institutions#8221; (Lenski p.221). Not surprisingly, a positive relationship has been found between political conservatism and social traditionalism. Also, an antiabortion stand has generally been associated with politically conservative people and groups.

In sum, the acceptance of legalized abortion among people is and naoh, a consequence of individualism which finds expression in libertarian and feminist ideologies. On the other hand, opposition to slavery period legalized abortion finds its ideological justification in the religious tradition, specifically in natural law or puritanical doctrines. Reaction And Naoh? This paper provides arguments against jesus speak abortion. And Naoh? For years, two arguments about religious liberty have formed a significant part of the abortion debate. The firstthat public policy should not be based upon narrowly-construed sectarian perspectivesreflects the Schizophrenia Can Strike Essay, concern that First Amendment protections be safeguarded by policymakers. And Naoh? The secondthat no group should seek to paper topics impose its own moral/theological beliefs upon others who hold differing beliefs regarded as equally personal and of hcl, sacredrequests that religious communities and/or leaders be faithful to the social contract of slavery period, tolerance. The wisdom of this approach seems increasingly evident as the reaction, heat the abortion debate generates has intensified over the past three decades. The deep investment in the issue by various faith communities has led to acrimonious and divisive rhetoric and heavy-handed actions that threaten the cohesion of the social fabric, especially the civility that is necessary to maintain tolerance among and for all religious groups in a free and open society. The aim of why did jesus speak in parables, this essay is and naoh, not to deal with abortion as a moral problem, but to explore the meaning(s) of Virus and Smallpox, religious liberty. Defining the Religious Issue.

Locating or defining the religious nature of the abortion debate is reaction of hcl and naoh, of central importance. Are Quantum Numbers? Those who campaign to of hcl ban abortion contend that no religious issue is involved because it is simply the killing of innocent human life, something both believers and atheists can agree to what are quantum numbers oppose. Of Hcl And Naoh? Abortion is merely a legal issue to be settled by the politics of majority rule (Horan et al. Monroe? p. 34) Since the Supreme Court has not dealt with abortion in terms of the reaction, Free Exercise/No Establishment Clauses of the First Amendment, some have concluded that there are no such issues involved. Numbers? Roe v. And Naoh? Wade evaded the question, even while recognizing the philosophical/ religious conundrum in why did jesus speak, the notion of fetal personhood. Justice John Paul Stevens raised the establishment issue in Webster, and both he and and naoh, Justice Harry A. Andy Marilyn Monroe Painting? Blackmun alluded to religious liberty concerns in reaction and naoh, Casey. Up to paper this point, however, decisions guaranteeing a right to of hcl and naoh an abortion have relied upon the #8220;fight to privacy#8221; and #8220;personal liberties#8221; assured under the Fourteenth Amendment. Even so, First Amendment concerns have considerable importance and thus clarification of these issues with regard to the abortion debate is what are quantum numbers, needed.

It has been established that there are certain matters which do not constitute violations of the and naoh, First Amendment. First, religious leaders may address issues of jesus in parables, moral import in reaction, the public arena. Freedom for religion means that religious people have every fight to engage in the democratic process of topics, shaping public opinion and policy. Reaction? Second, a simple coincidence between religious doctrine and certain laws or regulations does not necessarily violate the First Amendment. The charge that a sectarian doctrine lies behind public policy restricting access to abortion (Swomley p. 16-17) fails to prove entanglement or favoritism amounting to religious establishment. Warhol Marilyn Monroe? Even so, I believe both establishment and free exercise issues are at stake in of hcl and naoh, the abortion debate. These may be seen in efforts to establish protections for the pregnant woman, the attempt to attribute personhood to gestating life, the constraints imposed upon paper topics women seeking abortions, and reaction of hcl, the latitude permitted religious groups who seek legislative power through political processes. Virus Essay? Of special concern are those proposals regarding fetal personhood that rest on of hcl and naoh, abstract metaphysical opinion, and and gertrude, the actions of various religious groups whose determination to shape policy results in reaction, actions which infringe upon the religious liberties of others. The issue for public policy, of course, is a definition of personhood that is appropriate in Schizophrenia Can Strike Anyone, and for a pluralistic society.

To be sure, any legal definition might resemble a religious opinion; the question is and naoh, whether the definition is reasonable, and whether it enhances or restricts protected personal liberties. The first principle of religious liberty is that laws will not be based upon abstract metaphysical speculation, but will be fashioned through democratic processes in which every perspective is subject to critical analysis. Any proposal must be open either to topics revision or rejection. Of Hcl And Naoh? Part of the genius of Roe v. Wade (now affirmed by Casey) was putting forward the war began after, standard of viability: that stage of development at which the reaction of hcl, fetus has sufficient neurological and physiological maturation to survive outside the womb. Prior to that, the war began, fetus simply is not sufficiently developed to speak meaningfully of it as an of hcl and naoh, independent being deserving and requiring the full protection of the law, i.e. a person. The notion of the peloponnesian war began, viability correlates biological maturation with personal identity in a way that can be recognized and reaction and naoh, accepted by speak reasonable people.

It violates no group#8217;s religious teachings or any premise of and naoh, logic to slavery period provide protections for a viable fetus. Of Hcl? The same can hardly be said for those efforts to sociological topics establish moral and of hcl, legal parity between a zygote (fertilized ovum) and a woman, which create substantive First Amendment issues. The first is the claim to special knowledge. The proposal to ban abortion legally is based on a claim that a pre-embryo is speak in parables, a person, whether other people believe it or not. Of Hcl? No matter what ordinary logic might indicate, the (philosophical) opinion of the Schizophrenia Anyone, theologian is really the truth. Those who disagree are misguided, uninformed, or willfully ignorant. A second feature of this approach is the contention that such moral premises are not sectarian or religious in nature. The Catholic dogma which holds that abortion is the taking of innocent human life is regarded as a principle of and naoh, natural law. (Harrison p. War Began After? 112-121) Natural law is a construct employed by theologians which attempts to bridge the reaction of hcl, worlds of speak, religion and reason, or of reaction of hcl and naoh, revelation and nature.

It has roots in Greek philosophy but was wedded to Christian moral thought most systematically in the works of war began after, Thomas Aquinas. And Naoh? Basic to his approach was the notion that the laws of God permeate nature and may be discerned by Virus and Smallpox Essay human reason. No special disclosure by God is of hcl and naoh, necessary since all people are endowed by and gertrude reason, he argued. The divine logos permeates all of creation and reaction and naoh, provides a link between the hamlet and gertrude, Divine and human mind; the very structures of reaction and naoh, nature are available universally and embody the and gertrude, absolute moral law of God. It is thus held to reaction be true for paper topics, all people. Since it is available to and by and naoh reason, which all people have, and since it permeates nature, which everyone might observe, every person, whether believer or unbeliever, is obligated to Schizophrenia obey the moral law. Since neither nature nor reason is the and naoh, special monopoly of the religious, secularists or atheists are also capable of war began, discerning the reaction of hcl, divine mandateit requires no special revelation. The only advantage of the church is that it is devoted to the God of the universe and has the the peloponnesian, special calling and divine appointment to of hcl carry God#8217;s authority to are quantum teach the truth by of hcl which all people are to numbers live. The moral rule can thus claim both religious and non-religious meanings and attempt to win the allegiance of reaction and naoh, both believers and nonbelievers. Are Quantum? Such an argument allows the contention to be made that efforts to prohibit or severely limit abortion are not being made on of hcl and naoh, the basis of religious or sectarian dogma and thus pose no First Amendment problems.

The natural law construct makes that contention possible, but it is hardly persuasive. The final step is from Can Strike Anyone morality to law. When the truth of God is reaction and naoh, made obvious, the laws of the state should conform to it. Thus, the strict moral rule against andy monroe painting abortion articulated by reaction clergy should be implemented by slavery period civil law. The relation between the moral and of hcl, the civil law is hamlet and gertrude, one that underscores the #8220;duty of the reaction and naoh, public authority to andy marilyn painting insure that the reaction of hcl, civil law is regulated according to the fundamental norms of the moral law in matters concerning human rights, human life and slavery period, the institution of the family.#8221; (Ratzinger p. 12) What seems obvious and convincing to the natural law theorist, however, often appears unconvincing if not ludicrous to reaction of hcl the critic. Andy Warhol Marilyn Painting? To claim a monopoly on of hcl, truth on both secular and religious ground is self-serving in the extreme. It fits well in war began, the scheme of the sectarian claim to be the final arbiter of reaction of hcl, all truth and the embodiment of and gertrude, divine revelation, that is, to claim an absolute grounding for conclusions supposedly based on and naoh, human reason. The ultimate outcome of that line of thought was found in #8220;The Syllabus of andy warhol monroe painting, Errors#8221; (Pope Pius IX p. 41) which claimed, among other things, that error has no rights.

The Inquisition itself had been conducted on reaction of hcl, the fervent belief that the church was doing heretics a favor by Variola Disease Essay saving them from the damnation to which their false beliefs would most certainly lead. The absolutist attitude against abortion claimed by evangelicals of the new right makes similar arguments but appeals to the authority of Scripture instead of of hcl, natural law theory. The fact that scholars equally committed to biblical authority do not agree with fundamentalist or evangelical interpretations does not deter them from the claim that the why did speak in parables, Bible teaches that zygotes are persons and and naoh, that abortion is murder. They also claim a type of #8220;special knowledge#8221; though its roots are ostensibly in revelation, not reason. War Began After? Their intolerance toward people with different opinions reflects assumptions about the special nature of their calling and the particularly offensive nature of elective abortion. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? The fact that Inquisitions and slavery period, heresy hunts are now more subtle than those of the pre-Reformation era often conceals the fact that the same structure of thought and authority is still at work.

When religious authorities make absolute pronouncements as if they were patently true and of hcl and naoh, obviously obligatory for all people whether acknowledged as a faith commitment or not, an Can Strike, authoritarian claim is laid bare that is reaction of hcl, inimical to democratic processes and Variola and Smallpox Disease Essay, undermines respect for differing religious beliefs. The clear message is that those who disagree are to be corrected or coerced to conform, since their opinions have no right to moral standing and thus are not to be respected in reaction and naoh, the court of conscience or, finally, even by civil law. The appeal to privileged knowledge that is jesus in parables, available only to those within a special circle but is somehow mandatory for everyone is reaction and naoh, especially problematic. The assertions of hamlet, religious authorities must finally be submitted to the critical scrutiny of common sense and reason in reaction, a secular or pluralist society. (Wenz p.112) Whether or not a zygote is sociological paper topics, a person is a question for reflective analysis by jurists, theologians, philosophers, sociologists, embryologists, (Gardner p. 453-56) and a host of other peoplemost all of reaction, whom are interested in Schizophrenia Essay, good public policy, solid morals, and and naoh, family values. It can be concluded that abortion should not be legalized as religion does not permit its practice. Cleghorn, J. Hamlet And Gertrude? Stephen. Research note on and naoh, Cardinal Bernard in#8217;s #8216;seamless garment#8217;.

Review of Religious Research, 1986 28(2t:129-142. Gardner, Charles A. #8220;Is an sociological paper, Embryo a Person?#8221; in and naoh, Abortion, Medicine and slavery period, the Law, 4th ed., eds. J.D. Of Hcl And Naoh? Butler and slavery period, D.F. Walbert (New York: Facts on File, 1992), 453-56. Harrison, Beverly W. Our Right to Choose (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1983). Horan, et al, eds., Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 1987), xiv. And Naoh? Jelen, Ted. Religious belief and attitude constraint.

Journal for andy warhol marilyn, the Scientific Study of Religion, 1990, 29(1):118-125. Kirkpatrick, Jeane J. Dictatorships and of hcl and naoh, double standards. Schizophrenia Can Strike Anyone Essay? New York Simon and Schuster. 1982. Lenski, Gerhard. Conservatives and radicals. In Contemporary Sociological Theory, edited by of hcl and naoh Fred E. Topics? Katz. Reaction And Naoh? 1971.

220-222. Variola And Smallpox Disease Essay? Luker, Kristin. Abortion and the politics of motherhood Berkeley University of California. 1984. Reaction? Neitz, Mary Jo. Family, state, and God: Ideologies of the right-to-life movement.

Sociological Analysis1981, 42(3):265-276. Can Strike Anyone Essay? Pope Pius IX, #8220;Syllabus of Errors,#8221; 1864. Reaction Of Hcl? Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal. Instruction on Respect for Human Life in its Origin and on andy warhol monroe, the Dignity of of hcl, Procreation: Replies to Certain Questions of the warhol marilyn, Day. Congregation for the Doctrine of the of hcl and naoh, Faith (Rome: The Vatican, 1988), Pt. III.

Ridgeway, James.The profile juggernaught. Paper? The Village Voice, 16 July1986, pp. 28-29. Of Hcl And Naoh? Schwartz, Amy E. Bitter Pill. Why Did Jesus Speak In Parables? The New Republic, 18 February 1986, pp. 10-12. Swomley, John.#8221;Supreme Court#8217;s Abortion Decision Parallels Roman Catholic Bishop#8217;s Position,#8221; The Churchman#8217;s Human Quest (September-October, 1989): 16-17.

Wenz, Peter S. Of Hcl? Abortion Rights as Religious Freedom (Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1992), 112.

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patriot essay Presented here are a some essays that I have assembled for all of you with a patriotic heart. If you have a favorite essay that you would like to contribute to of hcl and naoh, this collection please feel free to do so ! Be sure to include the title author (if known) to why did jesus, Contact Us. If one asks me the meaning of our flag, I say to him: It means just what Concord and Lexington meant, what Bunker Hill meant. It means the whole glorious Revolutionary War. It means all that the Declaration of Independence meant. It means all that the Constitution of our people, organizing for justice, for liberty and for happiness, meant. Under this banner rode Washington and his armies.

Before it Burgoyne laid down his arms. It waved on the highlands at West Point. When Arnold would have surrendered these valuable fortresses and precious legacies, his night was turned into reaction of hcl and naoh day and his treachery was driven away by beams of light from war began this starry banner. It cheered our army, driven out from reaction and naoh around New York, and in their painful pilgrimages through New Jersey. This banner streamed in light over the soldiers' heads at Valley Forge and at Morristown. It crossed the waters rolling with ice at Trenton, and when its stars gleamed in the morning with a victory, a new day of hope dawned on the despondency of this nation. Our Flag carries American ideas, American history and American feelings. And Gertrude? Beginning with the Colonies, and coming down to our time, in and naoh its sacred heraldry, in its glorious insignia, it has gathered and stored chiefly this supreme idea: divine right of liberty in man . Every color means liberty; every thread means liberty; every form of star and hamlet, beam or stripe of light means liberty - not lawlessness, but organized, institutional liberty - liberty through law, and laws for reaction and naoh, liberty!

This American Flag was the safeguard of liberty. Not an atom of crown was allowed to go into its insignia. Not a symbol of authority in the ruler was permitted to what numbers, go into reaction of hcl and naoh it. It was an ordinance of liberty by slavery period the people, for the people. That it meant, that it means, and, by the blessing of God, that it shall mean to the end of time! Our Flag - America's Tonic Against Cynicism. [ Note : From the Nov.-Dec. 1994 National Flag Foundations Standard Bearer Magazine.

This article remains the copyrighted material of the National Flag Foundation and is presented here by permission.] As Vice President and as a Senator and member of Congress before that, I have visited dozens of foreign countries. Believe me when I say I have seen lots of flags. Every country in the world flies flags on reaction of hcl, ceremonial occasions, such as the arrival of Variola dignitaries on official trips. But something sets Americans apart. We don't just put out the reaction, flag for why did jesus in parables, important visitors, or on solemn occasions, and then put it away. Reaction And Naoh? Ordinary Americans, by the millions, revere our flag and display it every day. We fly it from why did tall poles in front of of hcl our businesses, from short poles in our front yards, from the peloponnesian after balcony railings in our condominium complexes.

We pin the flag on our jacket lapels and reaction and naoh, paste it to the windows of our cars and trucks. As soon as our toddlers can hold a little stick in their tiny fists, we give them Old Glory to wave at the Fourth of July parade. And at life's end, we drape the caskets of the peloponnesian war began after our fallen patriots with the Stars and Stripes. This proud display of, and devotion to, the symbol of our nation is uniquely American. It is reaction and naoh, how we reaffirm the fact that we are indeed one nation and that whatever our other differences, there are core values Americans hold in common: a belief in the dignity of the individual, a love of liberty, and a commitment to government of, for, and by slavery period the people. By displaying the flag, we express our gratitude to the generations past who fought and died for this country, and we remind ourselves of our obligation to and naoh, preserve for numbers, generations to come the freedom that others won for us. One of the priviledges enjoyed by those of us in public life is to be greeted by flags most everywhere we go.

This simple expression of patriotism is often a welcome relief from the cynicism of elites in our nation's capital who are too sophisticated to be caught waving a flag. My aquaintances in the major media might find this hard to believe, but there's nothing like seeing proud faces of youngsters reciting the Pledge of reaction Allegiance to remind you of the high ideals that first led you to seek elected office. I realize that the temper of our times is increasingly cynical, that Americans in growing numbers raise a skeptical eyebrow upon hearing the words high ideals and elected office in the same breath. If you read the same newspaper stores I do, then you have seen the public opinion polls showing in what low repute we now hold the major branches of government. I must admit there are days when I understand those feelings. It's easy to look at the discrepancy between what officials say and what they do, and to become cynical as a result. However, I don't believe Americans will ever become entirely cynical -- as long as they keep flying the flag.

As a symbol of warhol marilyn monroe painting our republic and its institutions, our link to this country's past and to its future, the flag helps us keep in mind that the Founding Fathers created a durable and admirable system of government. The founders didn't pretend to guarantee that only honorable men and women would hold office. In fact, they assumed the opposite -- and created a system of checks and balances as insurance against the imperfect politicians they knew would always exist. In other parts of the world, people tend to reaction of hcl, find Americans' love of the flag overly sentimental. I believe that our system of the peloponnesian war began government, for all its occasional flaws, is still the finest in the world. Far from being sentimental, we have very good reason to show our appreciation anew every day. This country was not built by men who relied on somebody else to reaction of hcl, take care of them. It was built by men who relied on speak in parables, themselves, who dared to shape their own lives, who had enough courage to blaze new trails with enough confidence in themselves to take the necessary risks. This self-reliance is our American legacy.

It is the secret of that something which stamped Americans as Americans. Some call it individual initiative, others backbone. But whatever it is called, it is a precious ingredient in our national character, one which we must not lose. The time has come for us to re-establish the rights for which we stand, to re-assert our inalienable rights to human dignity, self-respect, self-relianceto be again the kind of people who once made America great. Such a crusade for reaction of hcl, renewed independence will require a succession of inspired leaders, leaders in spirit and in knowledge of the problem, not just men with political power, but men who are militantly for the distinctive way of life that was America. We are likely to find such leaders only among those that promote self-reliance and slavery period, who practice it with strict devotion and understanding. No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. And Naoh? But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. This is Disease Essay, no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country.

For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the reaction and naoh, subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at andy warhol monroe painting truth, and and naoh, fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and and Smallpox, our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and reaction and naoh, of an why did jesus speak, act of disloyalty toward the reaction and naoh, Majesty of slavery period Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings. Mr. President, it is natural to and naoh, man to indulge in Virus and Smallpox Essay the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts.

Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for reaction and naoh, liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and, having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the jesus in parables, whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for reaction and naoh, it. I have but one lamp by why did speak in parables which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House.

Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and reaction, darken our land. Are fleets and what, armies necessary to a work of love and reaction, reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the Variola Essay, implements of reaction war and subjugation; the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to slavery period, call for all this accumulation of navies and armies?

No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for reaction and naoh, no other. Hamlet And Gertrude? They are sent over to bind and reaction and naoh, rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to hamlet and gertrude, offer upon reaction of hcl, the subject? Nothing.

We have held the subject up in andy warhol monroe every light of reaction which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to what are quantum, avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the and naoh, ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne! In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free -- if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending -- if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and what, which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained -- we must fight!

I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us! They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year?

Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and reaction and naoh, when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength but irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the slavery period, God of nature hath placed in of hcl our power. The millions of Variola Disease Essay people, armed in the holy cause of of hcl and naoh liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us.

Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over why did speak, the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. Reaction? The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the andy marilyn, brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is reaction, now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable -- and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come. It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter.

Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace -- but there is are quantum numbers, no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish?

What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at reaction of hcl the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take but as for me; give me liberty or give me death. On the night of Good Friday, 1865, he left us to join a blessed procession, in neither doubt nor fear, but his soul does indeed go marching on. Hamlet? For this was the Bible-reading lad come out of wilderness, following a prairie star, filled with wonder at the world and its Maker, who all his life, boy and man, not only knew the Twenty-third Psalm but, more importantly, knew the Shepherd. Now it seems possible that we shall never see his like again. This is a sobering thought, but it should be a kindling one, for upon us now, as a people and a party, has been laid perhaps the of hcl and naoh, greatest responsibility any nation was ever asked to shoulder, yet certainly not greater than we can bear. Our days are no longer than were Lincoln's, our nights are no darker, and if there is any difference between his time and this it lies in the tremendous advantage that is ours, that he stood so tall before us.

In such a time and at such a moment we surely can say then, from hopeful, brimful hearts: We are standing, Father Abraham, devoted millions strong, firm in the faith that was yours and is ours, secure in the conviction bequeathed by after you to reaction of hcl, us that right does make might and that if we but dare to do our duty as we understand it, we shall not only survive. --we shall prevail. What's a flag? What's the love of country for which it stands? Maybe it begins with love of the land itself. What Numbers? It is the reaction, fog rolling in with the andy monroe painting, tide at Eastport, or through the Golden Gate and among the towers of San Francisco. Of Hcl And Naoh? It is the sun coming up behind the what numbers, White Mountains, over the Green, throwing a shining glory on Lake Champlain and above the of hcl, Adirondacks. Slavery Period? It is the storied Mississippi rolling swift and muddy past St. Louis, rolling past Cairo, pouring down past the levees of of hcl and naoh New Orleans. It is lazy noontide in the pines of Carolina, it is a sea of wheat rippling in Western Kansas, it is the San Francisco peaks far north across the glowing nakedness of Arizona, it is the Grand Canyon and a little stream coming down out of a New England ridge, in which are trout.

It is men at work. It is the storm-tossed fishermen coming into Gloucester and Provincetown and Astoria. It is the farmer riding his great machine in the dust of harvest, the dairyman going to the barn before sunrise, the the peloponnesian after, lineman mending the broken wire, the miner drilling for and naoh, the blast. It is the servants of fire in the murky splendor of Pittsburgh, between the Allegheny and the Monongahela, the trucks rumbling through the night, the locomotive engineer bringing the train in on time, the pilot in the clouds, the riveter running along the slavery period, beam a hundred feet in the air. It is the clerk in the office, the housewife doing the dishes and sending the children off to school. It is the teacher, doctor and reaction and naoh, parson tending and helping, body and soul, for small reward. It is small things remembered, the little corners of the land, the houses, the people that each one loves. We love our country because there was a little tree on a hill, and warhol painting, grass thereon, and a sweet valley below; because the hurdy-gurdy man came along on of hcl and naoh, a sunny morning in a city street; because a beach or a farm or a lane or a house that might not seem much to others were once, for each of us, made magic. It is voices that are remembered only, no longer heard. It is parents, friends, the lazy chat of andy monroe street and and naoh, store and office, and the peloponnesian war began, the ease of mind that makes life tranquil.

It is Summer and Winter, rain and sun and storms. These are flesh of our flesh, bone of our bone, blood of our blood, a lasting part of what we are, each of us and all of reaction of hcl and naoh us together. It is stories told. It is the Pilgrims dying in why did their first dreadful Winter. It is the minute man standing his ground at Concord Bridge, and dying there. It is the of hcl, army in rags, sick, freezing, starving at Valley Forge. What Numbers? It is the wagons and the men on foot going westward over Cumberland Gap, floating down the great rivers, rolling over of hcl, the great plains. It is the hamlet, settler hacking fiercely at the primeval forest on his new, his own lands.

It is Thoreau at Walden Pond, Lincoln at Cooper Union, and reaction, Lee riding home from Appomattox. It is corruption and disgrace, answered always by men who would not let the flag lie in slavery period the dust, who have stood up in every generation to of hcl, fight for the old ideals and the old rights, at risk of ruin or of Virus and Smallpox life itself. It is of hcl and naoh, a great multitude of people on pilgrimage, common and ordinary people, charged with the usual human failings, yet filled with such a hope as never caught the imaginations and the hearts of any nation on earth before. The hope of liberty. The hope of justice. The hope of a land in which a man can stand straight, without fear, without rancor. The land and slavery period, the people and the flag, the reaction, land a continent, the people of every race, the flag a symbol of what humanity may aspire to when the wars are over what, and the of hcl, barriers are down: to these each generation must be dedicated and why did, consecrated anew, to defend with life itself, if need be, but, above all, in friendliness, in hope, in reaction of hcl courage, to live for. I am an American: That's the way we put it, simply, without any swagger, without any brag, in those four plain words. We speak them softly, just to ourselves. We roll them on the tongue, touching every syllable, getting the feel of them, the enduring flavor. We speak them humbly, thankfully, reverently: I am an American.

They are more than words, really. They are the sum of the lives of a vast multitude of men and slavery period, women and wide-eyed children. They are a manifesto to mankind; speak those four words anywhere in the world -- yes, anywhere -- and those who hear will recognize their meaning. They are a pledge. Of Hcl And Naoh? A pledge that stems from a document which says: When in the course of human events, and goes on from there. A pledge to those who dreamed that dream before it was set to paper, to Disease, those who have lived it since, and died for it.

Those words are a covenant with a great host of plain Americans, Americans who put their share of meaning into them. Listen, and you can hear the and naoh, voices echoing through them, words that sprang white-hot from bloody lips, scornful lips, lips a tremble with human pity: Don't give up the ship! Fight her till she dies. Damn the torpedoes! Go ahead! . . . Do you want to live forever? . . . Andy Warhol Marilyn Painting? Don't cheer, boys; the poor devils are dying.

Laughing words, June-warm words, words cold as January ice: Root, hog, or die. .. I've come from Alabama with my banjo. Reaction? . . Pike's Peak or bust! . . . Busted, by God! . . Disease? . When you say that, smile. Wait till you see the whites of their eyes. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right. I am not a Virginian, but an of hcl and naoh, American. You can hear men in assembly summoned, there in Philadelphia, hear the why did in parables, scratch of their quills as they wrote words for the hour and produced a document for the ages. You can hear them demanding guarantees for which they suffered through the hell of of hcl and naoh war, hear a Yankee voice intoning the text of ten brief amendments. You can hear the slow cadences of a gaunt and weary man at Variola and Smallpox Gettysburg, dedicating not a cemetery, but a nation. You can hear those echoes as you walk along the streets, hear them in the rumble of traffic; you can hear them as you stand at the lathe, in the roaring factory; hear them in the clack of train wheels, in the drumming throb of the air liner; hear them in the corn fields and in the big woods and in the mine pits and the oil fields. But they aren't words any longer; they're a way of life, a pattern of living. They're the dawn that brings another day in which to get on reaction, the job.

They're the noon whistle, with a chance to get the kinks out of your back, to andy warhol, get a bowl of soup, a plate of beans, a cup of coffee into your belly. They're evening, with another day's work done; supper with the wife and kids; a movie, or the radio, or the newspaper or a magazine -- and reaction and naoh, no Gestapo snooping at the door and threatening to kick your teeth in. They are a pattern of jesus speak in parables life as lived by a free people, freedom that has its roots in rights and reaction and naoh, obligations: The right to go to a church with a cross or a star or a dome or a steeple, or not to go to any church at all; and the obligation to respect others in that same right. The right to harangue on a street corner, to Variola and Smallpox Disease, hire a hall and shout your opinions till your tonsils are worn to a frazzle; and reaction and naoh, the obligation to hamlet, curb your tongue now and then. The right to go to school, to learn a trade, to enter a profession, to earn an honest living; and the obligation to do an honest day's work. The right to put your side of the argument in reaction the hands of a jury; and the obligation to abide by the laws that you and your delegates have written in the statute books. The right to choose who shall run our government for us, the right to a secret vote that counts just as much as the next fellow's in andy warhol monroe painting the final tally; and the obligation to use that right, and guard it and keep it clean.

The right to hope, to dream, to reaction of hcl and naoh, pray; the obligation to serve. These are some of the meanings of Disease Essay those four words, meanings we don't often stop to tally up or even list. Only in the stillness of a moonless night, or in reaction the quiet of a Sunday afternoon, or in the thin dawn of why did speak in parables a new day, when our world is close about us, do they rise up in our memories and stir in our sentient hearts. Only then? That is not wholly so -- not today! For today we are drilling holes and driving rivets, shaping barrels and loading shells, fitting wings and welding hulls, And we are remembering Wake Island, and Bataan, and reaction of hcl, Corregidor, and Hong Kong and Singapore and andy monroe painting, Batavia; We are remembering Warsaw and Rotterdam and Rouen and reaction of hcl, Coventry. Remembering, and muttering with each rivet driven home: There's another one for slavery period, remembrance! They're plain words, those four.

Simple words. You could write them on your thumbnail, if you chose, Or you could sweep them all across the sky, horizon to horizon. You could grave them on of hcl and naoh, stone, you could carve them on the mountain ranges. You could sing them, to the tune of Yankee Doodle. But you needn't. You needn't do any of those things, For those words are graven in the hearts of 130,000,00 people, they are familiar to 130,000,000 tongues, every sound and every syllable. But when we speak them we speak them softly, proudly, gratefully: I am an American. We do honor to the stars and stripes as the emblem of our country and the symbol of all that our patriotism means. We identify the flag with almost everything we hold dear on warhol monroe, earth.

It represents our peace and security, our civil and political liberty, our freedom of religious worship, our family, our friends, our home. We see it in the great multitude of blessings, of rights and privileges that make up our country. But when we look at our flag and behold it emblazoned with all our rights, we must remember that it is equally a symbol of our duties. Every glory that we associate with it is the and naoh, result of duty done. A yearly contemplation of and gertrude our flag strengthens and purifies the national conscience. In response to a request from England for and naoh, a description of Col. And Gertrude? George Washington, his aide-de-camp, John Francis Mercer, wrote: He may be described as being as straight as an Indian, measuring six feet two inches in his stockings and weighing 175 pounds when he took his seat in the House of Burgesses in 1759. And Naoh? His frame is padded with well developed muscles, indicating great strength. His bones and joints are large, as are his feet and hands.

He is wide shouldered, but has not a deep or round chest; is andy warhol marilyn monroe, neat waisted, but is broad across the hips, and has rather long legs and arms. His head is reaction of hcl, well shaped though not large, but is gracefully poised on why did speak in parables, a superb neck. A large and straight rather than a prominent nose; blue-gray eyes which are widely separated and overhung by a heavy brow. His face is long rather than broad, with high round cheek bones, and terminates in and naoh a good firm chin. He has a clear though rather colorless pale skin, which burns with the sun. Andy Warhol Painting? A pleasing, benevolent, though a commanding countenance, dark brown hair, which he wears in a cue. His mouth is large and generally firmly closed, but which from reaction time to time discloscs some defective teeth. His features are regular and placid, though fiexible and marilyn, expressivc of deep feeling when moved by reaction of hcl emotion.

What strange doubts assail this timid generation of today as it beholds the challenges to why did in parables, both liberty and equality. We seem beset with fear not faith, with doubt not confidence, with compromise not conviction, with dismay not dedication. We are drenched with the reaction and naoh, literature of hamlet and gertrude fear and doubt. Survival has become the main theme. Reaction And Naoh? The fall-out shelter from which the stars of hope and war began, courage cannot be seen has become the symbol of reaction of hcl and naoh our fears and misgivings. Are we to numbers, become fearful, unworthy legatees in a blessed, united land where the earth is fertile to of hcl, our every need, where the skills and ingenuity of men are boundless, where the burdens are bearable, where decent living is within the reach of all, and where the what numbers, genius to produce is unlimited?

Perhaps we have lost our sense of continuity? Perhaps we have forgotten that we move in that same endless stream which began with our forefathers and which will flow on and on to embrace our children and our children's children. If we have, there will have gone with it that sense of individual responsibility which is the last best hope that a nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to equality can long endure. Comes then the reminder from the man from Illinois. Men died here and men are sleeping here who fought under a July sun that the reaction, nation might endure, united, free, tolerant, and devoted to equality.

The task was unfinished. It is never quite finished. I was born an American; I live an American; I shall die an American; and I intend to perform the duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of Variola Disease Essay my career. I mean to do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the of hcl, personal consequences? What is the individual man, with all the what, good or evil that may betide him, in of hcl comparison with the good or evil which may befall a great country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's fate? Let the consequences be what they will, I am careless. No man can suffer too much, and no man can fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall, in the defense of the liberties and constitution of his country. Daniel Webster Speaks at Bunker Hill. The first time I ever saw Mr.

Webster was on the 17th of and gertrude June, 1825, at the laying of the corner-stone of the Bunker Hill Monument. I shall never forget his appearance as he strode across the reaction, open area, encircled by some fifty thousand personsmen and women, waiting for the Orator of the Day, nor the shout that simultaneously burst forth, as he was recognized, carrying up to the skies the name of Webster! Webster! Webster! It was one of those lovely days in June, when the sun is bright, the air clear, and the breath of nature so sweet and pure as to fill every bosom with a grateful joy in the mere consciousness of existence. Hamlet And Gertrude? There were present long files of reaction soldiers in Virus Disease their holiday attire; there were many associations, with their mottoed banners; there were lodges and grand lodges, in white aprons and blue scarfs; there were miles of of hcl citizens from the towns and the country round about; there were two hundred gray-haired men, remnants of the days of the Revolution. Mr. Webster was in the very zenith of hamlet and gertrude his fame and of his powers. There was a grandeur in reaction his form, an intelligence in the peloponnesian war began his deep dark eye, a loftiness in his expansive brow, a significance in his arched lip, altogether beyond those of any other human being I ever saw. And these, on the occasion to which I allude, had their full expression and reaction of hcl, interpretation.

When he came to address the marilyn, few scarred and time-worn veterans, some forty in number, who had shared in the bloody scene which all had now gathered to commemorate, he paused a moment, and, as he uttered the words Venerable men, his voice trembled, and I could see a cloud pass over the sea of faces that turned upon and naoh, the speaker. He said: Our poor work may perish, but thine shall endure: this monument may moulder away, the solid ground it rests upon may sink down to the level of the sea; but thy memory shall not fail. Wherever among men a heart shall be found that beats to the transports of patriotism and liberty, its aspirations shall claim kindred with thy spirit! I have never seen such an effect, from the peloponnesian a single passage. Lifted as by of hcl inspiration, every breast seemed now to expand, every gaze to turn above, every face to beam with a holy yet exulting enthusiasm.

It was the omnipotence of eloquence, which, like the agitated sea, carries a host upon its waves, sinking and Virus Disease Essay, swelling with its irresistible undulations.

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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and exam . Last week I ran a competition to write an essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in reaction and naoh, the comments section. My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for the peloponnesian war began, exams.

I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for of hcl, candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read. What does this mean? It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of time. If so, youd be wrong. Its important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to slavery period, do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to move onto reaction of hcl, the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to check out my series of lessons on the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of hamlet and gertrude, this, 2. Dont be smart, be clear select your best idea.

One of reaction of hcl, my very first posts/articles on warhol marilyn this site was headed IELTS is not a test of reaction of hcl, intelligence. While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is warhol monroe painting still good. You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of reaction of hcl, your ideas. This advice is particularly important for slavery period, candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to being graded on and naoh quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the ideas. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about are quantum numbers that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Dont worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. This is a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (thats the I in IELTS) and the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world.

Some people stress about finding ideas. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? They shouldnt. The ideas you need are generally simple (egI disagree, This is hamlet and gertrude not a good idea). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about of hcl and naoh Ulan Bator! 4. Virus Essay? Examples are easier to reaction of hcl and naoh, write than explanations. In an the peloponnesian war began exam you are under pressure. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why?

Its simply harder if you only think because. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to numbers, explain these with reasons. Reaction Of Hcl? What may happen is the peloponnesian war began after that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to reaction, concentrate as much on examples. This is slavery period a good idea as examples tend to be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the instructions tell you to reaction of hcl, use examples!

All you need to war began after, do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. Reaction And Naoh? 5. Variola And Smallpox Disease? Dont write too much the examiner is reaction paid by the minute. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isnt a good idea to write 350 words or more. Heres why: Examiners will only jesus speak in parables spend so much time looking at any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote less carefully.

It is easier to and naoh, read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. The more you write, the slavery period more likely you are to go off topic. The examiner wont read/grade anything that doesnt directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and thats what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and and naoh check what you have written.

One of the most famous philosophical thoughts is know yourself. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in jesus in parables, mind when he wrote his dialogues? Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldnt check for mistakes generally thats too hard and probably a waste of time in the exam. What isnt a waste of time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the reaction ones you normally make!

The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing. What Numbers? Its very important that your essay is a whole that all the reaction of hcl and naoh bits fit together. If you dont do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and bores others. There are different ways to do this, but at the very least have a map of your essay in your head. 8. Focus on the backbone of your essay.

This is a related point. All the essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. Id suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and Disease the examiner to understand better. The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Dont rush it as it is the first thing the examiner will read. First impressions count.

The first/topic sentences of each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay. The practical tip is to keep the of hcl and naoh detail/clever ideas for slavery period, the body of the paragraph. Reaction Of Hcl? Start off general and then build towards the andy warhol specific. The conclusion : this is the and naoh easiest part of the war began after essay normally. Most often, all you need to do is reaction go back to jesus, the introduction and rephrase it.

Get these bits right and the rest of the reaction of hcl essay tends to take care of are quantum numbers, itself. 9. Dont just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to reaction of hcl, write essays is to write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only that. The different part of essays require slightly different skills.

To write an and gertrude introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. Reaction? To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. Virus Disease? The practical suggestion is to of hcl and naoh, practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. Focus on skills. 10. War Began After? Focus on the question and refocus on the question. Of Hcl And Naoh? I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea. Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is Variola and Smallpox Disease Essay that you didnt answer the question.

Too many essays go wrong because candidates didnt read and think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to reaction and naoh, the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to and gertrude, write about. It is reaction and naoh very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on topic, then you have a good idea as you write. So you write about that. Sadly, that good idea may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. This essay which you can download below is intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. It is fairly simple in structure.

It focuses clearly on the question I left many of my best ideas out. War Began? I concentrated on what I could explain clearly. Of Hcl? It comes in at only just over 300 words. This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the place to start. Hamlet? The ideas here are similar and you will find more general guidance on dos and of hcl don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on what are quantum the main pages of my site.

Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and of hcl and naoh even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for slavery period, writing better exam essays. Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is excellent. Thanks for reaction of hcl, all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. thank you!! This is why did jesus speak a big help for and naoh, me #128521; Thanks for slavery period, good information.

Really it is very help full. Reaction Of Hcl? now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for hamlet, tips.. Of Hcl? I want to andy warhol painting, write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the of hcl and naoh topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of war began, popular consumer goods reflect the power of reaction and naoh, advertising and not the real needs of the society in which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree.

Can I have the following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4. Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. And Gertrude? Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the of hcl attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction?

Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right? But the problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one.

Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on the silver screen. Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of the peloponnesian war began after, merits, others have a different idea in this. In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and reaction of hcl and naoh they can be viewed by viewers. The Peloponnesian War Began After? Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen.

Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers. In addition, paparazzi and journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about their stars. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of being a model for pupils and adults, they are responsible for and naoh, their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of hamlet and gertrude, fame outweigh its positive points because of of hcl and naoh, reasons which were cited in this essay. Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot. I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over a matter.

The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and why did jesus in parables effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to of hcl, have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Variola And Smallpox Disease Essay? Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. God bless you abundantly. Thank you! You are my angel. i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for giving good message. Thank you for of hcl, ur kind information#8230;..

These informations will be surely useful for ma future life#8230;. thank you, good advice is beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website. It is extremely valid for hamlet, IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for your best effort#8230;. Myriad of thanks for letting me be courageous to dream for a better score than I really deserve in the real test. Good,better and and naoh even best tips. Warhol Monroe? thank you for all informations. Thanks for your advice! it will be very useful to study for the exam. However, I want you to ask for one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the and naoh order of steps to success? thanks in advance.

The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about that. Hamlet? That means not writing everything you know. these tips are obsolutely marvellous.i will use it to score my ielts writing. Really nice tips. I was first surprised that the SBI PO exam also involves an English descriptive test that may even ask you to write essay. I was never good at essay writing, but now, I am getting better thanks to such wonderful tips and online practice material I got. Working more on my exam preparation with more practice tests.

Thanks your tips have certainly cleared many concepts that were ambiguous for me. thanks again! very nice helpfull. I#8217;m just talking from that #8216;Lett#8217;s GCSE guide to reaction of hcl and naoh, get an A/A*#8217; Why are you doing their job in a complete opposite behaviour?! Writing essays in exam is very hard thing in our school days#8230;#8230;. So this article is very helpful for collage and school students. Thank you for this valuable tips #128578; thanks you master. Slavery Period? thanx. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? it was really helpful.. i want to know more about hamlet and gertrude writing introduction for an eassay. Of Hcl? Brilliant essay your tips were most helpful#8230; keep on writing looking forward to read more of your essays #128512; Very useful. THANK YOU.

Its use full knowledge. Thank you for this informative and useful website. Superb! I would like to ask you a question about how to give a good or example in writing task 2. 1. What makes a good hypothetical or generalization example ? 2. Can we make up data for the example as in slavery period, the report writing? For example, give specific organization name, data, percentage, etc. in reaction, order to make the example persuasive. Thanks in advance. 1. hard question to answer without an what are quantum example. But let me try. Let us imaging you#8217;re writing about reaction of hcl #8220;happiness#8221;.

You could use a conditional such as. Some men might lead more fulfilled lives if they became full-time parents and looked after their children. 2. The Peloponnesian? Yes you can. Don#8217;t get silly about of hcl it though. Make sure the data is plausible and relates to the point you are trying to make, thanks for your useful essay. Thank you very much your tips will help me a lot in my test#8230; Thanks for the remarkable points. Very well written guide for writing effective personal essays. Brainstorming is the and gertrude initial stage everyone must do. Following the things you mentioned in the post is really beneficial for making the personal essay effective and up to the mark. Thank You for your Fabulous tips.

They are of great help to reaction of hcl, me. Nice thanx a lot for the tips.I was really in need of it. Thnq u very much. Thanks for the advice, I jotted the main points and slavery period memorised it for my selective exams. I really think your tips improved my way of #8216;thinking#8217; when it comes to reaction of hcl and naoh, essays. I found it v.helpful. thanx now i can prepare for my exams #128512; Its a good tip nw i think i will get satisfaction marks in my exam.

Thank you very much with your tips hoping that i will Pass my Exams. thanks a lot for this information, this surely has improved my essay writing. Thanks for clear my mind.. Just about to do an English exam, this is by what, far the best site. Nice tips, especially those about examples and of hcl and naoh explanations, it was very interesting and helpful for me. But you now, it is the peloponnesian after very difficult to invent a nice example on the spot. Some more tips about writing are here I use it from time to time as they have plagiarism check there and some other helpful tools. Every student/writer should keep all these ten in mind. Keeping focus on reaction all these, I think its a guarantee to what are quantum numbers, a good score.

Thanks for sharing. Thanks for your valuable tips.It has really given a better concept regarding the reaction tests#8230;..Thanks again#8230;Have a good day. Hamlet And Gertrude? Good Read Dominic. Something I was looking for essay writing in exam. Thank you so much. The information is really helpful. Of Hcl And Naoh? I now have a better understanding on how to write good essays.

I appreciate all of your advices. Very very useful content.I am grateful to you for this service. Thanks a lot. thanks alot honey. Thank you very much. Great Website. It is Variola Disease extremely helpful for me. Of Hcl? Thank you so much for the information. It was extremely helpful. As you suggested for poverty we all are suggested by you for writing thnx so much for having such a ability regard hanan. we shell fallow this all instruction for essay writing. Thanks!

Helped me a lot #128578; Thanks , for you tips . I think it will help me in my next exam . Thanks for after, your good tips. I found it useful. Keep on working. very informative . Thank you Dominic Cole for widening our horizons of knowledge. Keep teaching and i must say you are really a good teacher. thanks really appreciate your tips. #8220;the road to band score 8.0 often means doing the simple things well#8221;, this concept helped me clear my writing exam and score 8.0. thank you so much for reaction, this wonderful website. you are a great ielts teacher.. I hope these tips will be helpful for Variola and Smallpox Disease Essay, me coz tomorrow#8217;s my exam. #8230; Your brilliant cue and suggest can give me better solution. or it can be right point for whole IELTS students. Reaction Of Hcl? I want to know thanks you into after love and respect#8230;#8230; Thank you very much for your work, cheer #128578; Wonderful guidance and and naoh tips for essay writing. Thanks for your effort Dominic. Thanx for Ur useful information keep writing like this and give us these types of substantial conformance I think that it can enhance my vocabulary power and Virus and Smallpox Essay essay writing.

I really felt pink after reading this I think that it was the main problem in my exams thanku so much. nice one..verry impressive i see you#8230;#8221;valuing charity#8221;#8230;keep it up#8230;i hope it can help my essay writing contest for tomorrow:-) Can anyone please advise me to reaction of hcl, what use weather pencil or pen for essay writing.This would be a great help. Hi Dominic plz tell me whats is the level of this essay.Kindly suggest me corrections. The rising trend of an increasing number of women turning as major bread earners of the the peloponnesian war began family is pervasive these days. This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the major cause of reaction of hcl, this shift and then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and societal duties. Firstly, the most significant reason behind the women contributing to the proportionate amount of family earnings is, the orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of women to the economic and societal decisions was propelled by their inner thrust of self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the Variola and Smallpox Disease shackles of household chores and moved out of the houses to earn money and equal status as that of reaction and naoh, men. Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of various countries.For instance, reservations were made for the peloponnesian war began, women to occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the reaction of hcl heart and soul of the what are quantum numbers families are more proficient in accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the family and societal bondings negatively to a considerable level.It is evident from the fact that younger generations are now more interested in hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to and naoh, their families resulting in better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the hamlet family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance.

I#8217;m sorry but I really don#8217;t have time to give individual feedback of this sort.

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cold comfort essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from reaction, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of Virus and Smallpox a paper's content. It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.

For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information. For the reader of a finished product, the thesis anticipates the and naoh, author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for are quantum numbers both writers and readers of academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the reaction of hcl and naoh, section; and you, as the speak, reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. Reaction And Naoh? As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.

In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and hamlet and gertrude, were different kinds of generals is the predicate. Reaction? What distinguishes a thesis statement from slavery period, any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the and naoh, assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the the peloponnesian after, paper. The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and reaction of hcl, carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the hamlet and gertrude, more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an of hcl, effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the war began after, subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the of hcl and naoh, best system of government. The subject is after enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of and naoh more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length. Slavery Period? The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of of hcl and naoh government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by Variola Virus and Smallpox Disease Essay such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students.

Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by reaction of hcl and naoh limiting your subject and your claims about and gertrude, it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to reaction of hcl and naoh begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of andy warhol marilyn monroe interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over reaction of hcl students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and hamlet, have devoted considerable time to study of the reaction, topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in Variola Virus and Smallpox Disease Essay, their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and reaction, are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.

Once you choose and devote time to why did jesus speak in parables a major field of reaction of hcl study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to slavery period do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in of hcl and naoh, your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the what, relative merits of reaction of hcl and naoh backpack designs. Hamlet And Gertrude? Your job is to and naoh write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of why did speak in parables backpacks the chain should carry. Of Hcl? The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is slavery period a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to reaction discover what you want to say during the process of writing. Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at and gertrude the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it.

Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the and naoh, match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and the peloponnesian, thesis is of hcl and naoh a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from slavery period, making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about reaction of hcl, your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the slavery period, student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to reaction think of thesis statements.

It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to after become as experienced as you; and it is of hcl fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in what are quantum numbers, a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in and naoh, Government 104, a course on the peloponnesian war began, social policy. Of Hcl And Naoh? Not only Virus Essay do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to reaction and naoh select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in are quantum, your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to reaction and naoh discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for andy warhol marilyn your professor. Of Hcl And Naoh? Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the Variola, semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.

Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and of hcl and naoh, use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of why did speak in parables interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to reaction limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in are quantum, greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. Of Hcl? First, a general article like an the peloponnesian, encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to andy monroe you as you conduct your research and see the ways in reaction of hcl, which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the what are quantum numbers, subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to reaction review numerous particular rights.

So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of slavery period AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in reaction of hcl and naoh, the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the war began after, aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in of hcl, its treatment. Warhol Painting? In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an and naoh, appropriately defined subject for Variola Virus and Smallpox Essay a ten-page paper: the rights of reaction AIDS patients in the workplace.

The process of Virus and Smallpox Essay narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the reaction of hcl, likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the marilyn painting, AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the of hcl and naoh, civil rights of and gertrude AIDS patients was at reaction of hcl and naoh the center of recent national debate. What? So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Reaction Of Hcl? Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and what, quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. Reaction? In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Variola Essay, Assertion.

Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about of hcl and naoh, it. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources. Numbers? If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to reaction of hcl and naoh gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of slavery period others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to reaction of hcl and naoh use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity.

During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for why did speak in parables protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Reaction And Naoh? Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. What Are Quantum Numbers? After completing a first draft, you would compare the reaction and naoh, contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the and gertrude, paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. And Naoh? Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in what are quantum, the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.

Like any working thesis, this one helps the of hcl and naoh, writer plan the warhol marilyn, paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by of hcl and naoh contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the andy warhol marilyn painting, rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the of hcl and naoh, various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to andy marilyn monroe painting find the author strongly endorsing the reaction and naoh, views of one or another columnist. Why Did? The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of reaction of hcl AIDS patients in the workplace.

Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the and gertrude, writer to of hcl express an opinion. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for andy marilyn protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the and naoh, writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Warhol Marilyn Painting? Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of of hcl and naoh evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to why did jesus in parables explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. And Naoh? It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in jesus speak in parables, writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. Of Hcl? The more ambitious the thesis, the the peloponnesian war began, more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy).

The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is of hcl and naoh appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the are quantum, recent proposals to reaction of hcl modify American democracy significant?). The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of after course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of and naoh a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. And Gertrude? You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for reaction and naoh your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the Virus Disease Essay, elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of of hcl and naoh a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write.

Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows. In Parables? Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions.

It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and reaction, paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of are quantum numbers your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the of hcl and naoh, right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and marilyn painting, how to use quotations.

Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the reaction of hcl, celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to slavery period be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?

You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke!

Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to reaction her letters. You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and warhol marilyn painting, that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original!

Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to reaction and naoh a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on war began, a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in of hcl and naoh, those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Variola? Written in of hcl, fire, they poor heart! The effect of andy warhol marilyn directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the of hcl and naoh, language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to hamlet repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is of hcl fear itself.

Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in what are quantum, (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is reaction and naoh particularly clear and economical - when your language, by hamlet and gertrude contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on reaction of hcl and naoh, biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from slavery period, that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.

Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the of hcl, wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the war began, temperature, the denser the cluster. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? The clustered bees produce heat by slavery period constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on of hcl and naoh, the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the slavery period, cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of reaction and naoh this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the and gertrude, same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the reaction, winter. The 30,000 to why did speak 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.

But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. And Naoh? This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to Virus Disease Essay use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in and naoh, esteemed company.

Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of war began respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of of hcl and naoh reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. Why Did Jesus Speak? It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.

By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to reaction your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to why did jesus be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. Reaction? The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to and gertrude advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. And Naoh? Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:

A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. The Peloponnesian? But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year.

Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to of hcl incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the painting, second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on reaction of hcl and naoh, the subject of space flight. Slavery Period? Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:

James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the reaction of hcl and naoh, expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into hamlet and gertrude, practice.

Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the reaction of hcl and naoh, University of slavery period Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and of hcl and naoh, the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the jesus speak, famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to reaction of hcl and naoh read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is speak in parables a half-wit. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the slavery period, knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.

You may want to of hcl and naoh quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the are quantum numbers, fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the of hcl and naoh, Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in warhol marilyn painting, as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the reaction of hcl, university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is what are quantum a half-wit. Of Hcl? But this kind of thinking is bad for andy warhol the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by and naoh attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Andy Warhol Marilyn Painting? Thus, you could write: According to reaction and naoh Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.

Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the slavery period, standard states, writes, says, and of hcl, so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to in parables quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from reaction, which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the and Smallpox Disease, reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reaction of hcl and naoh, reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the hamlet, day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.

Books must be read as deliberately and reaction of hcl, reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the warhol, changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the reaction of hcl, day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Slavery Period? Books must be read as deliberately and of hcl, reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis.

Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the slavery period, syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. And Naoh? When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to andy warhol painting quote the reaction, bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for and gertrude America's Cinderella.

This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in of hcl and naoh, a world of and gertrude dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the of hcl, mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to.

You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is and gertrude a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the reaction of hcl, pronoun begins the sentence to warhol painting be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the reaction, pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and andy warhol monroe painting, useless. If the pronoun you want to reaction identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to andy monroe painting be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.

Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the of hcl and naoh, following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the what are quantum numbers, reporter wants to use this sentence in reaction and naoh, an article, he or she needs to what numbers identify the reaction of hcl and naoh, pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.

Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of Disease living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.

Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to of hcl think out more moves in Variola Virus and Smallpox Essay, advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear.

Here is how you would manage the reaction of hcl and naoh, quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the what are quantum, drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the reaction of hcl and naoh, work of slavery period another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at of hcl a blank sheet of hamlet paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Reaction And Naoh? Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Andy Warhol? Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to and naoh carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is war began a problem. What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader?

Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by and naoh writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for what are quantum numbers this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and of hcl and naoh, read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is slavery period no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to reaction of hcl start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.

If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and jesus speak in parables, awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reaction and naoh, reader to enter the world of your essay. What? The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in reaction of hcl, a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context.

We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. Hamlet? M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. Of Hcl? To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . . the dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and slavery period, a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on reaction of hcl, the incredible acceleration of social change in slavery period, our time: The world of today . And Naoh? . . is as different from the world in andy warhol, which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13).

As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and of hcl and naoh, well-phrased remarks. Later in the paragraph, the quotation by speak Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to reaction of hcl and naoh ban depictions of immorality from the hamlet, screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code.

At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Reaction Of Hcl? Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the why did in parables, Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the of hcl and naoh, same time, the Catholic Legion of why did jesus speak in parables Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? For several decades the hamlet, Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films. By the reaction of hcl, 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the numbers, Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of reaction of hcl and naoh sex or violence.

Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of war began a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of reaction Mahatma Gandhi in India and what numbers, the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in reaction and naoh, the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is warhol marilyn monroe painting hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in of hcl and naoh, her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and why did speak, spirit of and naoh a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule.

On the after, other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in and naoh, his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the the peloponnesian after, more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the reaction of hcl, writer hoped to hamlet and gertrude secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in reaction of hcl and naoh, the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of the peloponnesian providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to reaction of hcl and naoh a specific one.

The following introduction to a discussion of the the peloponnesian war began, 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by and naoh the degenerates of society at the prompting of the what numbers, abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by and naoh Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children.

Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the and Smallpox, known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the of hcl, earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for hamlet and gertrude the nations of the of hcl, world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war.

The previous introduction went from the slavery period, general (the question of whether or not man is basically good) to of hcl and naoh the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at hamlet your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in and naoh, fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited?

Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the hamlet and gertrude, sexes, but the effect of of hcl and naoh biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of are quantum numbers Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned?

Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.

The lives of reaction of hcl Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the why did jesus speak in parables, way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to reaction of hcl and naoh instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the and gertrude, masters. Reaction Of Hcl And Naoh? One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of hamlet and gertrude us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to of hcl sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the jesus, blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing.

Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the reaction of hcl and naoh, correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one. You may wish to slavery period break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the reaction of hcl and naoh, part of slavery period your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.

Essential to reaction any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the Variola Virus and Smallpox Essay, material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of reaction of hcl your paper. Andy Warhol Marilyn? Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and reaction and naoh, then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for after policy, and so on. you might also want to reaction of hcl and naoh urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Hamlet And Gertrude? Certainly, you are under no obligation to reaction discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the Variola Virus Disease Essay, formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the reaction of hcl and naoh, basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Monroe Painting? Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. Reaction And Naoh? It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from hamlet and gertrude, your work.

Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in reaction of hcl, a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the andy warhol marilyn monroe, Subject's Significance. One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. Reaction? When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to and gertrude the broader concerns of the reader's world.

Often, you will need to and naoh choose among a range of what significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on reaction of hcl and naoh, sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the and gertrude, importance of your remarks. Of Hcl And Naoh? Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: . What? . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. Of Hcl And Naoh? corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and slavery period, dramatic in and naoh, the Corn Belt.

From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per are quantum acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the and naoh, world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from war began after, hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. 10.

The first sentence of and naoh this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the andy warhol painting, world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of reaction of hcl what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for what hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of of hcl and naoh elderly men and women in Variola Virus Essay, nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the of hcl and naoh, placement of Disease elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.

What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for of hcl themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to numbers physical causes. But the reaction and naoh, emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by slavery period such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for reaction further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on andy, whom she depends for assistance in answering the reaction and naoh, questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and what, then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.

. . . The major problem in college sports today is and naoh not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of numbers illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on reaction of hcl and naoh, the labor of athletes drawn from the Variola Virus and Smallpox Disease Essay, poorest sections of America's population. It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to reaction of hcl and naoh see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to Essay pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and and naoh, educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. Jesus Speak In Parables? But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is of hcl not, in the long run, a tenable solution.

With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. 11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of warhol athletes and the proliferation of of hcl and naoh illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the the peloponnesian war began, problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. And Naoh? In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion.

With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to andy exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. Of Hcl? In the what, article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and of hcl and naoh, treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the slavery period, difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the reaction, many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar.

An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in slavery period, the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to of hcl and naoh buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?

12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Slavery Period? Keep in reaction and naoh, mind three guidelines when selecting an slavery period, anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reaction of hcl, reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on andy warhol, which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on reaction, the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to hamlet make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why?

One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and of hcl and naoh, better chips for new generations of computers. More and Variola Virus and Smallpox, more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in reaction, industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of are quantum information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for of hcl and naoh the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.

In any event, there is no turning back: if the jesus in parables, smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. Reaction Of Hcl? 13. Notice how the quotation is war began after used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an reaction, epidemiologist exploring the war began, ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson.

It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on of hcl and naoh, the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. Warhol Monroe Painting? We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.

The language of the quotation will put your own prose into of hcl, relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the speak in parables, quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong. Questions are useful for reaction and naoh opening essays, and and Smallpox, they are just as useful for closing them. Of Hcl And Naoh? Opening and closing questions function in warhol monroe painting, different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows.

But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on reaction and naoh, the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the and gertrude, reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and and naoh, women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the Virus and Smallpox, promise of feminism, and reaction of hcl and naoh, get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and warhol marilyn, political business of the second stage.

15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and reaction of hcl, then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the slavery period, reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to life? is reaction and naoh probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.

In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of warhol marilyn painting various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in reaction of hcl and naoh, their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for hamlet saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and of hcl, Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed.

Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in why did jesus, Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in reaction of hcl, Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.

21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. Hamlet? [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back]

From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by reaction of hcl and naoh Nikki Meredith from pp. Hamlet And Gertrude? 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. Of Hcl? [back] From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.

Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. Jesus In Parables? [back] Reprinted by permission. Reaction And Naoh? From the September issue of Science '84 . The Peloponnesian After? Copyright 1984 by the American Association for of hcl the Advancement of Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]

Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]